In the first feminist critique of modern political theory, Okin shows how the failure to apply theories of justice to the family not only undermines our most cherished democratic values but has led to a major crisis over gender-related issues.
Die wissenschaftliche Gerechtigkeitsdebatte, jahrelang dominiert von John Rawls'”Theorie der Gerechtigkeit“, erhielt 1983 durch Michael Walzer eine bedeutende Wendung. In Abgrenzung von Rawls und anderen Gerechtigkeitstheoretikern entwickelte Walzer in seinem inzwischen klassisch gewordenen Werk seine Vision einer”komplexen Gleichheit“. Er geht davon aus, dass wahre Gerechtigkeit nicht durch einen wörtlich verstandenen Gleichheitsbegriff verwirklicht werden kann: Vielmehr verlangen verschiedene wichtige Güter - Reichtum, Macht, Arbeit, Liebe - auch verschiedene Modi der Verteilung. Walzer setzt sich nachdrücklich für einen neuen pluralistischen Gleichheitsbegriff ein, der bis heute nichts an Aktualität verloren hat.
In this pathbreaking study of the works of Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, and Mill, Susan Moller Okin turns to the tradition of political philosophy that pervades Western culture and its institutions to understand why the gap between formal and real gender equality persists. Our philosophical heritage, Okin argues, largely rests on the assumption of the natural inequality of the sexes. Women cannot be included as equals within political theory unless its deep-rooted assumptions about the traditional family, its sex roles, and its relation to the wider world of political society are challenged. So long as this attitude pervades our institutions and behavior, the formal equality women have won has no chance of becoming substantive.
Warum hierzu ein eigenstandiges Studienhandbuch? Als relativ neues Forschungsgebiet an den Hochschulen hat sich die feministische Theoriebildung und Forschung inzwischen international etabliert."
»Warum haben Sie keine Kinder?« Diese »Mutter aller Fragen« wird Rebecca Solnit hartnäckig von Journalisten gestellt, die sich mehr für ihren Bauch als für ihre Bücher interessieren. Warum gilt Mutterschaft noch immer als Schlüssel zur weiblichen Identität? Die Autorin findet die Antwort darauf in der Ideologie des Glücks und tritt dafür ein, lieber nach Sinn als nach Glück zu streben. Außerdem erklärt sie in ihren Essays, warum die Geschichte des Schweigens mit der Geschichte der Frauen untrennbar verknüpft ist, warum fünfjährige Jungen auf rosa Spielzeug lieber verzichten, und nennt 80 Bücher, die keine Frau lesen sollte. Sie schreibt über Männer, die Feministen und Männer, die Vergewaltiger sind, und setzt sich gegen jegliches Schubladendenken zur Wehr. Wenn Männer mir die Welt erklären sorgte weltweit für Furore – in ihren neuen Essays setzt Rebecca Solnit ebenso scharfsichtig wie humorvoll ihre Erkundung der heutigen Geschlechterverhältnisse fort. Ein wichtiges, Mut machendes Buch aus dezidiert feministischer Perspektive, über und für alle, die Geschlechteridentitäten infrage stellen und für eine freiere Welt eintreten.
In Menschenrechtsdebatten entzündet sich regelmäßig die Frage, ob es ein kollektives Menschenrecht auf Kultur und Identität gibt. Anhand einer Analyse der Forderungen von indigenen Gruppen in der UN erörtert Janne Mende die einzelnen Aspekte dieses Anspruchs: Sie geht auf die Bedeutung kollektiver Menschenrechte und die zentrale, in sich ambivalente Rolle von Kultur und Identität ein, weist auf entstehende Problematiken hin und diskutiert Lösungsmöglichkeiten. Die Untersuchung der Ambivalenzen des Feldes kollektiver Rechte gibt Aufschluss darüber, inwiefern Menschenrechte substanziell begründet werden können, wenn auf Kultur und Identität Bezug genommen wird.
The late Susan Moller Okin was a leading political theorist whose scholarship integrated political philosophy and issues of gender, the family, and culture. Okin argued that liberalism, properly understood as a theory opposed to social hierarchies and supportive of individual freedom and equality, provided the tools for criticizing the substantial and systematic inequalities between men and women. Her thought was deeply informed by a feminist view that theories of justice must apply equally to women as men, and she was deeply engaged in showing how many past and present political theories failed to do this. She sought to rehabilitate political theories--particularly that of liberal egalitarianism, in such a way as to accommodate the equality of the sexes, and with an eye toward improving the condition of women and families in a world of massive gender inequalities. In her lifetime Okin was widely respected as a scholar whose engagement went well beyond the world of theory, and her premature death in 2004 was considered by many a major blow to progressive political thought and women's interests around the world. This volume stems from a conference on Okin, and contains articles by some of the top feminist and political philosophers working today. They are organized around a set of themes central to Okin's work, namely liberal theory, gender and the family, feminist and cultural differences, and global justice. Included are major figures such as Joshua Cohen, David Miller, Cass Sunstein, Alison Jaggar, and Iris Marion Young, among others. Their aim is not to celebrate Okin's work, but to constructively engage with it and further its goals.
At a time when same-sex marriage, gay adoption, and the rise of single-parent households challenge traditional views of the family, this innovative volume helps readers put such issues into social and legal perspective. Engster and Metz bring together essential readings in political and legal theory and organise them to illuminate pressing contemporary debates on the family: gender and justice, parents and children, the state and globalisation. Justice, Politics, and the Family is an engaging and a diverse addition to the area of critical legal theory and sociology.
Encompassing the relationship between the state and the individual, society and the individual, the nature of freedom and the concept of the person, this four-volume set covers the main tenets of the liberal tradition. The collection includes material from the rich background and history of classical writings, and also emphasizes modern scholarship and contemporary issues.Fully indexed and including a new introduction by the editor, this is an invaluable reference tool for both researchers and students in the field.
How has feminism failed lesbianism? What issues belong at the top of a lesbian and gay political agenda? This book answers both questions by examining what lesbian and gay subordination really amounts to. Calhoun argues that lesbians and gays aren't just socially and politically disadvantaged. The closet displaces lesbians and gays from visible citizenship, and both law and cultural norms deny lesbians and gay men a private sphere of romance, marriage, and the family. - ;Feminism, the Family, and the Politics of the Closet is about placing sexual orientation politics within feminist theorizing. It is also about defining the central political issues confronting lesbian and gay men. The book brings the study of lesbians from the margins of feminist theory to the centre by critiquing the analytic frameworks employed within feminist theory that renders invisible lesbians' difference from heterosexual women. This book also outlines the basic features of lesbian and gay subordination by exploring the differences between heterosexual dominance and gender and race relations. Throughout, Calhoun aims to re-centre lesbian and gay politics away from concern with sexual regulations and toward concern with the displacement of gays and lesbians from the public sphere of visible citizenship and from the private sphere of romance, marriage, and family. -
Islamic family law has an immediate and direct impact on the lives of Muslim men, women and children, whose personal status continues to be defined by understandings of Islamic law codified and adapted by modern nation-states. This book examines how male authority is sustained through law and court practice, the consequences for women and the family, and the demands made by Muslim women's groups. Examining the construction of male guardianship (qiwama, wilaya) in the Islamic tradition, it also seeks to create an argument for women's full equality before the law. Bringing together renowned Muslim scholars and experts, anthropologists who have carried out fieldwork in family courts, and human rights and women's rights activists from different parts of the Muslim world, from Morocco to Egypt and Iran, this book develops a framework for rethinking Islamic Law and its traditions in ways that reflect contemporary realities and understandings of justice and gender rights.
This is the first book to provide a comprehensive investigation of gender and the law in the United States. Deborah Rhode describes legal developments over the last two centuries against a background of historical and sociological changes in women's activities and attitudes toward these new developments. She shows the way cultural perceptions of gender influence and in turn are influenced by legal constructions, and what this complicated interaction implies about the possibility-or impossibility-of using law as a tool of social change. Table of Contents: Introduction Part One: Historical Frameworks 1. Natural Rights and Natural Roles Domesticity as Destiny The Emergence of a Feminist Movement Nineteenth-Century Legal Ideology: Separate and Unequal 2. The Fragmentation of Feminism and the Legalization of Difference The Postsuffrage Women's Movement Separate Spheres and Legal Thought Part Two: Equal Rights in Retrospect 3. Feminist Challenges and Legal Responses The Growth of the Contemporary Women's Movement Governmental Rejoinders Liberalism and Liberation 4. The Equal Rights Campaign Instrumental Claims Symbolic Underpinnings Political Strategies Requiems and Revivals 5. The Evolution of Discrimination Doctrine The Search for Standards Separate Spheres Revisited: Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications Definitions of Difference Part Three: Contemporary Issues 6. False Dichotomies Benign and Invidious Discrimination in Welfare Policy: Elderly Women and Social Security Special Treatment or Equal Treatment: Pregnancy, Maternal, and Caretaking Policy Public and Private: Social Welfare and Childcare Policies 7. Competing Perspectives on Family Policy Form and Substance: The Marital-Nonmarital Divide Lesbian-Gay Rights and Social Wrongs Equality and Equity in Divorce Reform Text and Subtext in Custody Adjudication 8. Equality in Form and Equality in Fact: Women and Work Occupational Inequality The Legal Response Employment Policy and Structural Change 9. Reproductive Freedom The Historical Legacy Abortion Adolescent Pregnancy Reproductive Technology 10. Sex and Violence Sexual Harassment Domestic Violence Rape Prostitution Pornography 11. Association and Assimilation Private Clubs and Public Values Education Athletics Different But Equal Conclusion: Principles and Priorities Differences over Difference Differences over Sameness Theory about Theory Legal Frameworks Notes Index Reviews of this book: Rhode's work is impressive in its scholarship and its range...a compelling account. --Josephine Shaw, International and Comparative Law Quarterly Reviews of this book: The definitive treatment of the American legal system's struggle to deal with issues pertaining to gender...The strength of Rhode's analysis, however, is not its historical aspect but its probing view of modern gender issues...The focus is always on the deeper forces that have led to gender disadvantage...There is much to be learned from reading this volume. --Victoria J. Dodd, Bimonthly Review of Law Books Reviews of this book: A comprensive journey through the history of law and gender...The book is important in a number of ways...[It] paints in stark, irrefutable colors the irrational prejudices that have served to justify legal determinations limiting equality...[I]t has the audacity to ask the law to turn on itself and work more justly. --Sheila James Kuehl, California Lawyer Reviews of this book: Encyclopedic.. . Thorough, carefully nuanced ... [Rhode] gives all sides their fair due on every issue she takes up... A valuable resource for many years to come. --Susan 0kin, Law and Social Inquiry Justice and Gender breaks the impasse created by legal and theoretical debates over 'sameness' and 'difference.' Deborah Rhode's brilliant analysis of gender and the law in the United States from the nineteenth century to the present argues persuasively for theories rooted in careful contextual analysis and for a legal emphasis on gender disadvantage rather than gender difference. This book offers a new vantage point from which to think about the role of law in building a just society. --Sarah M. Evans, University of Minnesota
The joke is that all the prostitutes go on vacation when the philosophers come to town. The reason that the other conventioneers do it; philosophers just talk about it. And talk about sex and love, and friendship is what the contributors to this volume do! They talk and argue, split hairs and clarify, all trying to advance our understanding of this most interesting practice of the human species. Some of the best minds on three continents, from four nations, and eighteen of the United States discuss such topics as adultery, commitment, cross dressing, gender politics, date rape, family, friendship, friends as lovers, gayness, love, marital pluralism, marriage, prostitution, religiously motivated anti-queer sentiments, same sex marriage, seduction, and self-respect. Rather than preach, participants probe our attitudes and practices involving these issues with the aim of better understanding the broad range of sexual practices of our species. The result is a collection of stimulating essays that can enliven class discussions as well as provide guidance for the sexually perplexed. The work is accessible to readers from high school through college and beyond.
Norms, Values, and Society is the second Yearbook of the Vienna Circle Institute, which was founded in October 1991. The main part of the book contains original contributions to an international symposium the Institute held in October 1993 on ethics and social philosophy. The papers deal among others with questions of justice, equality, just social institutions, human rights, the connections between rationality and morality and the methodological problems of applied ethics. The Documentation section contains previously unpublished papers by Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank, Charles W. Morris and Edgar Zilsel, and the review section presents new publications on the Vienna Circle. The Vienna Circle Institute is devoted to the critical advancement of science and philosophy in the broad tradition of the Vienna Circle, as well as to the focusing of cross-disciplinary interest on the history and philosophy of science in a social context. The Institute's Yearbooks will, for the most part, document its activities and provide a forum for the discussion of exact philosophy, logical and empirical investigations, and analysis of language.
Welche Bedingungen lassen Völker gerecht und friedlich zusammenleben? Unter welchen Umständen sind Kriege gerechtfertigt? Welche Leitlinien müssen gegeben sein für Organisationen, die eine gerechte Gesellschaft von Völkern mit gleichen Rechten herzustellen vermögen? In acht Grundsätzen für eine gerechte internationale Ordnung entwickelt der amerikanische Philosoph John Rawls einen hypothetischen "Vertrag der Gesellschaft der Völker". Das jüngste Buch von John Rawls ist nach A Theory of Justice 1971, dt. 1975) und Political Liberalism (1993, dt. 1998) ein weiteres wichtiges Werk des bedeutenden amerikanischen Philosophen. Die Originalausgabe (The Law of Peoples, 1999) hat zu heftigen Kontroversen geführt.
Martha Nussbaum proposes a kind of feminism that is genuinely international.
A ground-breaking volume of all new essays covering the conjunction of two topics--feminism and families--that, for all their centrality in our culture, have not been adequately examined in light of one another. While the family has suffered feminist neglect, most women are in fact members of families, living their lives within the social context of families, even at a time when the concept of "family" has become bewilderingly unstable. The intersection of families and feminism is thus one in need of philosophical reflection, as a basis both for good public policy and for the ethical relationships of intimate life.
In this widely acclaimed landmark study, Joan Hoff illustrates how women remain second- class citizens under the current legal system and questions whether the continued pursuit of equality based on a one-size-fits-all vision of traditional individual rights is really what will most improve conditions for women in America as they prepare for the twenty-first century. Concluding that equality based on liberal male ideology is no longer an adequate framework for improving women's legal status, Hoff's highly original and incisive volume calls for a demystification of legal doctrine and a reinterpretation of legal texts (including the Constitution) to create a feminist jurisprudence.
Examining the mimetic theory of René Girard, this book investigates the development of society as a result of an original crime (a murder) that shaped the way the earliest humans organized the social structures we live with today - an analysis that reveals the dangerous structure of the most basic social relationships. With attention to family relationships, A Genealogy of Social Violence sheds light on the processes by which the traditional nuclear family, through the mimetic behaviour of children, embeds violence into human desires and hence society as whole. Challenging the thought of Girard and of Rawls in order to offer a new understanding of justice, this book suggests that in order to achieve a more peaceful society, what is required is not the self-defeating narrative of equality, developed in order to manage the violence engendered by our social institutions, but a reconceptualisation of the nuclear family structure. A striking critique of modern society, which draws on religion, mythology, literature, history, philosophy and political theory, A Genealogy of Social Violence will be of interest to social and political theorists, as well as philosophers working in the area of contemporary social and European thought.
Issues of global justice have received increasing attention in academic philosophy in recent years but the gendered dimensions of these issues are often overlooked or treated as peripheral. This groundbreaking collection by Alison Jaggar brings gender to the centre of philosophical debates about global justice. The explorations presented here range far beyond the limited range of issues often thought to constitute feminists’ concerns about global justice, such as female seclusion, genital cutting, and sex trafficking. Instead, established and emerging scholars expose the gendered and racialized aspects of transnational divisions of paid and unpaid labor, class formation, taxation, migration, mental health, the so-called resource curse, and conceptualizations of violence, honor, and consent. Jaggar's introduction explains how these and other feminist investigations of the transnational order raise deep challenges to assumptions about justice that for centuries have underpinned Western political philosophy. Taken together the pieces in this volume present a sustained philosophical engagement with gender and global justice. Gender and Global Justice provides an accessible and original perspective on this important field and looks set to reframe philosophical reflection on global justice.