“Hypernumbers and Extrafunctions” presents a rigorous mathematical approach to operate with infinite values. First, concepts of real and complex numbers are expanded to include a new universe of numbers called hypernumbers which includes infinite quantities. This brief extends classical calculus based on real functions by introducing extrafunctions, which generalize not only the concept of a conventional function but also the concept of a distribution. Extrafucntions have been also efficiently used for a rigorous mathematical definition of the Feynman path integral, as well as for solving some problems in probability theory, which is also important for contemporary physics. This book introduces a new theory that includes the theory of distributions as a subtheory, providing more powerful tools for mathematics and its applications. Specifically, it makes it possible to solve PDE for which it is proved that they do not have solutions in distributions. Also illustrated in this text is how this new theory allows the differentiation and integration of any real function. This text can be used for enhancing traditional courses of calculus for undergraduates, as well as for teaching a separate course for graduate students.
This monograph presents the state of the art in aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling and analysis and develops a systematic theoretical and computational framework for use by researchers and practicing engineers. It is the first book to focus on the mathematical modeling of structural dynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, and control systems to evolve a generic procedure to be applied for ASE synthesis. Existing robust, nonlinear, and adaptive control methodology is applied and extended to some interesting ASE problems, such as transonic flutter and buffet, post-stall buffet and maneuvers, and flapping flexible wing. The author derives a general aeroservoelastic plant via the finite-element structural dynamic model, unsteady aerodynamic models for various regimes in the frequency domain, and the associated state-space model by rational function approximations. For more advanced models, the full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes methods for treating transonic and separated flows are also briefly addressed. Essential ASE controller design and analysis techniques are introduced to the reader, and an introduction to robust control-law design methods of LQG/LTR and H2/H∞ synthesis is followed by a brief coverage of nonlinear control techniques of describing functions and Lyapunov functions. Practical and realistic aeroservoelastic application examples derived from actual experiments are included throughout. Aeroservoelasiticity fills an important gap in the aerospace engineering literature and will be a valuable guide for graduate students and advanced researchers in aerospace engineering, as well as professional engineers, technicians, and test pilots in the aircraft industry and laboratories.
This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-style sections have been added. Investigations of Euler’s computation of ζ(2), the Weierstrass Approximation Theorem, and the gamma function are now among the book’s cohort of seminal results serving as motivation and payoff for the beginning student to master the methods of analysis.
This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in Rn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in Rn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS evolving under consensus algorithms or homogeneous maps are also explored. Featuring appendices which introduce the requisite concepts from continuum kinematics and graph theory, this monograph will provide advanced graduate students and researchers with the necessary background to understand and apply the methods presented.
The author's approach is one of continuum models of the aerodynamic flow interacting with a flexible structure whose behavior is governed by partial differential equations. Both linear and nonlinear models are considered although much of the book is concerned with the former while keeping the latter clearly in view. A complete chapter is also devoted to nonlinear theory. The author has provided new insights into the classical inviscid aerodynamics and raises novel and interesting questions on fundamental issues that have too often been neglected or forgotten in the development of the early history of the subject. The author contrasts his approach with discrete models for the unsteady aerodynamic flow and the finite element model for the structure. Much of the aeroelasticity has been developed with applications formerly in mind because of its enormous consequences for the safety of aircraft. Aeroelastic instabilities such as divergence and flutter and aeroelastic responses to gusts can pose a significant hazard to the aircraft and impact its performance. Yet, it is now recognized that there are many other physical phenomena that have similar characteristics ranging from flows around flexible tall buildings and long span bridges, alternate energy sources such as electric power generation by smart structures to flows internal to the human body. From the foreword: "For the theorist and applied mathematician who wishes an introduction to this fascinating subject as well as for the experienced aeroelastician who is open to new challenges and a fresh viewpoint, this book and its author have much to offer the reader." Earl Dowell, Duke University, USA
This book is about modern algebraic geometry. The title A Royal Road to Algebraic Geometry is inspired by the famous anecdote about the king asking Euclid if there really existed no simpler way for learning geometry, than to read all of his work Elements. Euclid is said to have answered: “There is no royal road to geometry!” The book starts by explaining this enigmatic answer, the aim of the book being to argue that indeed, in some sense there is a royal road to algebraic geometry. From a point of departure in algebraic curves, the exposition moves on to the present shape of the field, culminating with Alexander Grothendieck’s theory of schemes. Contemporary homological tools are explained. The reader will follow a directed path leading up to the main elements of modern algebraic geometry. When the road is completed, the reader is empowered to start navigating in this immense field, and to open up the door to a wonderful field of research. The greatest scientific experience of a lifetime!
The aim of this volume is to collect original contributions by the best specialists from the area of proof theory, constructivity, and computation and discuss recent trends and results in these areas. Some emphasis will be put on ordinal analysis, reductive proof theory, explicit mathematics and type-theoretic formalisms, and abstract computations. The volume is dedicated to the 60th birthday of Professor Gerhard Jäger, who has been instrumental in shaping and promoting logic in Switzerland for the last 25 years. It comprises contributions from the symposium “Advances in Proof Theory”, which was held in Bern in December 2013. Proof theory came into being in the twenties of the last century, when it was inaugurated by David Hilbert in order to secure the foundations of mathematics. It was substantially influenced by Gödel's famous incompleteness theorems of 1930 and Gentzen's new consistency proof for the axiom system of first order number theory in 1936. Today, proof theory is a well-established branch of mathematical and philosophical logic and one of the pillars of the foundations of mathematics. Proof theory explores constructive and computational aspects of mathematical reasoning; it is particularly suitable for dealing with various questions in computer science.
* The first exposition on super-recursive algorithms, systematizing all main classes and providing an accessible, focused examination of the theory and its ramifications * Demonstrates how these algorithms are more appropriate as mathematical models for modern computers and how they present a better framework for computing methods * Develops a new practically-oriented perspective on the theory of algorithms, computation, and automata, as a whole
This volume provides a cutting-edge view of the world's leading authorities in fields where information and computation play a central role.
This unique volume presents a new approach OCo the general theory of information OCo to scientific understanding of information phenomena. Based on a thorough analysis of information processes in nature, technology, and society, as well as on the main directions in information theory, this theory synthesizes existing directions into a unified system. The book explains how this theory opens new kinds of possibilities for information technology, information sciences, computer science, knowledge engineering, psychology, linguistics, social sciences, and education. The book also gives a broad introduction to the main mathematically-based directions in information theory. The general theory of information provides a unified context for existing directions in information studies, making it possible to elaborate on a comprehensive definition of information; explain relations between information, data, and knowledge; and demonstrate how different mathematical models of information and information processes are related. Explanation of information essence and functioning is given, as well as answers to the following questions: how information is related to knowledge and data; how information is modeled by mathematical structures; how these models are used to better understand computers and the Internet, cognition and education, communication and computation. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Introduction (354 KB). Contents: General Theory of Information; Statistical Information Theory; Semantic Information Theory; Algorithm Information Theory; Pragmatic Information Theory; Dynamics of Information. Readership: Professionals in information processing, and general readers interested in information and information processes.
This book is the first volume of a two-volume edition based on the International Society for Information Studies Summit Vienna 2015 on "The Information Society at the Crossroads. Response and Responsibility of the Sciences of Information" (see summit.is4is.org). The book represents a trans-disciplinary endeavor of the leading experts in the field of information studies posing the question for a better society, in which social and technological innovations help make information key to the flourishing of humanity and dispense with the bleak view of the dark side of information society. It is aimed at readers that conduct research into any aspect of information, information society and information technology, who develop or implement social or technological applications. It is also for those who have an interest in participating in setting the goals for sciences of information and social applications of technological achievements and scientific results.
This new volume shows how it is possible to further develop and essentially extend the theory of operators in infinite-dimensional vector spaces, which plays an important role in mathematics, physics, information theory, and control theory. The book describes new mathematical structures, such as hypernorms, hyperseminorms, hypermetrics, semitopological vector spaces, hypernormed vector spaces, and hyperseminormed vector spaces. It develops mathematical tools for the further development of functional analysis and broadening of its applications. Exploration of semitopological vector spaces, hypernormed vector spaces, hyperseminormed vector spaces, and hypermetric vector spaces is the main topic of this book. A new direction in functional analysis, called quantum functional analysis, has been developed based on polinormed and multinormed vector spaces and linear algebras. At the same time, normed vector spaces and topological vector spaces play an important role in physics and in control theory. To make this book comprehendible for the reader and more suitable for students with some basic knowledge in mathematics, denotations and definitions of the main mathematical concepts and structures used in the book are included in the appendix, making the book useful for enhancing traditional courses of calculus for undergraduates, as well as for separate courses for graduate students. The material of Semitopological Vector Spaces: Hypernorms, Hyperseminorms and Operators is closely related to what is taught at colleges and universities. It is possible to use a definite number of statements from the book as exercises for students because their proofs are not given in the book but left for the reader.
This is a short, modern, and motivated introduction to mathematical logic for upper undergraduate and beginning graduate students in mathematics and computer science. Any mathematician who is interested in getting acquainted with logic and would like to learn Gödel’s incompleteness theorems should find this book particularly useful. The treatment is thoroughly mathematical and prepares students to branch out in several areas of mathematics related to foundations and computability, such as logic, axiomatic set theory, model theory, recursion theory, and computability. In this new edition, many small and large changes have been made throughout the text. The main purpose of this new edition is to provide a healthy first introduction to model theory, which is a very important branch of logic. Topics in the new chapter include ultraproduct of models, elimination of quantifiers, types, applications of types to model theory, and applications to algebra, number theory and geometry. Some proofs, such as the proof of the very important completeness theorem, have been completely rewritten in a more clear and concise manner. The new edition also introduces new topics, such as the notion of elementary class of structures, elementary diagrams, partial elementary maps, homogeneous structures, definability, and many more.
This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces. An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch. The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical results on functional equivalencies, in particular, Gul'ko and Khmyleva's example of non-preservation of compactness by t-equivalence, Okunev's method of constructing l-equivalent spaces and the theorem of Marciszewski and Pelant on u-invariance of absolute Borel sets.
This book aims to synthesize different directions in knowledge studies into a unified theory of knowledge and knowledge processes. It explicates important relations between knowledge and information. It provides the readers with understanding of the essence and structure of knowledge, explicating operations and process that are based on knowledge and vital for society. The book also highlights how the theory of knowledge paves the way for more advanced design and utilization of computers and networks.
The theory of hypernumbers and extra functions is further development in distribution theory inspired by contemporary physics and influenced by problems in mathematical physics. It makes more functions differentiable and provides new kinds of derivatives and hyper derivatives aimed at solving more differential and operator equations than ever before possible. In the book, extra functions are extended to hyper functionals and hyperoperators in infinite-dimensional vector spaces. Due to its development, many problems in contemporary physics, as well as in modern linear and nonlinear analysis have an infinite-dimensional nature, and the infinite-dimensional theory of extra functions, hyper functionals and hyperoperators provides new tools for solving many of these problems. The book describes new mathematical structures such as hyper derivatives and hyper integrals of real and complex functions, hyper probability and hyper expectation of random processes and some others, essentially increasing power of functional analysis and probability applications. It presents the key parts of calculus number systems, function spaces, the differential calculus and the integral calculus in the setting of hypernumbers, extra functions, hyper functionals and hyperoperators in finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional vector spaces. In addition, functional algebra, which employs algebraic operations with extra functions, hyper functionals and hyperoperators is developed. New relations between hyper differentiation and continuity of functions and operators are explicated. As differentiation and integration are special cases of hyper differentiation and hyper integration, respectively, hyper calculus includes calculus as its part or subtheory. It is possible to use this book for enhancing traditional courses of calculus for undergraduates, as well as for teaching separate courses for graduate and undergraduate students at colleges and universities. To achieve these goals, exposition in the book goes from simple topics to more and more advanced topics, while proof of some statements are left as exercises for the students.
Introduction: omnipresence of information as the incentive for transdisciplinarity / Mark Burgin and Wolfgang Hofkirchner -- Part I. Theory of information -- How to produce a transdisciplinary information concept for a universal theory of information / Søren Brier -- Inaccessible information and mathematical theory of oracles / Mark Burgin -- Emergence of symbolic information by the ritualisation transition / R. Feistel -- The law of "information conversion and intelligence creation" / Yixin Zhong -- Topoi of systems : on the onto-epistemic foundations of matter and information / Rainer E. Zimmermann -- Part II. Philosophy of information -- Transdisciplinarity seen through information, communication, computation, (inter-)action and cognition / Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Daniel Kade, Markus Wallmyr, Tobias Holstein and Alexander Almér -- A unified science-philosophy of information in the quest for transdisciplinarity / Wu Kun and Joseph E. Brenner -- Natural information and spiritual information as an outcome of the transdisciplinary methodology / Basarab Nicolescu -- A new perspective on the existence and non-existence / Wu Tianqi -- Part III. Applications of information -- Information and the evolution of human communication / Manuel Bohn -- Information processing and Fechner's problem as a choice of arithmetic / Marek Czachor and Centrum Leo Apostel -- A few questions related to information and symmetries in physics / György Darvas -- The "sociotype" approach to social structures and individual communication : an informational exploration of human sociality / R. del Moral, J. Navarro, and P.C. Marijuán -- Information outliers and their detection / A. Duraj and P.S. Szczepaniak -- A physicist's perspective on how one converts observation into information / Robert W. Johnson -- The concept of systemic-resonance bioinformatics. resonances and the quest for transdisciplinarity / Sergey V. Petoukhov and Elena S. Petukhova -- Information society and apartheid in the context of evolutionary economics : perspectives from information theory / Rodrick Wallace and Mindy Thompson Fullilove -- Artificial and natural genetic information processing / Guenther Witzany
The following topics are presented in the corresponding parts of this book: 1. Measure and Integration 2. Equations and Inequalities 3. Operators 4. Probability 5. Applications
This third edition is addressed to the mathematician or graduate student of mathematics - or even the well-prepared undergraduate - who would like, with a minimum of background and preparation, to understand some of the beautiful results at the heart of nonlinear analysis. Based on carefully-expounded ideas from several branches of topology, and illustrated by a wealth of figures that attest to the geometric nature of the exposition, the book will be of immense help in providing its readers with an understanding of the mathematics of the nonlinear phenomena that characterize our real world. Included in this new edition are several new chapters that present the fixed point index and its applications. The exposition and mathematical content is improved throughout. This book is ideal for self-study for mathematicians and students interested in such areas of geometric and algebraic topology, functional analysis, differential equations, and applied mathematics. It is a sharply focused and highly readable view of nonlinear analysis by a practicing topologist who has seen a clear path to understanding. "For the topology-minded reader, the book indeed has a lot to offer: written in a very personal, eloquent and instructive style it makes one of the highlights of nonlinear analysis accessible to a wide audience."-Monatshefte fur Mathematik (2006)
The present volume is an extensive monograph on the analytic and geometric aspects of Markov diffusion operators. It focuses on the geometric curvature properties of the underlying structure in order to study convergence to equilibrium, spectral bounds, functional inequalities such as Poincaré, Sobolev or logarithmic Sobolev inequalities, and various bounds on solutions of evolution equations. At the same time, it covers a large class of evolution and partial differential equations. The book is intended to serve as an introduction to the subject and to be accessible for beginning and advanced scientists and non-specialists. Simultaneously, it covers a wide range of results and techniques from the early developments in the mid-eighties to the latest achievements. As such, students and researchers interested in the modern aspects of Markov diffusion operators and semigroups and their connections to analytic functional inequalities, probabilistic convergence to equilibrium and geometric curvature will find it especially useful. Selected chapters can also be used for advanced courses on the topic.