This comprehensive textbook on combinatorial optimization places special emphasis on theoretical results and algorithms with provably good performance, in contrast to heuristics. It is based on numerous courses on combinatorial optimization and specialized topics, mostly at graduate level. This book reviews the fundamentals, covers the classical topics (paths, flows, matching, matroids, NP-completeness, approximation algorithms) in detail, and proceeds to advanced and recent topics, some of which have not appeared in a textbook before. Throughout, it contains complete but concise proofs, and also provides numerous exercises and references. This sixth edition has again been updated, revised, and significantly extended. Among other additions, there are new sections on shallow-light trees, submodular function maximization, smoothed analysis of the knapsack problem, the (ln 4+ɛ)-approximation for Steiner trees, and the VPN theorem. Thus, this book continues to represent the state of the art of combinatorial optimization.
This book is a multi-author treatise on the most outstanding research problems in the field of the aeronomy of the Earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere, encompassing the science covered by Division II of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It contains several review articles and detailed papers by leading scientists in the field. The book is organized in five parts: 1) Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Dynamics and Chemistry; 2) Vertical Coupling by Upward Propagating Waves; 3) Ionospheric Electrodynamics and Structuring; 4) Thermosphere- Ionosphere Coupling, Dynamics and Trends and 5) Ionosphere-Thermosphere Disturbances and Modeling. The book consolidates the progress achieved in the field in recent years and it serves as a useful reference for graduate students as well as experienced researchers.
The purpose of this book is to provide core material in nonlinear analysis for mathematicians, physicists, engineers, and mathematical biologists. The main goal is to provide a working knowledge of manifolds, dynamical systems, tensors, and differential forms. Some applications to Hamiltonian mechanics, fluid me chanics, electromagnetism, plasma dynamics and control thcory arc given in Chapter 8, using both invariant and index notation. The current edition of the book does not deal with Riemannian geometry in much detail, and it does not treat Lie groups, principal bundles, or Morse theory. Some of this is planned for a subsequent edition. Meanwhile, the authors will make available to interested readers supplementary chapters on Lie Groups and Differential Topology and invite comments on the book's contents and development. Throughout the text supplementary topics are given, marked with the symbols ~ and {l:;J. This device enables the reader to skip various topics without disturbing the main flow of the text. Some of these provide additional background material intended for completeness, to minimize the necessity of consulting too many outside references. We treat finite and infinite-dimensional manifolds simultaneously. This is partly for efficiency of exposition. Without advanced applications, using manifolds of mappings, the study of infinite-dimensional manifolds can be hard to motivate.
The editors and authors dedicate this book to Bernhard Korte on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. We, the editors, are happy about the overwhelming feedback to our initiative to honor him with this book and with a workshop in Bonn on November 3–7,2008.Althoughthiswouldbeareasontolookback,wewouldratherliketolook forward and see what are the interesting research directions today. This book is written by leading experts in combinatorial optimization. All - pers were carefully reviewed, and eventually twenty-three of the invited papers were accepted for this book. The breadth of topics is typical for the eld: combinatorial optimization builds bridges between areas like combinatorics and graph theory, submodular functions and matroids, network ows and connectivity, approximation algorithms and mat- matical programming, computational geometry and polyhedral combinatorics. All these topics are related, and they are all addressed in this book. Combi- torial optimization is also known for its numerous applications. To limit the scope, however, this book is not primarily about applications, although some are mentioned at various places. Most papers in this volume are surveys that provide an excellent overview of an activeresearcharea,butthisbookalsocontainsmanynewresults.Highlightingmany of the currently most interesting research directions in combinatorial optimization, we hope that this book constitutes a good basis for future research in these areas.
From the reviews: "About 30 years ago, when I was a student, the first book on combinatorial optimization came out referred to as "the Lawler" simply. I think that now, with this volume Springer has landed a coup: "The Schrijver". The box is offered for less than 90.- EURO, which to my opinion is one of the best deals after the introduction of this currency." OR-Spectrum
Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a space. From this, the two extension problems were spawned. With the classical dimension theory as a model, the inductive, covering and basic aspects of the dimension functions are investigated in this volume, resulting in extensions of the sum, subspace and decomposition theorems and theorems about mappings into spheres. Presented are examples, counterexamples, open problems and solutions of the original and modified compactification problems.
Die therapeutische Beziehung - wichtig bei allen ärztlichen Tätigkeiten! In der praktischen Medizin ist die Bedeutung der Arzt-Patient-Beziehung schon lange erkannt. Sie ist das, was den erfahrenen Arzt ausmacht, worauf er baut. Je unerfahrener ein Arzt, desto eher die Gefahr, den Mangel an Erfahrung durch eine Vielzahl technischer Untersuchungen zu kompensieren. Genauso erliegen Patienten der "Faszination Technik", oft vertrauen sie der Technik mehr als den Ärzten. Die "sprechende" Medizin wird wieder in den Mittelpunkt rücken – allein schon aus ökonomischen Gründen. Schon innerhalb des Studiums wird den sozialen Kompetenzen wieder mehr Gewicht verliehen. Von einer vertrauensvollen therapeutischen Beziehung profitieren die Patienten und die Ärzte! Der Arzt und sein Patient – mehr als Diagnose, Analyse, Verordnung und Koordination!
VLSI (very large scale integration) is a magic acronym in modern science and technology. Amongst other strik- ing aspects this field has turned out to be an excellent arena for applications of discrete mathematics and combinatorial optimization. The contributions to this volume, covering a wide range of research in this important field, develop from lectures delivered at a scientific meeting focused on paths, flows and VLSI-layout, held in Bonn in the summer 1988. The speakers, including several of the most prominent researchers in the field, were asked to formalize and extend their lectures into written surveys, giving a complete account of their topics. The volume will serve as a compendium demonstrating the liveliness of the area, as well as indicating directions for future work.
RNA technologies are the driving forces of modern medicine and biotechnology. They combine the fields of biochemistry, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, physics, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. The combination of these topics is set to revolutionize the medicine of tomorrow. After more than 15 years of extensive research in the field of RNA technologies, the first therapeutics are ready to reach the first patients. Thus we are witnessing the birth of a very exciting time in the development of molecular medicine, which will be based on the methods of RNA technologies. This volume is the first of a series. It covers various aspects of RNA interference and microRNAs, although antisense RNA applications, hammerhead ribozyme structure and function as well as non-coding RNAs are also discussed. The authors are internationally highly respected experts in the field of RNA technologies.
This book provides an introduction to the interplay between linear algebra and dynamical systems in continuous time and in discrete time. It first reviews the autonomous case for one matrix A via induced dynamical systems in ℝd and on Grassmannian manifolds. Then the main nonautonomous approaches are presented for which the time dependency of A(t) is given via skew-product flows using periodicity, or topological (chain recurrence) or ergodic properties (invariant measures). The authors develop generalizations of (real parts of) eigenvalues and eigenspaces as a starting point for a linear algebra for classes of time-varying linear systems, namely periodic, random, and perturbed (or controlled) systems. The book presents for the first time in one volume a unified approach via Lyapunov exponents to detailed proofs of Floquet theory, of the properties of the Morse spectrum, and of the multiplicative ergodic theorem for products of random matrices. The main tools, chain recurrence and Morse decompositions, as well as classical ergodic theory are introduced in a way that makes the entire material accessible for beginning graduate students.
This monograph provides an introduction to the concept of invariance entropy, the central motivation of which lies in the need to deal with communication constraints in networked control systems. For the simplest possible network topology, consisting of one controller and one dynamical system connected by a digital channel, invariance entropy provides a measure for the smallest data rate above which it is possible to render a given subset of the state space invariant by means of a symbolic coder-controller pair. This concept is essentially equivalent to the notion of topological feedback entropy introduced by Nair, Evans, Mareels and Moran (Topological feedback entropy and nonlinear stabilization. IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 49 (2004), 1585–1597). The book presents the foundations of a theory which aims at finding expressions for invariance entropy in terms of dynamical quantities such as Lyapunov exponents. While both discrete-time and continuous-time systems are treated, the emphasis lies on systems given by differential equations.
The Bernstein problem and the Plateau problem are central topics inthe theory of minimal submanifolds. This important book presents theDouglasOCoRado solution to the Plateau problem, but the main emphasisis on the Bernstein problem and its new developments in variousdirections: the value distribution of the Gauss image of a minimalsurface in Euclidean 3-space, Simons'' work for minimal graphichypersurfaces, and author''s own contributions to Bernstein typetheorems for higher codimension."
As stated in Brion’s introduction, these poems were written and intended as a testimonial of one man’s life for his children and grandchildren. The poems grew into something bigger; seeing the importance for as God’s words states in II, Timothy 3:16-17 all scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, for re-proof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness that the man of God may be perfect thoroughly furnished unto all good works. Brion thanks his God for the inspiration he has given him on several of these poems. He thanks his daughters as workers and inspiration also. It has never been his intention to hurt anyone with his writings. If so, get over it and change your life as well. The last poem of this book is Brion’s letter to any addict struggling to overcome a hard addictive behavior. Get and seek the help you need. Believe in the true God and please don’t victimize your family. Brion hopes these readings have been enjoyable and inspirational, but most of all, this is and was his testimonial throughout time for his children and grandchildren of who their father and grandfather was.
In recent years, the fixed point theory of Lipschitzian-type mappings has rapidly grown into an important field of study in both pure and applied mathematics. It has become one of the most essential tools in nonlinear functional analysis. This self-contained book provides the first systematic presentation of Lipschitzian-type mappings in metric and Banach spaces. The first chapter covers some basic properties of metric and Banach spaces. Geometric considerations of underlying spaces play a prominent role in developing and understanding the theory. The next two chapters provide background in terms of convexity, smoothness and geometric coefficients of Banach spaces including duality mappings and metric projection mappings. This is followed by results on existence of fixed points, approximation of fixed points by iterative methods and strong convergence theorems. The final chapter explores several applicable problems arising in related fields. This book can be used as a textbook and as a reference for graduate students, researchers and applied mathematicians working in nonlinear functional analysis, operator theory, approximations by iteration theory, convexity and related geometric topics, and best approximation theory.
This book focusses on a large class of objects in moduli theory and provides different perspectives from which compactifications of moduli spaces may be investigated. Three contributions give an insight on particular aspects of moduli problems. In the first of them, various ways to construct and compactify moduli spaces are presented. In the second, some questions on the boundary of moduli spaces of surfaces are addressed. Finally, the theory of stable quotients is explained, which yields meaningful compactifications of moduli spaces of maps. Both advanced graduate students and researchers in algebraic geometry will find this book a valuable read.
This book is a comprehensive, systematic survey of the synthesis problem, and of region theory which underlies its solution, covering the related theory, algorithms, and applications. The authors focus on safe Petri nets and place/transition nets (P/T-nets), treating synthesis as an automated process which, given behavioural specifications or partial specifications of a system to be realized, decides whether the specifications are feasible, and then produces a Petri net realizing them exactly, or if this is not possible produces a Petri net realizing an optimal approximation of the specifications. In Part I the authors introduce elementary net synthesis. In Part II they explain variations of elementary net synthesis and the unified theory of net synthesis. The first three chapters of Part III address the linear algebraic structure of regions, synthesis of P/T-nets from finite initialized transition systems, and the synthesis of unbounded P/T-nets. Finally, the last chapter in Part III and the chapters in Part IV cover more advanced topics and applications: P/T-net with the step firing rule, extracting concurrency from transition systems, process discovery, supervisory control, and the design of speed-independent circuits. Most chapters conclude with exercises, and the book is a valuable reference for both graduate students of computer science and electrical engineering and researchers and engineers in this domain.
Since the founding in 1660 of the Royal Society, London, scientists engaging in experimental research have sought to establish a base for exploratory work in communities and their political institutions. This connection between science and the national state has only grown stronger during the past two centuries. Here, historians, sociologists, and jurists discuss the history of that relationship since 1800, asking such key questions as how have scientists conceived of the national setting for their transnational work in the past, and how do they situate their work in the context of globalization? Taken together, the essays reveal that while nineteenth-century scientists in many countries felt they had to fight for public recognition of their work, the twentieth century witnessed the national endorsement and planning of science. With essays ranging from an analysis of speeches by nineteenth-century German university presidents to the state of science in the context of European integration, this book will appeal to anyone interested in the public and political role of science and its institutions in the past, present, and future.
This book offers an introduction to cryptology, the science that makes secure communications possible, and addresses its two complementary aspects: cryptography—--the art of making secure building blocks—--and cryptanalysis—--the art of breaking them. The text describes some of the most important systems in detail, including AES, RSA, group-based and lattice-based cryptography, signatures, hash functions, random generation, and more, providing detailed underpinnings for most of them. With regard to cryptanalysis, it presents a number of basic tools such as the differential and linear methods and lattice attacks. This text, based on lecture notes from the author’s many courses on the art of cryptography, consists of two interlinked parts. The first, modern part explains some of the basic systems used today and some attacks on them. However, a text on cryptology would not be complete without describing its rich and fascinating history. As such, the colorfully illustrated historical part interspersed throughout the text highlights selected inventions and episodes, providing a glimpse into the past of cryptology. The first sections of this book can be used as a textbook for an introductory course to computer science or mathematics students. Other sections are suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses. Many exercises are included. The emphasis is on providing reasonably complete explanation of the background for some selected systems.

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