A complete synthesis of current knowledge concerning the remarkable and fascinating world of invertebrate vision.
Invertebrate Photoreceptors: A Comparative Analysis covers the structure and pigment chemistry of invertebrate photoreceptors. The book discusses the photobehavior and photoreceptor systems of invertebrate animals; the protozoan photoreceptor; and the compound eye. The text also describes the crustacean and mollusc eyes; the vertebrate retinal photoreceptors; and the invertebrate eye and its visual pigments. The book concludes with discussions on primitive photoreceptors; spectral sensitivity, pigments, and color vision; and polarized light analysis. Biologists and people involved in the study of invertebrate photobiology will find the text invaluable.
Visual science is the model system for neuroscience, its findings relevant to allother areas. This essential reference to contemporary visual neuroscience covers the extraordinaryrange of the field today, from molecules and cell assemblies to systems and therapies. It provides astate-of-the art companion to the earlier book The Visual Neurosciences (MITPress, 2003). This volume covers the dramatic advances made in the last decade, offering new topics,new authors, and new chapters. The New Visual Neurosciencesassembles groundbreaking research, written by international authorities. Many of the 112chapters treat seminal topics not included in the earlier book. These new topics include retinalfeature detection; cortical connectomics; new approaches to mid-level vision and spatiotemporalperception; the latest understanding of how multimodal integration contributes to visual perception;new theoretical work on the role of neural oscillations in information processing; and new molecularand genetic techniques for understanding visual system development. An entirely new section coversinvertebrate vision, reflecting the importance of this research in understanding fundamentalprinciples of visual processing. Another new section treats translational visual neuroscience,covering recent progress in novel treatment modalities for optic nerve disorders, maculardegeneration, and retinal cell replacement. The New Visual Neurosciences is anindispensable reference for students, teachers, researchers, clinicians, and anyone interested incontemporary neuroscience. Associate EditorsMarie Burns, JoyGeng, Mark Goldman, James Handa, Andrew Ishida, George R. Mangun, Kimberley McAllister, BrunoOlshausen, Gregg Recanzone, Mandyam Srinivasan, W.Martin Usrey, Michael Webster, DavidWhitney SectionsRetinal Mechanisms and ProcessesOrganization ofVisual PathwaysSubcortical ProcessingProcessing in Primary Visual CortexBrightness and ColorPattern,Surface, and ShapeObjects and ScenesTime, Motion, and DepthEye MovementsCortical Mechanisms ofAttention, Cognition, and Multimodal IntegrationInvertebrate VisionTheoretical PerspectivesMolecularand Developmental ProcessesTranslational Visual Neuroscience
I see a man's life is a tedious one. Cymbeline, Act III, Sc. 6. It is well known that the best way to learn a subject is to teach it! Along the same lines one might also say that a pleasant way of learning a subject and at the same time getting to know quite a few of the workers active in it, is to arrange and to attend an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) or a workshop lasting about two weeks. This was and is the wisdom behind the NA TO-ASI programme and much as people fear that a fortnight may be too long, before it is over everyone feels that it was too short, especially if the weather had cooperated. Organising this ASI which resulted in this volume has been a very good learning experience. I started my career in research with invertebrates and retained an interest in them over the years due to my teaching a course and working sporadically on various aspects of photoreception in Polychaetes, Crustaceans and Insects. Thus, the thought of organising an ASI on photoreception and vision in invertebrates had been brewing in my mind for the past half a dozen years or so. It was felt that it will be desirable to do a bit of stock taking and discuss possible new approaches to the study of this matter.
In the comparative physiology of photoreception by the Protista and the invertebrates two aspects are emphasized: (1) the diversity of visual processes in these groups and (2) their bearing upon general mechanisms of photoreception. Invertebrates have evolved a far greater variety of adaptations than vertebrates modifications aiding survival in the remarkably different biotopes they occupy. The number of species in itself suggests this multiformity; each of them has peculiarities of its own, in morphology as well as in physiology and behavior. But these special adaptations are variations on a few great themes. Although the catalogue of invertebrate species is immense, the literature concerning them nearly rivals it in extent-even if one considers only that fraction dealing with visual physiology. Taxonomy proceeds by grouping the species, categorizing them in genera, families, orders, and progressively larger units. Similarly, comparative physiology aims at an analogous, more or less compre hensive, classification. This Part A of Volume VII/6, like Part B that follows it, emphasizes the broad questions that concern groups larger than the individual species; in some cases these questions have general applicability. The middle course between approaches that are too specialized and those that are too general is often elusive, but here we attempt to follow it. The vast number of special adaptations-probably, as we have said, as large as the number of species-is beyond the range even of a handbook.
Our understanding of human color vision has advanced tremendously in recent years, helped along by many new discoveries, ideas, and achievements. It is therefore timely that these new developments are brought together in a book, assembled specifically to include new research and insight from the leaders in the field. Although intentionally not exhaustive, many aspects of color vision are discussed in this Springer Series in Vision Research book including: the genetics of the photopigments; the anatomy and physiology of photoreceptors, retinal and cortical pathways; color perception; the effects of disorders; theories on neuronal processes and the evolution of human color vision. Several of the chapters describe new, state-of-the-art methods within genetics, morphology, imaging techniques, electrophysiology, psychophysics, and computational neuroscience. The book gives a comprehensive overview of the different disciplines in human color vision in a way that makes it accessible to specialists and non-specialist scientists alike. About the Series: The Springer Series in Vision Research is a comprehensive update and overview of cutting edge vision research, exploring, in depth, current breakthroughs at a conceptual level. It details the whole visual system, from molecular processes to anatomy, physiology and behavior and covers both invertebrate and vertebrate organisms from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Each book in the Series is aimed at all individuals with interests in vision including advanced graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, established vision scientists and clinical investigators. The series editors are N. Justin Marshall, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia and Shaun P. Collin, Neuroecology Group within the School of Animal Biology and the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia.
Photopigments are molecules that react to light and mediate a number of processes and behaviours in animals. Visual pigments housed within the photoreceptors of the eye, such as the rods and cones in vertebrates are the best known, however, visual pigments are increasingly being found in other tissues, including other retinal cells, the skin and the brain. Other closely related molecules from the G protein family, such as melanopsin mediate light driven processes including circadian rhythmicity and pupil constriction. This Volume examines the enormous diversity of visual pigments and traces the evolution of these G protein coupled receptors in both invertebrates and vertebrates in the context of the visual and non-visual demands dictated by a species’ ecological niche.
Visual ecology is the study of how animals use visual systems to meet their ecological needs, how these systems have evolved, and how they are specialized for particular visual tasks. Visual Ecology provides the first up-to-date synthesis of the field to appear in more than three decades. Featuring some 225 illustrations, including more than 140 in color, spread throughout the text, this comprehensive and accessible book begins by discussing the basic properties of light and the optical environment. It then looks at how photoreceptors intercept light and convert it to usable biological signals, how the pigments and cells of vision vary among animals, and how the properties of these components affect a given receptor's sensitivity to light. The book goes on to examine how eyes and photoreceptors become specialized for an array of visual tasks, such as navigation, evading prey, mate choice, and communication. A timely and much-needed resource for students and researchers alike, Visual Ecology also includes a glossary and a wealth of examples drawn from the full diversity of visual systems. The most up-to-date overview of visual ecology available Features some 225 illustrations, including more than 140 in color, spread throughout the text Guides readers from the basic physics of light to the role of visual systems in animal behavior Includes a glossary and a wealth of real-world examples Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.
Molecular mechanisms in visual transduction is presently one of the most intensely studied areas in the field of signal transduction research in biological cells. Because the sense of vision plays a primary role in animal biology, and thus has been subject to long evolutionary development, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying vision have a high degree of sensitivity and versatility. The aims of visual transduction research are first to determine which molecules participate, and then to understand how they act in concert to produce the exquisite electrical responses of the photoreceptor cells. Since the 1940s  we have known that rod vision begins with the capture of a quantum of energy, a photon, by a visual pigment molecule, rhodopsin. As the function of photon absorption is to convert the visual pigment molecule into a G-protein activating state, the structural details of the visual pigments must be explained from the perspective of their role in activating their specific G-proteins. Thus, Chapters 1-3 of this Handbook extensively cover the physico-chemical molecular characteristics of the vertebrate rhodopsins. Following photoconversion and G-protein activation, the phototransduction cascade leads to modifications of the population of closed and open ion channels in the photoreceptor plasma membrane, and thereby to the electrical response. The nature of the channels of vertebrate photoreceptors is examined in Chapter 4, and Chapter 5 integrates the present body of knowledge of the activation steps in the cascade into a quantitative framework. Once the phototransduction cascade is activated, it must be subsequently silenced. The various molecular mechanisms participating in inactivation are treated in Chapters 1-4 and especially Chapter 5. Molecular biology is now an indispensable tool in signal transduction studies. Numerous vertebrate (Chapter 6) and invertebrate (Chapter 7) visual pigments have been characterized and cloned. The genetics and evolutionary aspects of this great subfamily of G-protein activating receptors are intriguing as they present a natural probe for the intimate relationship between structure and function of the visual pigments. Understanding the spectral characteristics from the molecular composition can be expected to
Examining the surprisingly complex perceptual abilities of so-called "simpler" animals, including jumping spiders, bees, praying mantids, butterflies, cockroaches, bladder grasshoppers, crayfish, mantis shrimps, octopuses, and toads.
This detailed 1990 book describes the light and dark adaptation of receptoral and post-receptoral mechanisms from a number of perspectives. The authors emphasise the importance of the study of achromatopsia, a rare congenital condition in which the visual mechanisms that mediate day vision are absent whilst those that mediate night vision remain intact.
Radiation can only affect matter if absorbed by it. Within the broad range of 300-1000 nm, which we call "the visible", light quanta are energetic enough to produce excited electronic states in the atoms and molecules that absorb them. In these states the molecules may have quite different properties from those in their dormant condition, and reactions that would not otherwise occur become possible. About 80 % of the radiant energy emitted by our sun lies in this fertile band, and so long as the sun's surface temperature is maintained at about 6000° C this state of affairs will continue. This and the transparency of our atmosphere and waters have allowed the generation and evolution of life. Before life began the atmosphere probably also transmitted much of the solar short-wave radiation, but with the rise of vegetation a new product - oxygen - appeared and this, by a photochemical reaction in the upper atmosphere, led to the ozone layer that now protects us from the energetic "short-wave" quanta that once, perhaps, took part in the generation of life-molecules. Light is an ideal sensory stimulus. It travels in straight lines at great speed and, consequently, can be made to form an image from which an animal can make "true", continuous and immediate assessments of present and impending events.
An essential reference book for visual science. Visual science is the model system for neuroscience, its findings relevant to all other areas. This massive collection of papers by leading researchers in the field will become an essential reference for researchers and students in visual neuroscience, and will be of importance to researchers and professionals in other disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, cognitive science, ophthalmology, psychology, computer science, optometry, and education. Over 100 chapters cover the entire field of visual neuroscience, from its historical foundations to the latest research and findings in molecular mechanisms and network modeling. The book is organized by topic--different sections cover such subjects as the history of vision science; developmental processes; retinal mechanisms and processes; organization of visual pathways; subcortical processing; processing in the primary visual cortex; detection and sampling; brightness and color; form, shape, and object recognition; motion, depth, and spatial relationships; eye movements; attention and cognition; and theoretical and computational perspectives. The list of contributors includes leading international researchers in visual science.
This volume consists of invited papers from scientists of Chinese origin in the visual field from around the world. The papers cover all basic and applied aspects of the vertebrate and invertebrate visual systems, from photoreceptors to cortical neurons, presenting both review and new findings on the subjects. It is hoped that this book will serve as a guide to international research linkage between groups.
This book covers advances made since the 2004 Springer volume “Polarized Light in Animal Vision” edited by Horvath and Varju, but also provides reviews and synopses of some areas. Part I examines polarization sensitivity across many animal taxa including vertebrates and invertebrates and details both terrestrial and aquatic life. Part II is devoted to the description of polarized light in nature and explores how the physics of light must be taken into account when understanding how polarized light is detected by the visual system. This includes underwater polarization due to scattering; polarization patterns reflected from freshwater bodies; polarization characteristics of forest canopies; normal and anomalous polarization patterns of the skies; skylight polarization transmitted through Snell’s window and both linearly and circularly polarized signals produced by terrestrial and aquatic animals. This Part also examines polarized “light pollution” induced by anthropogenic factors such as reflection off asphalt surfaces, glass panes, car bodies, and other man-made structures that are now known to form ecological traps for polarotactic insects. Part III surveys some of the practical applications of polarization vision including polarization-based traps for biting insects, ground-based polarimetric cloud detectors and an historical examination of the navigational abilities of Viking seafarers using the sky polarization compass. The deterrent qualities of ungulate pelage to polarization-sensitive biting insects is also examined in this section.