A complete synthesis of current knowledge concerning the remarkable and fascinating world of invertebrate vision.
I see a man's life is a tedious one. Cymbeline, Act III, Sc. 6. It is well known that the best way to learn a subject is to teach it! Along the same lines one might also say that a pleasant way of learning a subject and at the same time getting to know quite a few of the workers active in it, is to arrange and to attend an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) or a workshop lasting about two weeks. This was and is the wisdom behind the NA TO-ASI programme and much as people fear that a fortnight may be too long, before it is over everyone feels that it was too short, especially if the weather had cooperated. Organising this ASI which resulted in this volume has been a very good learning experience. I started my career in research with invertebrates and retained an interest in them over the years due to my teaching a course and working sporadically on various aspects of photoreception in Polychaetes, Crustaceans and Insects. Thus, the thought of organising an ASI on photoreception and vision in invertebrates had been brewing in my mind for the past half a dozen years or so. It was felt that it will be desirable to do a bit of stock taking and discuss possible new approaches to the study of this matter.
Photopigments are molecules that react to light and mediate a number of processes and behaviours in animals. Visual pigments housed within the photoreceptors of the eye, such as the rods and cones in vertebrates are the best known, however, visual pigments are increasingly being found in other tissues, including other retinal cells, the skin and the brain. Other closely related molecules from the G protein family, such as melanopsin mediate light driven processes including circadian rhythmicity and pupil constriction. This Volume examines the enormous diversity of visual pigments and traces the evolution of these G protein coupled receptors in both invertebrates and vertebrates in the context of the visual and non-visual demands dictated by a species’ ecological niche.
In the comparative physiology of photoreception by the Protista and the invertebrates two aspects are emphasized: (1) the diversity of visual processes in these groups and (2) their bearing upon general mechanisms of photoreception. Invertebrates have evolved a far greater variety of adaptations than vertebrates modifications aiding survival in the remarkably different biotopes they occupy. The number of species in itself suggests this multiformity; each of them has peculiarities of its own, in morphology as well as in physiology and behavior. But these special adaptations are variations on a few great themes. Although the catalogue of invertebrate species is immense, the literature concerning them nearly rivals it in extent-even if one considers only that fraction dealing with visual physiology. Taxonomy proceeds by grouping the species, categorizing them in genera, families, orders, and progressively larger units. Similarly, comparative physiology aims at an analogous, more or less compre hensive, classification. This Part A of Volume VII/6, like Part B that follows it, emphasizes the broad questions that concern groups larger than the individual species; in some cases these questions have general applicability. The middle course between approaches that are too specialized and those that are too general is often elusive, but here we attempt to follow it. The vast number of special adaptations-probably, as we have said, as large as the number of species-is beyond the range even of a handbook.
Our understanding of human color vision has advanced tremendously in recent years, helped along by many new discoveries, ideas, and achievements. It is therefore timely that these new developments are brought together in a book, assembled specifically to include new research and insight from the leaders in the field. Although intentionally not exhaustive, many aspects of color vision are discussed in this Springer Series in Vision Research book including: the genetics of the photopigments; the anatomy and physiology of photoreceptors, retinal and cortical pathways; color perception; the effects of disorders; theories on neuronal processes and the evolution of human color vision. Several of the chapters describe new, state-of-the-art methods within genetics, morphology, imaging techniques, electrophysiology, psychophysics, and computational neuroscience. The book gives a comprehensive overview of the different disciplines in human color vision in a way that makes it accessible to specialists and non-specialist scientists alike. About the Series: The Springer Series in Vision Research is a comprehensive update and overview of cutting edge vision research, exploring, in depth, current breakthroughs at a conceptual level. It details the whole visual system, from molecular processes to anatomy, physiology and behavior and covers both invertebrate and vertebrate organisms from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Each book in the Series is aimed at all individuals with interests in vision including advanced graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, established vision scientists and clinical investigators. The series editors are N. Justin Marshall, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia and Shaun P. Collin, Neuroecology Group within the School of Animal Biology and the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia.
Examining the surprisingly complex perceptual abilities of so-called "simpler" animals, including jumping spiders, bees, praying mantids, butterflies, cockroaches, bladder grasshoppers, crayfish, mantis shrimps, octopuses, and toads.
This detailed 1990 book describes the light and dark adaptation of receptoral and post-receptoral mechanisms from a number of perspectives. The authors emphasise the importance of the study of achromatopsia, a rare congenital condition in which the visual mechanisms that mediate day vision are absent whilst those that mediate night vision remain intact.
This volume consists of invited papers from scientists of Chinese origin in the visual field from around the world. The papers cover all basic and applied aspects of the vertebrate and invertebrate visual systems, from photoreceptors to cortical neurons, presenting both review and new findings on the subjects. It is hoped that this book will serve as a guide to international research linkage between groups.
This book covers advances made since the 2004 Springer volume “Polarized Light in Animal Vision” edited by Horvath and Varju, but also provides reviews and synopses of some areas. Part I examines polarization sensitivity across many animal taxa including vertebrates and invertebrates and details both terrestrial and aquatic life. Part II is devoted to the description of polarized light in nature and explores how the physics of light must be taken into account when understanding how polarized light is detected by the visual system. This includes underwater polarization due to scattering; polarization patterns reflected from freshwater bodies; polarization characteristics of forest canopies; normal and anomalous polarization patterns of the skies; skylight polarization transmitted through Snell’s window and both linearly and circularly polarized signals produced by terrestrial and aquatic animals. This Part also examines polarized “light pollution” induced by anthropogenic factors such as reflection off asphalt surfaces, glass panes, car bodies, and other man-made structures that are now known to form ecological traps for polarotactic insects. Part III surveys some of the practical applications of polarization vision including polarization-based traps for biting insects, ground-based polarimetric cloud detectors and an historical examination of the navigational abilities of Viking seafarers using the sky polarization compass. The deterrent qualities of ungulate pelage to polarization-sensitive biting insects is also examined in this section.
It is our great pleasure and honor to organize the First IEEE Computer Society International Workshop on Biologically Motivated Computer Vision (BMCV 2000). The workshop BMCV 2000 aims to facilitate debates on biologically motivated vision systems and to provide an opportunity for researchers in the area of vision to see and share the latest developments in state-of-the-art technology. The rapid progress being made in the field of computer vision has had a tremendous impact on the modeling and implementation of biologically motivated computer vision. A multitude of new advances and findings in the domain of computer vision will be presented at this workshop. By December 1999 a total of 90 full papers had been submitted from 28 countries. To ensure the high quality of workshop and proceedings, the program committee selected and accepted 56 of them after a thorough review process. Of these papers 25 will be presented in 5 oral sessions and 31 in a poster session. The papers span a variety of topics in computer vision from computational theories to their implementation. In addition to these excellent presentations, there will be eight invited lectures by distinguished scientists on “hot” topics. We must add that the program committee and the reviewers did an excellent job within a tight schedule.
Pollination and Floral Ecology is the most comprehensive single-volume reference to all aspects of pollination biology--and the first fully up-to-date resource of its kind to appear in decades. This beautifully illustrated book describes how flowers use colors, shapes, and scents to advertise themselves; how they offer pollen and nectar as rewards; and how they share complex interactions with beetles, birds, bats, bees, and other creatures. The ecology of these interactions is covered in depth, including the timing and patterning of flowering, competition among flowering plants to attract certain visitors and deter others, and the many ways plants and animals can cheat each other. Pollination and Floral Ecology pays special attention to the prevalence of specialization and generalization in animal-flower interactions, and examines how a lack of distinction between casual visitors and true pollinators can produce misleading conclusions about flower evolution and animal-flower mutualism. This one-of-a-kind reference also gives insights into the vital pollination services that animals provide to crops and native flora, and sets these issues in the context of today's global pollination crisis. Provides the most up-to-date resource on pollination and floral ecology Describes flower advertising features and rewards, foraging and learning by flower-visiting animals, behaviors of generalist and specialist pollinators--and more Examines the ecology and evolution of animal-flower interactions, from the molecular to macroevolutionary scale Features hundreds of color and black-and-white illustrations
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry provides timely and critical reviews of important topics in computational chemistry as applied to all chemical disciplines. Topics covered include quantum chemistry, molecular mechanics, force fields, chemical education, and applications in academic and industrial settings. Focusing on the most recent literature and advances in the field, each article covers a specific topic of importance to computational chemists. Broad coverage of computational chemistry and up-to-date information Each chapter reviews the most recent literature on a specific topic of interest to computational chemists
Thousands of imaginative scientists, over more than a century,have revealed the fascinating story of intracellular calcium,through a pathway of ingenious invention and discovery. Intracellular Calcium, the definitive book on this topic,reveals: The pathway of discovery and invention of intracellular calciumover more than 100 years. The evidence for intracellular calcium as a universal switch inall animal, plant, fungal and microbial cells How the components required for calcium signalling are namedand classified. The ingenious technology, which has been developed to studyintracellular calcium. How calcium is regulated inside cells and how it works totrigger an event. The role of intracellular calcium in disease, cell injury andcell death. How many drugs work through the calcium signalling system. How intracellular calcium is involved in the action of manynatural toxins. How the intracellular calcium signalling system has evolvedover 4000 million years, showing why it was crucial to the originof life. A key principle presented throughout the book is the molecularvariation upon which the intracellular calcium signalling systemdepends. This variation occurs within the same cell type andbetween cells with different functions, providing the invisiblematrix upon which Darwin and Wallace’s Natural Selectiondepends. Featuring more than 100 figures, including detailed chemicalstructures as well as pictures of key pioneers in the field, abibliography of more than 1500 references, as well asdetailed subject and organism indices, this definitive workprovides a unique source of scholarship for teachers andresearchers in the biomedical sciences and beyond.