Prepared by John H. Nelson and Kenneth C. Kemp, both of the University of Nevada. This manual contains 43 finely tuned experiments chosen to introduce students to basic lab techniques and to illustrate core chemical principles. You can also customize these labs through Catalyst, our custom database program. For more information, visit http: //www.pearsoncustom.com/custom-library/catalyst In the Thirteenth Edition, all experiments were carefully edited for accuracy and safety. Pre-labs and questions were revised and several experiments were added or changed. Two of the new experiments have been added to Chapter 11.
ALERT: Before you purchase, check with your instructor or review your course syllabus to ensure that you select the correct ISBN. Several versions of Pearson's MyLab & Mastering products exist for each title, including customized versions for individual schools, and registrations are not transferable. In addition, you may need a CourseID, provided by your instructor, to register for and use Pearson's MyLab & Mastering products. Packages Access codes for Pearson's MyLab & Mastering products may not be included when purchasing or renting from companies other than Pearson; check with the seller before completing your purchase. Used or rental books If you rent or purchase a used book with an access code, the access code may have been redeemed previously and you may have to purchase a new access code. Access codes Access codes that are purchased from sellers other than Pearson carry a higher risk of being either the wrong ISBN or a previously redeemed code. Check with the seller prior to purchase. -- Unrivaled problems, notable scientific accuracy and currency, and remarkable clarity have made Chemistry: The Central Science the leading general chemistry text for more than a decade. Trusted, innovative, and calibrated, the text increases conceptual understanding and student success in general chemistry by building on the expertise of the dynamic author team of leading researchers and award-winning professors. The new Thirteenth Edition builds on the Twelfth Edition’s major revision, in which every word and piece of art was scrutinized by all the authors to increase its effectiveness. Placing a greater emphasis on research, this edition is more tightly integrated with MasteringChemistry, the leading online homework, tutorial, and assessment program– resulting in an unparalleled teaching and learning package that personalizes learning and coaches students toward understanding and mastery of tough chemistry topics. This program presents a better teaching and learning experience–for you and your students. It provides: Superior support beyond the classroom with MasteringChemistry: Students benefit from personalized, interactive learning through MasteringChemistry’s self-paced tutorials that guide them through the text’s most challenging topics; provide immediate, specific feedback; and keep students engaged and on track. Enhanced learning from a dynamic author team of leading researchers and award-winning professors: Each member of this well-respected author team brings their expertise in a wide range of areas to the pages of this popular text. All authors have been active researchers and have taught general chemistry for many years. Improved conceptual understanding through stepped up, relevant pedagogy: Students get numerous opportunities to test their knowledge through Give It Some Thought (GIST) exercises, Go Figure questions, and A Closer Look essays, now integrated with clicker questions and in MasteringChemistry. Invaluable aids that ensure problem-solving success: By using a consistent process, a unique Analyze/Plan/Solve/Check format, dual-column problem-solving approach in certain areas, a new practice exercise following each worked example, and the Strategies in Chemistry feature, students are placed on the right path from the very start to excel at problem solving and comprehension. Clarity through visualization from a variety of perspectives, including macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic: Included are Visualizing Concepts exercises, with models, graphs, and other visual materials; sample exercises with molecular illustrations; and conceptual questions in the end-of-chapter questions.
To the Instructor Philosophy We authors of Chemistry: The Central Science are delighted and honored that you have chosen us as your instructional partners for your general chemistry class. We have all been active researchers who appreciate both the learning and the discovery aspects of the chemical sciences. We have also all taught general chemistry many times. Our varied, wide-ranging experiences have formed the basis of the close collaborations we have enjoyed as coauthors. In writing our book, our focus is on the students: we try to ensure that the text is not only accurate and up-to-date but also clear and readable. We strive to convey the breadth of chemistry and the excitement that scientists experience in making new discoveries that contribute to our understanding of the physical world. We want the student to appreciate that chemistry is not a body of specialized knowledge that is separate from most aspects of modern life, but central to any attempt to address a host of societal concerns, including renewable energy, environmental sustainability, and improved human health. Publishing the thirteenth edition of this text bespeaks an exceptionally long record of successful textbook writing. We are appreciative of the loyalty and support the book has received over the years, and mindful of our obligation to justify each new edition. We begin our approach to each new edition with an intensive author retreat, in which we ask ourselves the deep questions that we must answer before we can move forward. What justifies yet another edition? What is changing in the world not only of chemistry, but with respect to science education and the qualities of the students we serve? The answer lies only partly in the changing face of chemistry itself. The introduction of many new technologies has changed the landscape in the teaching of sciences at all levels. The use of the Internet in accessing information and presenting learning materials has markedly changed the role of the textbook as one element among many tools for student learning. Our challenge as authors is to maintain the text as the primary source of chemical knowledge and practice, while at the same time integrating it with the new avenues for learning made possible by technology and the Internet. This edition incorporates links to a number of those new methodologies, including use of the Internet, computer-based classroom tools, such as Learning Catalytics™, a cloud-based active learning analytics and assessment system, and web-based tools, particularly MasteringChemistry®, which is continually evolving to provide more effective means of testing and evaluating student performance, while giving the student immediate and helpful feedback. In past versions, MasteringChemistry® provided feedback only on a question level. Now with Knewtonenhanced adaptive follow-up assignments, and Dynamic Study Modules, MasteringChemistry® continually adapts to each student, offering a personalized learning experience. As authors, we want this text to be a central, indispensable learning tool for students. Whether as a physical book or in electronic form, it can be carried everywhere and used at any time. It is the one place students can go to obtain the information outside of the classroom needed for learning, skill development, reference, and test preparation. The text, more effectively than any other instrument, provides the depth of coverage and coherent background in modern chemistry that students need to serve their professional interests and, as appropriate, to prepare for more advanced chemistry courses. If the text is to be effective in supporting your role as instructor, it must be addressed to the students. We have done our best to keep our writing clear and interesting and the book attractive and well illustrated. The book has numerous in-text study aids for students, including carefully placed descriptions of problem-solving strategies. We hope that our cumulative experiences as teachers is evident in our pacing, choice of examples, and the kinds of study aids and motivational tools we have employed. We believe students are more enthusiastic about learning chemistry when they see its importance relative to their own goals and interests; therefore, we have highlighted many important applications of chemistry in everyday life. We hope you make use of this material. It is our philosophy, as authors, that the text and all the supplementary materials provided to support its use must work in concert with you, the instructor. A textbook is only as useful to students as the instructor permits it to be. This book is replete with features that can help students learn and that can guide them as they acquire both conceptual understanding and problem- solving skills. There is a great deal here for the students to use, too much for all of it to be absorbed by any one student. You will be the guide to the best use of the book. Only with your active help will the students be able to utilize most effectively all that the text and its supplements offer. Students care about grades, of course, and with encouragement they will also become interested in the subject matter and care about learning. Please consider emphasizing features of the book that can enhance student appreciation of chemistry, such as the Chemistry Put to Work and Chemistry and Life boxes that show how chemistry impacts modern life and its relationship to health and life processes. Learn to use, and urge students to use, the rich online resources available. Emphasize conceptual understanding and place less emphasis on simple manipulative, algorithmic problem solving. What Is New in This Edition? A great many changes have been made in producing this thirteenth edition. We have continued to improve upon the art program, and new features connected with the art have been introduced. Many figures in the book have undergone modification, and dozens of new figures have been introduced A systematic effort has been made to place explanatory labels directly into figures to guide the student. New designs have been employed to more closely integrate photographic materials into figures that convey chemical principles. We have continued to explore means for more clearly and directly addressing the issue of concept learning. It is well established that conceptual misunderstandings, which impede student learning in many areas, are difficult to correct. We have looked for ways to identify and correct misconceptions via the worked examples in the book, and in the accompanying practice exercises. Among the more important changes made in the new edition, with this in mind, are: • A major new feature of this edition is the addition of a second Practice Exercise to accompany each Sample Exercise within the chapters. The majority of new Practice Exercises are of the multiple-choice variety, which enable feedback via MasteringChemistry®. The correct answers to select Practice Exercises are given in an appendix, and guidance for correcting wrong answers is provided in MasteringChemistry ®. The new Practice Exercise feature adds to the aids provided to students for mastering the concepts advanced in the text and rectifying conceptual misunderstandings. The enlarged practice exercise materials also further cement the relationship of the text to the online learning materials. At the same time, they offer a new supportive learning experience for all students, regardless of whether the MasteringChemistry® program is used. • A second major innovation in this edition is the Design An Experiment feature, which appears as a final exercise in all chapters beginning with Chapter 3, as well as in MasteringChemistry®. The Design an Experiment exercise is a departure from the usual kinds of end-of-chapter exercises in that it is inquiry based, open ended, and tries to stimulate the student to “think like a scientist.” Each exercise presents the student with a scenario in which various unknowns require investigation. The student is called upon to ponder how experiments might be set up to provide answers to particular questions about a system, and/ or test plausible hypotheses that might account for a set of observations. The aim of the Design an Experiment exercises is to foster critical thinking. We hope that they will be effective in active learning environments, which include classroom-based work and discussions, but they are also suitable for individual student work. There is no one right way to solve these exercises, but we authors offer some ideas in an online Instructor’s Resource Manual, which will include results from class testing and analysis of student responses. • The Go Figure exercises introduced in the twelfth edition proved to be a popular innovation, and we have expanded on its use. This feature poses a question that students can answer by examining the figure. These questions encourage students to actually study the figure and understand its primary message. Answers to the Go Figure questions are provided in the back of the text. • The popular Give It Some Thought (GIST) questions embedded in the text have been expanded by improvements in some of the existing questions and addition of new ones. The answers to all the GIST items are provided in the back of the text. • New end-of-chapter exercises have been added, and many of those carried over from the twelfth edition have been significantly revised. Analysis of student responses to the twelfth edition questions in MasteringChemistry® helped us identify and revise or create new questions, prompting improvements and eliminations of some questions. Additionally, analysis of usage of MasteringChemistry® has enhanced our understanding of the ways in which instructors and students have used the end-of-chapter and MasteringChemistry® materials. This, in turn, has led to additional improvements to the content within the text and in the MasteringChemistry® item library. At the end of each chapter, we list the Learning Outcomes that students should be able to perform after studying each section. End-of-chapter exercises, both in the text and in MasteringChemistry ® offer ample opportunities for students to assess mastery of learning outcomes. We trust the Learning Outcomes will help you organize your lectures and tests as the course proceeds. Organization and Contents The first five chapters give a largely macroscopic, phenomenological view of chemistry. The basic concepts introduced—such as nomenclature, stoichiometry, and thermochemistry—provide necessary background for many of the laboratory experiments usually performed in general chemistry. We believe that an early introduction to thermochemistry is desirable because so much of our understanding of chemical processes is based on considerations of energy changes. Thermochemistry is also important when we come to a discussion of bond enthalpies. We believe we have produced an effective, balanced approach to teaching thermodynamics in general chemistry, as well as providing students with an introduction to some of the global issues involving energy production and consumption. It is no easy matter to walk the narrow pathway between—on the one hand—trying to teach too much at too high a level and—on the other hand—resorting to oversimplifications. As with the book as a whole, the emphasis has been on imparting conceptual understanding, as opposed to presenting equations into which students are supposed to plug numbers. The next four chapters (Chapters 6–9) deal with electronic structure and bonding. We have largely retained our presentation of atomic orbitals. For more advanced students, Closer Look boxes in Chapters 6 and 9 highlight radial probability functions and the phases of orbitals. Our approach of placing this latter discussion in a Closer Look box in Chapter 9 enables those who wish to cover this topic to do so, while others may wish to bypass it. In treating this topic and others in Chapters 7 and 9, we have materially enhanced the accompanying figures to more effectively bring home their central messages. In Chapters 10–13, the focus of the text changes to the next level of the organization of matter: examining the states of matter. Chapters 10 and 11 deal with gases, liquids, and intermolecular forces, as in earlier editions. Chapter 12 is devoted to solids, presenting an enlarged and more contemporary view of the solid state as well as of modern materials. The chapter provides an opportunity to show how abstract chemical bonding concepts impact real-world applications. The modular organization of the chapter allows you to tailor your coverage to focus on materials (semiconductors, polymers, nanomaterials, and so forth) that are most relevant to your students and your own interests. Chapter 13 treats the formation and properties of solutions in much the same manner as the previous edition. The next several chapters examine the factors that determine the speed and extent of chemical reactions: kinetics (Chapter 14), equilibria (Chapters 15–17), thermodynamics (Chapter 19), and electrochemistry (Chapter 20). Also in this section is a chapter on environmental chemistry (Chapter 18), in which the concepts developed in preceding chapters are applied to a discussion of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. This chapter has increasingly come to be focused on green chemistry and the impacts of human activities on Earth’s water and atmosphere. After a discussion of nuclear chemistry (Chapter 21), the book ends with three survey chapters. Chapter 22 deals with nonmetals, Chapter 23 with the chemistry of transition metals, including coordination compounds, and Chapter 24 with the chemistry of organic compounds and elementary biochemical themes. These final four chapters are developed in a parallel fashion and can be covered in any order. Our chapter sequence provides a fairly standard organization, but we recognize that not everyone teaches all the topics in the order we have chosen. We have therefore made sure that instructors can make common changes in teaching sequence with no loss in student comprehension. In particular, many instructors prefer to introduce gases (Chapter 10) after stoichiometry (Chapter 3) rather than with states of matter. The chapter on gases has been written to permit this change with no disruption in the flow of material. It is also possible to treat balancing redox equations (Sections 20.1 and 20.2) earlier, after the introduction of redox reactions in Section 4.4. Finally, some instructors like to cover organic chemistry (Chapter 24) right after bonding (Chapters 8 and 9). This, too, is a largely seamless move. We have brought students into greater contact with descriptive organic and inorganic chemistry by integrating examples throughout the text. You will find pertinent and relevant examples of “real” chemistry woven into all the chapters to illustrate principles and applications. Some chapters, of course, more directly address the “descriptive” properties of elements and their compounds, especially Chapters 4, 7, 11, 18, and 22–24. We also incorporate descriptive organic and inorganic chemistry in the end-of-chapter exercises. Changes in This Edition The What is New in This Edition section on pp. xx–xxi details changes made throughout the new edition. Beyond a mere listing, however, it is worth dwelling on the general goals we set forth in formulating this new edition. Chemistry: The Central Science has traditionally been valued for its clarity of writing, its scientific accuracy and currency, its strong end-of-chapter exercises, and its consistency in level of coverage. In making changes, we have made sure not to compromise these characteristics, and we have also continued to employ an open, clean design in the layout of the book. The art program for this thirteenth edition has continued the trajectory set in the twelfth edition: to make greater and more effective use of the figures as learning tools, by drawing the reader more directly into the figure. The art itself has continued to evolve, with modifications of many figures and additions or replacements that teach more effectively. The Go Figure feature has been expanded greatly to include a larger number of figures. In the same vein, we have added to the Give it Some Thought feature, which stimulates more thoughtful reading of the text and fosters critical thinking. We provide a valuable overview of each chapter under the What’s Ahead banner. Concept links ( ) continue to provide easy-to-see cross-references to pertinent material covered earlier in the text. The essays titled Strategies in Chemistry, which provide advice to students on problem solving and “thinking like a chemist,” continue to be an important feature. For example, the new Strategies in Chemistry essay at the end of Chapter 3 introduces the new Design an Experiment feature and provides a worked out example as guidance. We have continued to emphasize conceptual exercises in the end-of-chapter exercise materials. The well-received Visualizing Concepts exercise category has been continued in this edition. These exercises are designed to facilitate concept understanding through use of models, graphs, and other visual materials. They precede the regular end-of-chapter exercises and are identified in each case with the relevant chapter section number. A generous selection of Integrative Exercises, which give students the opportunity to solve problems that integrate concepts from the present chapter with those of previous chapters, is included at the end of each chapter. The importance of integrative problem solving is highlighted by the Sample Integrative Exercise, which ends each chapter beginning with Chapter 4. In general, we have included more conceptual endof- chapter exercises and have made sure that there is a good representation of somewhat more difficult exercises to provide a better mix in terms of topic and level of difficulty. Many of the exercises have been restructured to facilitate their use in MasteringChemistry ®. We have made extensive use of the metadata from student use of MasteringChemistry® to analyze end-ofchapter exercises and make appropriate changes, as well as to develop Learning Outcomes for each chapter. New essays in our well-received Chemistry Put to Work and Chemistry and Life series emphasize world events, scientific discoveries, and medical breakthroughs that bear on topics developed in each chapter. We maintain our focus on the positive aspects of chemistry without neglecting the problems that can arise in an increasingly technological world. Our goal is to help students appreciate the real-world perspective of chemistry and the ways in which chemistry affects their lives. It is perhaps a natural tendency for chemistry textbooks to grow in length with succeeding editions, but it is one that we have resisted. There are, nonetheless, many new items in this edition, mostly ones that replace other material considered less pertinent. Here is a list of several significant changes in content: In Chapter 1, the Closer Look box on the scientific method has been rewritten. The Chemistry Put to Work box, dealing with Chemistry in the News, has been completely rewritten, with items that describe diverse ways in which chemistry intersects with the affairs of modern society. The Chapter Summary and Learning Outcomes sections at the end of the chapter have been rewritten for ease of use by both instructor and student, in this and all chapters in the text. Similarly, the exercises have been thoroughly vetted, modified where this was called for and replaced or added to, here and in all succeeding chapters. In Chapter 3, graphic elements highlighting the correct approach to problem solving have been added to Sample Exercises on calculating an empirical formula from mass percent of the elements present, combustion analysis, and calculating a theoretical yield. Chapter 5 now presents a more explicit discussion of combined units of measurement, an improved introduction to enthalpy, and more consistent use of color in art. Changes in Chapter 6 include a significant revision of the discussion of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, including greater clarity on absorption versus emission processes. There is also a new Closer Look box on Thought Experiments and Schrödinger’s Cat, which gives students a brief glimpse of some of the philosophical issues in quantum mechanics and also connects to the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics. In Chapter 7, the emphasis on conceptual thinking was enhanced in several ways: the section on effective nuclear charge was significantly revised to include a classroom-tested analogy, the number of Go Figure features was increased substantially, and new end-of-chapter exercises emphasize critical thinking and understanding concepts. In addition, the Chemistry Put to Work box on lithium-ion batteries was updated and revised to include discussion of current issues in using these batteries. Finally, the values of ionic radii were revised to be consistent with a recent research study of the best values for these radii. In Chapter 9, which is one of the most challenging for students, we continue to refine our presentation based on our classroom experience. Twelve new Go Figure exercises will stimulate more student thought in a chapter with a large amount of graphic material. The discussion of molecular geometry was made more conceptually oriented. The section on delocalized bonding was completely revised to provide what we believe will be a better introduction that students will find useful in organic chemistry. The Closer Look box on phases in orbitals was revamped with improved artwork. We also increased the number of end-of-chapter exercises, especially in the area of molecular orbital theory. The Design an Experiment feature in this chapter gives the students the opportunity to explore color and conjugated π systems. Chapter 10 contains a new Sample Exercise that walks the student through the calculations that are needed to understand Torricelli’s barometer. Chapter 11 includes an improved definition of hydrogen bonding and updated data for the strengths of intermolecular attractions. Chapter 12 includes the latest updates to materials chemistry, including plastic electronics. New material on the diffusion and mean free path of colloids in solution is added to Chapter 13, making a connection to the diffusion of gas molecules from Chapter 10. In Chapter 14, ten new Go Figure exercises have been added to reinforce many of the concepts presented as figures and graphs in the chapter. The Design an Experiment exercise in the chapter connects strongly to the Closer Look box on Beer’s Law, which is often the basis for spectrometric kinetics experiments performed in the general chemistry laboratory. The presentation in Chapter 16 was made more closely tied to that in Chapter 15, especially through the use of more initial/ change/equilibrium (ICE) charts. The number of conceptual end-of-chapter exercises, including Visualizing Concepts features, was increased significantly. Chapter 17 offers improved clarity on how to make buffers, and when the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation may not be accurate. Chapter 18 has been extensively updated to reflect changes in this rapidly evolving area of chemistry. Two Closer Look boxes have been added; one dealing with the shrinking level of water in the Ogallala aquifer and a second with the potential environmental consequences of hydraulic fracking. In Chapter 20, the description of Li-ion batteries has been significantly expanded to reflect the growing importance of these batteries, and a new Chemistry Put to Work box on batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles has been added. Chapter 21 was updated to reflect some of the current issues in nuclear chemistry and more commonly used nomenclature for forms of radiation are now used. Chapter 22 includes an improved discussion of silicates. In Chapter 23, the section on crystal-field theory (Section 23.6) has undergone considerable revision. The description of how the d-orbital energies of a metal ion split in a tetrahedral crystal field has been expanded to put it on par with our treatment of the octahedral geometry, and a new Sample Exercise that effectively integrates the links between color, magnetism, and the spectrochemical series has been added. Chapter 24’s coverage of organic chemistry and biochemistry now includes oxidation–reduction reactions that organic chemists find most relevant. To the Student Chemistry: The Central Science, Thirteenth Edition, has been written to introduce you to modern chemistry. As authors, we have, in effect, been engaged by your instructor to help you learn chemistry. Based on the comments of students and instructors who have used this book in its previous editions, we believe that we have done that job well. Of course, we expect the text to continue to evolve through future editions. We invite you to write to tell us what you like about the book so that we will know where we have helped you most. Also, we would like to learn of any shortcomings so that we might further improve the book in subsequent editions. Our addresses are given at the end of the Preface. Advice for Learning and Studying Chemistry Learning chemistry requires both the assimilation of many concepts and the development of analytical skills. In this text, we have provided you with numerous tools to help you succeed in both tasks. If you are going to succeed in your chemistry course, you will have to develop good study habits. Science courses, and chemistry in particular, make different demands on your learning skills than do other types of courses. We offer the following tips for success in your study of chemistry: Don’t fall behind! As the course moves along, new topics will build on material already presented. If you don’t keep up in your reading and problem solving, you will find it much harder to follow the lectures and discussions on current topics. Experienced teachers know that students who read the relevant sections of the text before coming to a class learn more from the class and retain greater recall. “Cramming” just before an exam has been shown to be an ineffective way to study any subject, chemistry included. So now you know. How important to you, in this competitive world, is a good grade in chemistry? Focus your study. The amount of information you will be expected to learn can sometimes seem overwhelming. It is essential to recognize those concepts and skills that are particularly important. Pay attention to what your instructor is emphasizing. As you work through the Sample Exercises and homework assignments, try to see what general principles and skills they employ. Use the What’s Ahead feature at the beginning of each chapter to help orient yourself to what is important in each chapter. A single reading of a chapter will simply not be enough for successful learning of chapter concepts and problem- solving skills. You will need to go over assigned materials more than once. Don’t skip the Give It Some Thought and Go Figure features, Sample Exercises, and Practice Exercises. They are your guides to whether you are learning the material. They are also good preparation for test-taking. The Learning Outcomes and Key Equations at the end of the chapter should help you focus your study. Keep good lecture notes. Your lecture notes will provide you with a clear and concise record of what your instructor regards as the most important material to learn. Using your lecture notes in conjunction with this text is the best way to determine which material to study. Skim topics in the text before they are covered in lecture. Reviewing a topic before lecture will make it easier for you to take good notes. First read the What’s Ahead points and the end-of-chapter Summary; then quickly read through the chapter, skipping Sample Exercises and supplemental sections. Paying attention to the titles of sections and subsections gives you a feeling for the scope of topics. Try to avoid thinking that you must learn and understand everything right away. You need to do a certain amount of preparation before lecture. More than ever, instructors are using the lecture period not simply as a one-way channel of communication from teacher to student. Rather, they expect students to come to class ready to work on problem solving and critical thinking. Coming to class unprepared is not a good idea for any lecture environment, but it certainly is not an option for an active learning classroom if you aim to do well in the course. After lecture, carefully read the topics covered in class. As you read, pay attention to the concepts presented and to the application of these concepts in the Sample Exercises. Once you think you understand a Sample Exercise, test your understanding by working the accompanying Practice Exercise. Learn the language of chemistry. As you study chemistry, you will encounter many new words. It is important to pay attention to these words and to know their meanings or the entities to which they refer. Knowing how to identify chemical substances from their names is an important skill; it can help you avoid painful mistakes on examinations. For example, “chlorine” and “chloride” refer to very different things. Attempt the assigned end-of-chapter exercises. Working the exercises selected by your instructor provides necessary practice in recalling and using the essential ideas of the chapter. You cannot learn merely by observing; you must be a participant. In particular, try to resist checking the Student Solutions Manual (if you have one) until you have made a sincere effort to solve the exercise yourself. If you get stuck on an exercise, however, get help from your instructor, your teaching assistant, or another student. Spending more than 20 minutes on a single exercise is rarely effective unless you know that it is particularly challenging. Learn to think like a scientist. This book is written by scientists who love chemistry. We encourage you to develop your critical thinking skills by taking advantage of new features in this edition, such as exercises that focus on conceptual learning, and the Design an Experiment exercises. Use online resources. Some things are more easily learned by discovery, and others are best shown in three dimensions. If your instructor has included MasteringChemistry® with your book, take advantage of the unique tools it provides to get the most out of your time in chemistry. The bottom line is to work hard, study effectively, and use the tools available to you, including this textbook. We want to help you learn more about the world of chemistry and why chemistry is the central science. If you really learn chemistry, you can be the life of the party, impress your friends and parents, and … well, also pass the course with a good grade The production of a textbook is a team effort requiring the involvement of many people besides the authors who contributed hard work and talent to bring this edition to life. Although their names don’t appear on the cover of the book, their creativity, time, and support have been instrumental in all stages of its development and production. Each of us has benefited greatly from discussions with colleagues and from correspondence with instructors and students both here and abroad. Colleagues have also helped immensely by reviewing our materials, sharing their insights, and providing suggestions for improvements. On this edition, we were particularly blessed with an exceptional group of accuracy checkers who read through our materials looking for both technical inaccuracies and typographical errors
Der 'Callister' bietet den gesamten Stoff der Materialwissenschaften und Werkstofftechnik für Studium und Prüfungsvorbereitung. Hervorragend aufbereitet und in klarer, prägnanter Sprache wird das gesamte Fachgebiet anschaulich dargestellt. Das erprobte didaktische Konzept zielt ab auf 'Verständnis vor Formalismus' und unterstützt den Lernprozess der Studierenden: * ausformulierte Lernziele * regelmäßig eingestreute Verständnisfragen zum gerade vermittelten Stoff * Kapitelzusammenfassungen mit Lernstoff, Gleichungen, Schlüsselwörtern und Querverweisen auf andere Kapitel * durchgerechnete Beispiele, Fragen und Antworten sowie Aufgaben und Lösungen * Exkurse in die industrielle Anwendung * an den deutschen Sprachraum angepasste Einheiten und Werkstoffbezeichnungen * durchgehend vierfarbig illustriert * Verweise auf elektronisches Zusatzmaterial Der 'Callister' ist ein Muss für angehende Materialwissenschaftler und Werkstofftechniker an Universitäten und Fachhochschulen - und ideal geeignet für Studierende aus Physik, Chemie, Maschinenbau und Bauingenieurwesen, die sich mit den Grundlagen des Fachs vertraut machen möchten.
The “greening” of industry processes, i.e. making them more sustainable, is a popular and often lucrative trend which has emerged over recent years. The 3rd volume of Green Chemical Processing considers sustainable chemistry in the context of corporate interests. The American Chemical Society’s 12 Principles of Green Chemistry are woven throughout this text as well as the series to which this book belongs.
Immer mehr deutsche Hochschulen folgen dem amerikanischen Vorbild und bieten Einführungskurse zur Modernen Physik an. Diese Kurse vermitteln die spannenden Erkenntnisse der Physik der letzten 100 Jahre, die zu bahnbrechenden Veränderungen geführt haben. Das Standardwerk zu diesen Kursen ist "Modern Physics" von Paul A. Tipler, Autor des berühmten Werkes "Physik", und Ralph A. Llewellyn. Die Autoren zeigen, dass man ein tief gehendes Verständnis der Modernen Physik vermitteln kann, ohne einen schwerfälligen mathematischen Apparat bemühen zu müssen. Mit über 500 Abbildungen, Zitaten berühmter Physiker sowie mit ca. 700 sorgfältig ausgewählten Übungsaufgaben und über das Internet zugänglichen Ergänzungen wurde "Modern Physics" in den USA zu einem der beliebtesten Lehrbücher zu diesem Thema.
Gentechnologie für Einsteiger hat sich weltweit als leicht verständliche Einführung in dieses wichtige und spannende Wissenschaftsgebiet bewährt. Die sechste Auflage bleibt dem Grundkonzept früherer Auflagen treu, widmet sich aber auch neuen, wachsenden Forschungsfeldern. Das Buch bleibt damit ein unentbehrlicher Leitfaden für Studierende in den Biowissenschaften und ihren zahlreichen Teilgebieten. Es eignet sich auch bestens als Einführung für alle, die sich in ihrem Beruf mit den Grundlagen des Themas vertraut machen müssen.
!-- Generated by XStandard version 2.0.1.0 on 2016-02-17T17:17:57 -- Der „Mankiw" ist nicht nur ein maßgebliches Standardwerk an deutschen Hochschulen. Übersetzt in zahlreiche Sprachen wird der Klassiker weltweit erfolgreich in Lehrveranstaltungen eingesetzt. Diskussionen um Themen wie Inflation, Arbeitslosigkeit und Wachstum Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Geld-, Fiskal- und Außenwirtschaftspolitik Die 6. deutsche Auflage wurde umfassend überarbeitet und berücksichtigt auch die Aktualisierungen der 7. US-Auflage. Eine zentrale Neuerung ist das Kapitel „Ein dynamisches Modell der Gesamtnachfrage und des Gesamtangebots". Es präsentiert die wesentlichen makroökonomischen Forschungsergebnisse der letzten Jahre. Aktuelle Texte und neue Fallbeispiele zur jüngsten Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise Modernisiertes, zweifarbiges Layout
Chemie nimmt in unser aller Leben eine zentrale Rolle ein. Wie funktioniert ein Silicium-Chip? Wie können wir Naturprodukte nutzbar machen, um menschliche Krankheiten zu bekämpfen? Wie ist das Leben entstanden – und können wir es im Labor künstlich neu erschaffen? 50 Schlüsselideen Chemie ist ein spannender Führer in die Welt der Chemie, der diese und viele weitere Fragen beleuchtet. Von den Molekülen, die einst das Leben selbst in Gang setzten, über die Brennstoffe, die unsere moderne Welt antreiben, bis hin zur Nanotechnologie und den molekularen Geheimnisse des Gehirns eröffnet die chemische Forschung nicht nur faszinierende Einblicke in den Ursprung des Lebens, sondern verändert auch unseren Alltag ständig weiter. In 50 kurzen Kapiteln widmet sich dieses ansprechende Buch einem breiten Spektrum von Themen, das von den Erklärungsansätzen der großen Chemiker bis zu den neuesten Forschungsmethoden reicht. Zeitleisten zeigen für jede Entwicklung das Umfeld auf. So erfahren Sie alles, was Sie über die wichtigsten Konzepte der Chemie in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart wissen müssen.
Es ist behauptet worden, Gruppentheorie sei kaum mehr als angewandter gesun der Menschenverstand. Wenn dem so ist, sollte es möglich sein, sie so darzustel len, daß der explizite Gebrauch von formaler Mathematik und vor allem von Matrizenalgebra vermieden wird. Matrizenalgebra ist kein schwieriges Thema; viele Studenten werden ihr vor dem Studium begegnet sein. Daher mag es sinnlos erscheinen, ein weiteres Buch zu schreiben, nur um die Verwendung von Matri zenalgebra zu umgehen. Dennoch ist dies ein solches Buch; der Grund für seine Existenz liegt tiefer. Nach meiner Erfahrung denken Chemiker lieber in Model len und Bildern als in mathematischen Begriffen; sie finden es leichter, ein Modell mathematisch zu beschreiben, als mit einer mathematischen Herleitung zu beginnen und daraus ein Bild zu gewinnen. Zum vollen Verständnis der Gruppentheorie benötigt man sowohl das Bild als auch die Mathematik; daher werden üblicherweise beide gemeinsam behandelt. Die Gruppentheorie ist al lerdings ein systematisch aufgebautes Gebiet - jede Stufe hängt von den vor hergehenden Stufen ab, so daß man sich in einem Lehrbuch ständig auf frühere Seiten beziehen muß. Da die mathematische Behandlung genauer und umfas sender ist als die bildhafte Beschreibung, wird dabei am ehesten auf vorausge gangene mathematische Abschnitte verwiesen. Nach meiner Erfahrung wird das physikalische Bild für die meisten Studenten zunehmend verschwommener, je mehr die Mathematik die Oberhand gewinnt. Dies ist der Grund für den Aufbau des vorliegenden Buchs.
In "Der Ungehorsam als ein psychologisches und ethisches Problem" stellt Fromm die Fähigkeit und Notwendigkeit zum Ungehorsam systematisch dar. Er verbindet dabei die Fähigkeit zum Ungehorsam mit seiner Lehre vom humanistischen Gewissen. Dieses legitimiert den Ungehorsam und stellt eine Gegenkraft zur autoritären Charakterorientierung dar, für die Gehorsam eine Haupttugend ist. Fromms Plädoyer für den Ungehorsam richtet sich aber nicht nur gegen alle Formen des Autoritarismus. Es geht darum, auch gegen das, was als gesunder Menschenverstand und als „völlig normal“ gilt, ungehorsam zu sein und als common non-sense und eine „Pathologie der Normalität“ anzusehen. Heute werden beispielweise die Selbstregulation des Marktes, der Wettbewerb, die Gewinnmaximierung, das endlose Wachstumsstreben oder technische Lösungen bei menschlichen Problemen als „völlig normal“ angesehen. Diesem common non-sense gegenüber gilt es ungehorsam zu sein, um den Menschen und das individuelle und soziale Wohl-Sein wieder zum Maßstab des wirtschaftlichen, politischen und gesellschaftlichen Handelns zu machen.

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