Landscape is a stimulating introduction to and contemporary understanding of one of the most important concepts within human geography. A series of different influential readings of landscape are debated and explored, and, for the first time, distinctive traditions of landscape writing are brought together and examined as a whole, in a forward-looking critical review of work by cultural geographers and others within the last twenty to thirty years. This book clearly and concisely explores ‘landscape’ theories and writings, allowing students of geography, environmental studies and cultural studies to fully comprehend this vast and complex topic. To aid the student, vignettes are used to highlight key writers, papers and texts. Annotated further reading and student exercises are also included. For researchers and lecturers, Landscape presents a forward-looking synthesis of hitherto disparate fields of inquiry, one which offers a platform for future research and writing.
Basic theoretical texts for landscape architects.
Cinema and Landscape frames up contemporary film landscapes across the world, in a concentrated examination and interrogation of screen aesthetics and national ideology, film form and cultural geography, cinematic representation and the human environment.
What is landscape? How does it differ from 'land'? Does landscape always imply something to be pictured, a scene? When and why did we begin to cherish images of nature? What is 'nature'? Is it everything that isn't art, or artefact? This book explores many fascinating issues raised by the great range of ideas and images of the natural world in Western art since the Renaissance. Using a thematic structure many issues are examined, for instance: landscape as a cultural construct; the relationship between landscape as accessory or backdrop and landscape as the chief subject; landscape as constituted by various practices of framing; the sublime and ideas of indeterminacy; landscape art as picturesque or as exploration of living processes. These issues are raised and explored in connection with Western cultural movements, and within a full international and historical context. Many forms of landscape art are included: painting, gardening, panorama, poetry, photography, and art. Thebook is designed to both take stock of recent interdisciplinary debates and act as a stimulus to rethinking our assumptions about landscape.
Providing a fresh approach to the theory of design, Landscape: Pattern, Perception and Process synthesizes planning, design and ecology and shows a new view of where design can develop. The book brings together the work and subject areas of a range of disciplines including psychologists, philosophers, geologists, ecologists, cultural geographers, foresters, urban planners and landscape architects and synthesizes all these together. Since many landscape and environmental problems require multi-disciplinary approaches for their solution, this book demonstrates how the best integration can be achieved. Highly illustrated, it contains examples from North America, Canada, Europe and Australasia. Glossary, references and further reading provide the reader with guidance and back-up resources.
This book has been initiated by the workshop on Cultural heritage in changing landscapes, held during the IALE (International Association for Landscape Ecology) European Conference that started in Stockholm, Sweden, in June 200 1 and continued across the Baltic to Tartu, Estonia, in JUly. The papers presented at the workshop have been supported by invited contributions that address a wider range of the cultural heritage management issues and research interfaces required to study cultural landscapes. The book focuses on landscape interfaces. Both the ones we find out there in the landscape and the ones we face while doing research. We hope that this book helps if not to make use of these interfaces, then at least to map them and bridge some of the gaps between them. The editors wish to thank those people helping us to assemble this collection. First of all our gratitude goes to the authors who contributed to the book. We would like to thank Marc Antrop, Mats Widgren, Roland Gustavsson, Marion Pots chin, Barbel Tress, Tiina Peil, Helen Soovali and Anu Printsmann for their quick and helpful advice, opinions and comments during the different stages of editing. Helen Soovali and Anu Printsmann together with Piret Pungas - thank you for technical help.
This text considers landscape not simply as an object to be seen or a text to be read, but as an instrument of cultural force, a central tool in the creation of national and social identities. This edition adds a new preface and five new essays.
A distinguished group of scholars here probes the complex structure of aesthetic responses to nature in a discussion enriched with insights from art history, literary criticism, geography and philosophy. Exploring the interrelation among nature, beauty and art, they show that natural beauty is impregnated with concepts derived from the arts and from particular accounts of nature. The distinction and relation between art and nature are questioned, and the volume culminates in philosophical studies of the role of scientific understanding, engagement and appreciation in aesthetics.
This book is intended as a resource for students and researchers interested in developmental biology and physiology and specifically addresses the larval stages of fish. Fish larvae (and fish embryos) are not small juveniles or adults. Rather they are transitionary organisms that bridge the critical gap between the singlecelled egg and sexually immature juvenile. Fish larvae represent the stage of the life cycle that is used for differentiation, feeding and distribution. The book aims at providing a single-volume treatise that explains how fish larvae develop and differentiate, how they regulate salt, water and acid-base balance, how they transport and exchange gases, acquire and utilise energy, how they sense their environment, and move in their aquatic medium, how they control and defend themselves, and finally how they grow up.
Landscape Architectural Graphic Standards is an entirely new, definitive reference work for everyone involved with landscape architecture, design, and construction. Based on the 70-year success of Architectural Graphic Standards, this new book is destined to become the?bible? for the landscape field.
The Iconography of Landscape, first published in 1988, draws together fourteen scholars from diverse disciplines across the humanities and social sciences to explicate the status of landscape as a cultural image, 'a pictorial way of representing, structuring or symbolising surroundings'. By applying the art-historical method of iconography - interpreting levels of meaning in human artifacts - to landscapes on paper or canvas, in literary form or on its ground, its contributors show how landscape is an important mode of human signification, informed by, and itself informing, social, cultural and political issues. The range of examples is wide in terms of medium, period and place. It covers poetry and promotional literature, architectural design and urban ceremonial, maps and paintings. The historical periods discussed include sixteenth-century Italy, eighteenth-century England, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Scotland and twentieth-century Canada. The book is introduced by the editors' discussion of the meanings of landscape and of the iconographic method in the context of contemporary theoretical and methodological debates on culture and society.
The papers presented in this volume range from proposals for new design approaches, historical analysis of the relationship between the practice of landscape architecture and environmentalism, to the theories of early practitioners of landscape architecture imbued by an environmentalist outlook. The issues above are addressed through topics as eclectic as the design of American zoos, the establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority, road design and maintenance in Texas, and criticism of relationships between the words and works of select landscape architects. This volume provides a fresh approach to encounters between environmentalism and landscape architecture by reframing the issues through self-reflection instead of strategic debate.
With simple, complete instructions for a multitude of exterior construction projects, this publication is a valuable learning and resource tool for landscape contractors, designers, and homeowners. Photos and illustrations support the instructions for such activities as site preparation, grading and drainage, utilities and irrigation, retaining wall construction, paving, exterior carpentry, fencing, and such amenities as pools, ponds, and edging. Readers will welcome the easy-to-follow process of construction and a review of various materials, tools, and methods. A discussion of estimating and bidding for jobs will be of value to professionals in their work and of interest to homeowners as they consider their own exterior projects. This may be the sole resource needed to accomplish a multitude of hardscape construction goals.
Caspar David Friedrich (1774–1840) is heralded as the greatest painter of the Romantic movement in Germany, and Europe’s first truly modern artist. His mysterious and melancholy landscapes, often peopled with lonely wanderers, are experiments in a radically subjective artistic perspective—one in which, as Freidrich wrote, the painter depicts not “what he sees before him, but what he sees within him.” This vulnerability of the individual when confronted with nature became one of the key tenets of the Romantic aesthetic. Now available in a compact, accessible format, this beautifully illustrated book is the most comprehensive account ever published in English of one of the most fascinating and influential nineteenth-century painters. “This is a model of interpretative art history, taking in a good deal of German Romantic philosophy, but founded always on the immediate experience of the picture. . . . It is rare to find a scholar so obviously in sympathy with his subject.”—Independent
How do we re-theorize tourism? By drawing less on the Foucauldian notion of 'tourism as gazing' and instead focusing on the social construction of meaning in the landscape, this insightful book provides an innovative and compelling new approach to tourist studies. Arguing that in any view of the landscape and in tourism generally there is a multiplicity of insider and outsider meanings, the book grounds tourism studies within the framework of social theory, and particularly in the social theoretic approaches to landscape. Bringing together specialists in tourism and landscape studies to discuss the relationships between the two, it finds that issues of identity are a common thread and are raised with regard to the social construction of landscape and its portrayal through tourism. The international studies range in scale from regional to national, personal to political, and from local residents to international tourists, highlighting the multiplicity of interpretations and meanings between these scales.
This 1972 text takes John Clare as the focus of different attitudes to landscape as something to have a 'taste' for.
This eloquent and powerful book combines poetry and pragmatism to teach the language of landscape. Anne Whiston Spirn, author of the award-winning The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design, argues that the language of landscape exists with its own syntax, grammar, and metaphors, and that we imperil ourselves by failing to learn to read and speak this language. To understand the meanings of landscape, our habitat, is to see the world differently and to enable ourselves to avoid profound aesthetic and environmental mistakes. Offering examples that range across thousands of years and five continents, Spirn examines urban, rural, and natural landscapes. She discusses the thought of renowned landscape authors--Thomas Jefferson, Frank Lloyd Wright, Frederick Law Olmsted, Lawrence Halprin--and of less well known pioneers, including Australian architect Glenn Murcutt and Danish landscape artist C. Th. Sørensen. She discusses instances of great landscape designers using landscape fluently, masterfully, and sometimes cynically. And, in a probing analysis of the many meanings of landscape, Spirn shows how one person's ideal landscape may be another's nightmare, how Utopian landscapes can be dark. There is danger when we lose the connection between a place and our understanding of it, Spirn warns, and she calls for change in the way we shape our environment, based on the notions of nature as a set of ideas and landscape as the expression of action and ideas in place.
00 In this interdisciplinary study, Ann Bermingham explores the complex, ambiguous, and often contradictory relationship between English landscape painting and the socio-economic changes that accompanied enclosure and the Industrial Revolution. In this interdisciplinary study, Ann Bermingham explores the complex, ambiguous, and often contradictory relationship between English landscape painting and the socio-economic changes that accompanied enclosure and the Industrial Revolution.
Drawing from philosophical traditions, literature, and art, he calls the reader's attention to a special consciousness, originally established during the pre-Romantic age, that has become a distinctive feature of contemporary spirituality. Focusing on the definition of landscapes in relation to the concepts of nature, environment, territory, and man-made settings such as gardens and cities, Milani examines the origins of the predilection for natural scenery in the works of landscape painters and in travel literature. He addresses the distinctness of the aesthetic experience of landscapes, analyses the role of aesthetic categories, and explores landscape art as a medium of contemplation.
Landschaft wird heute immer stärker als komplexes System begriffen: Biotope und Wasserkreisläufe, Freiräume und Bauten, Nachbarschaften und Wirtschaftsräume sind seine Komponenten. Das Buch analysiert und dokumentiert diese internationale Entwicklung sowie ihre Bedeutung für Landschaftsarchitekten.