The experiences of World War I from the perspectives of soldiers on the battle field and their families at home.
This comprehensive introduction to the study of war and genocide presents a disturbing case that the potential for slaughter is deeply rooted in the political, economic, social and ideological relations of the modern world. Most accounts of war and genocide treat them as separate phenomena. This book thoroughly examines the links between these two most inhuman of human activities. It shows that the generally legitimate business of war and the monstrous crime of genocide are closely related. This is not just because genocide usually occurs in the midst of war, but because genocide is a form of war directed against civilian populations. The book shows how fine the line has been, in modern history, between ‘degenerate war’ involving the mass destruction of civilian populations, and ‘genocide’, the deliberate destruction of civilian groups as such. Written by one of the foremost sociological writers on war, War and Genocide has four main features: an original argument about the meaning and causes of mass killing in the modern world; a guide to the main intellectual resources – military, political and social theories – necessary to understand war and genocide; summaries of the main historical episodes of slaughter, from the trenches of the First World War to the Nazi Holocaust and the killing fields of Cambodia, Bosnia and Rwanda; practical guides to further reading, courses and websites. This book examines war and genocide together with their opposites, peace and justice. It looks at them from the standpoint of victims as well as perpetrators. It is an important book for anyone wanting to understand – and overcome – the continuing salience of destructive forces in modern society.
A comprehensive, illustrated history of World War I, its causes, impact on global politics and economy, military and political strategies, and the legacy it left behind.
A splendid book' - Niall Ferguson To Arras, 1917 is a biography of the author's uncle, Ernest Reid, who died in 1917, an officer in the Black Watch, of wounds sustained in the Battle of Arras. Born and raised in Paisley, educated at Paisley Grammar School, then Glasgow University, Ernest Reid intended to become a lawyer before he volunteered for war service. The author the climate in which he grew up, and the influences which formed him and his generation, the generation which supplied the subalterns of the Great War. As a result, although the book remains primarily a biography of its subject, it also explored the spirit in which Britain, still essentially Victorian, went to war in 1914. This is the true and poignant account of a young Scottish officer, pinned down and fatally wounded in No-man's land on the first day of the Battle of Arras, on Easter Monday 1917. The gripping narrative creates a mood of sombre inevitability. It does not simply set out the events of Captain Ernest Reid's life, but puts Ernest's life into its moral as well as its historical context and describes the cultural influences - the code of duty, an unquestioning patriotism - that moulded him and his contemporaries for service and sacrifice in the killing fields of France and Flanders. In retrospect, he and they seem almost programmed for the role they were required to play, and in this lies the pathos at the heart of this moving book.
These essays cover the work and career of Pat Barker, providing insight into her novels, from Union Street (1982) through the Regeneration trilogy (1991-95) to Double Vision (2003). The essays are organized into: "Writing Working-Class Women," "Dialogue under Pressure," "Men at War," "The Talking Cure," and "Regenerating the Wasteland."
Now that the Twentieth Century is behind us what made it what it was? 200 million human beings killed by war, totalitarianism, and extermination programs What made the twentieth century the most murderous age in human history, as well as the age that made the greatest advances ever in science and technology, while art and serious music declined into abstraction, non-communication, and grotesque hoaxes-blank canvases, old urinals, cans of excrement, and concertos consisting of four minutes of silence? This book argues that the century was marked by an over-masculinization of the Western mind, leading to autism and psychopathic aggression, and the eclipse of the feminine, expressive, emotional, empathetic side of human nature. Hence the unprecedented culture of total war and genocide, and the totalitarian projects to raze the human past and start again-which Modernism carried out in the arts. Hence also the masculinization of sexual behavior (as romance gave way to pornography, and marriage to promiscuity), the adoption by women of a male work role, the decline of motherhood and family, and the collapse of Western birthrates. This is all traced back to the rise of two aggressive, ultra-masculine ideologies in the nineteenth century, Darwinism and Marxism (which gave birth to Fascism and Feminism.) These ideologies put violence, conflict and aggression at the heart of life, and changed human mentalities. This book examines these developments through the literature and art of the past hundred and fifty years, and discusses their implications for the future of Western Civilization.
DIV This book was inspired by the author’s discovery of an extraordinary cache of letters from a soldier who was killed on the Western Front during the First World War. The soldier was his grandfather, and the letters had been tucked away, unread and unmentioned for many decades. Intrigued by the heartbreak and history of these family letters, Fletcher sought out the correspondence of other British soldiers who had volunteered for the fight against Germany. This resulting volume offers a vivid account of the physical and emotional experiences of seventeen British soldiers whose letters survive. Drawn from different regiments, social backgrounds, and areas of England and Scotland, they include twelve officers and five ordinary “Tommies.”/div DIV /div DIV The book explores the training, journey to France, fear, shellshock, and life in the trenches as well as the leisure, love, and home leave the soldiers dreamed of. Fletcher discusses the psychological responses of 17- and 18-year-old men facing appalling realities and considers the particular pressures on those who survived their fallen comrades. While acknowledging the horror and futility the soldiers of the Great War experienced, the author shows another side to the story, focusing new attention on the loyal comradeship, robust humor, and strong morale that uplifted the men at the Front and created a powerful bond among them./div
Why did millions of men agree to fight the most horrific war in history? And go on doing it, in many cases, for years? The question of consent is one of the many issues of the Great War that still haunt us today. The soldiers of 1914-1918 created a large body of newspapers and magazines by, for and about themselves. Often misleadingly called 'trench journals', these rich archival sources have received surprisingly little sustained scholarly attention. Through the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the English language trench periodicals of the war – British, Canadian, Australia, New Zealand and American - The Soldiers' Press presents a cultural interpretation of the means and methods through which consent was negotiated between the trenches and the home front. The few existing book-length studies tend to use trench newspapers as sources of information to answer historical questions. The Soldiers' Press treats soldier journalism on its own terms and provides a new answer to one lasting conundrum of World War I.
There is an old yarn about a stranger passing through a small town. The stranger stopped for gas and a soft drink at a service station. Seeing an old timer seated on a bench, the stranger decided to engage the man in a conversation. "Have you lived here all your life?" he asked. Reflecting on the question for a moment, the old timer responded, "Not yet." Just like the old-timer in the preceding story, we too need to reflect on the things that matter the most in our lives so that we can joyfully say "Not yet." Each story in this collection will help the reader reflect on the graces that many of us feel are in short supply in our hurried, fast-paced lives. These graces, though difficult to describe or define, show us that the simple things are often most profound and are at the center of our lives in our best moments. In Small Town Graces, Dr. Chapman shares some of these graces which have come to him over the years.
Nicholas Murray's The Rocky Road to the Great War examines the evolution of field fortification theory and practice between 1877 and 1914. During this period field fortifications became increasingly important, and their construction evolved from primarily above to below ground. The reasons for these changes are crucial to explaining the landscape of World War I, yet they have remained largely unstudied. The transformation in field fortifications reflected not only the ongoing technological advances but also the changing priorities in the reasons for constructing them, such as preventing desertion, protecting troops, multiplying forces, reinforcing tactical points, providing a secure base, and dominating an area. Field fortification theory, however, did not evolve solely in response to improving firepower or technology. Rather, a combination of those factors and societal ones-for example, the rise of large conscript armies and the increasing participation of citizens rather than subjects-led directly to technical alterations in the actual construction of the fieldworks. These technical developments arose from the second wave of the Industrial Revolution in the late nineteenth century that provided new technologies that increased the firepower of artillery, which in turn drove the transition from above- to belowground field fortification. Based largely on primary sourcesùincluding French, British, Austrian, and American military attache reports-Murray's enlightening study is unique in defining, fully examining, and contextualizing the theories and construction of field fortifications before World War I.
The last three-quarters of the Twentieth Century probably had more life-changing events than all previous history. Austin Goodrich reflects on the role he played in driving this history to a successful conclusion in the interest of all he believed in. From a quiet street in a quiet middle-class midwestern city, Austin was thrown into the cauldron of World War II as an infantry man known in the old days as a gravel-clutcher. After serving in both the European and Pacific Theatres in the 86th Blackhawk Division, Goodrich pursued his WWII promise to serve the cause of world peace by joining the Central Intellegence Agency. The rest is history as told by one who participated in his country’s first line of defense as a CIA case offi er serving for most of his 25 years under non-official (deep) cover.
Have you ever thought about how the first Christmas came to be because of a gift? Yes, the spirit of giving started in a most heavenly way. An innocent and wholly good man gave His life for all of humanity. Jesus inspired this most blessed of holidays when He hung on a cross, thus creating a spiritual window of escape for each man, woman, and child. It is in that spirit that Moments for Christmas welcomes the reader into a warm set of thirty stories that will uplift and delight, capturing the goodness of Jesus on its pages. From modern-day tales to those of Christmas Past, Moments for Christmas offers a look into this universal holiday. This little volume will truly become a treasured holiday heirloom for your family, as it finds a place on your mantle and in your heart.
Bei dem vorliegenden Buch handelt es sich um eine Sammlung satirischer Geschichten des Schriftstellers und Humoristen Stephen Leacock. Er veröffentlichte mehr als 40 Bücher und Geschichten, darunter auch Biografien über Mark Twain und Charles Dickens. Dieses Buch ist Zeugnis seines fein-ausgeprägten Humors und seiner Kenntnis der Wesen europäischer Völker. In der Satire "The Hohenzollerns in America" stellt er beispielsweise die deutsche Kolonialisierung Nordamerikas durch Wilhelm II. und dessen Scheitern an den vorgefundenen Umständen dar. Hierbei handelt es sich um eine englisch-sprachige Ausgabe.
This is a history of military psychiatry in the twentieth century. Both absorbing historical narrative and intellectual detective story, it weaves literary, medical, and military lore to give us a fascinating history of war neuroses and their treatment, from the World Wars through Vietnam and up to the Gulf War.
Explores the causes and consequences of World War I, both on the front and at home
“During the first two months of 1917 Russia was still a Romanov monarchy. Eight months later the Bolsheviks stood at the helm. They were little known to anybody when the year began, and their leaders were still under indictment for state treason when they came to power. You will not find another such sharp turn in history especially if you remember that it involves a nation of 150 million people. It is clear that the events of 1917, whatever you think of them, deserve study.” --Leon Trotsky, from History of the Russian Revolution Regarded by many as among the most powerful works of history ever written, this book offers an unparalleled account of one of the most pivotal and hotly debated events in world history. This book reveals, from the perspective of one of its central actors, the Russian Revolution’s profoundly democratic, emancipatory character. Originally published in three parts, Trotsky’s masterpiece is collected here in a single volume. It serves as the most vital and inspiring record of the Russian Revolution to date. “[T]he greatest history of an event that I know.” --C. L. R. James “In Trotsky all passions were aroused, but his thought remained calm and his vision clear.... His involvement in the struggle, far from blurring his sight, sharpens it.... The History is his crowning work, both in scale and power and as the fullest expression of his ideas on revolution. As an account of a revolution, given by one of its chief actors, it stands unique in world literature.” --Isaac Deutscher
For years, Douglas Haig has been considered perhaps the most controversial military leader in British history. Today his career is at the center of a swirling historiographical debate concerning the nature of the First World War. The traditional school contends that Haig, like the majority of generals from both sides, were overmatched, hidebound relics of a bygone military age who could not come to grips with modern war. They allegedly sent their soldiers OC over the topOCO in waves, with a criminal disregard for the mounting cost in lives. A new revisionist school contends that many Great War leaders, including Haig, were central to a phenomenal period of military innovation that laid the foundations for modern war. This so-called learning curve led from the killing fields of the Somme to the protoblitzkrieg tactics of the 100 Days Battles.Having achieved a measure of fame in BritainOCOs colonial wars, Haig began the First World War as a corps commander and succeeded to command the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in 1915. Under his leadership, the BEF fought its two signature battles of the Great WarOCoat the Somme and Passchendaele. HaigOCOs role in the direction of these battles earned him a reputation as a OC butcher and bungler, OCO the slaughter of the Somme and the muddy hell of Passchendaele forever tarnishing his reputation. However, as Andrew Wiest points out, in 1918 Haig was instrumental in winning one of the greatest victories in British military history. While the 100 Days Battles often go unnoticed or unappreciated in the history of World War I, obscured by the failures of earlier campaigns, it was here that modern war came of age. HaigOCOs role in that transformation makes him the central figure of the war on the Western Front."
This book examines the British soldiers on the Western Front and how they responded to the war landscape they encountered behind the lines and at the front. Using a multidisciplinary perspective, this study investigates the relationship between soldiers and the spaces and materials of the warzone, analyzing how soldiers constructed a ‘sense of place’ in the hostile, unpredictable environment. Drawing upon recent developments within First World War Studies and the anthropological examination of the fields of conflict, an ethnohistorical perspective of the soldiers is built which details the various ways soldiers responded to the physical and material world of the Western Front. This study is also grounded in the wider debates on how the First World War is remembered within Britain and offers an alternative perspective on the individuals who fought in the world’s first global conflagration nearly a century ago.
Contents Introduction 1914 – The War Begins 1915 – From the Trenches to Turkey 1916 - The Great Offensives 1917 - War in the Mud 1918 – Breakthrough The battles of World War I were fought on an unprecedented scale. Both sides made use of industrial technology to inflict horrendous numbers of casualties on the other and armies composed of millions of men confronted each other in cataclysmic encounters, the like of which had never been seen before. On one side were the Central Powers of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, who were joined by the Turkish Ottoman Empire and by Bulgaria, while the other was made up of the Entente Powers, the Allies of France, Russia and Britain, together with the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth, principally Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Over the course of the war, other countries also joined the Allies, including Italy, Romania and, in April 1917, America, whose vast resources of manpower and huge industrial capacity dramatically altered the balance of power on the battlefield.