Interviews are ubiquitous in modern society, and they play a crucial role in social scientific research. But, as Charles Briggs convincingly argues in this book, received interviewing techniques rest on fundamental misapprehensions about the nature both of the interview as a communicative event, and of the nature of the data that it produces. Furthermore, interviewers rarely examine the compatibility of interviews as a means of acquiring information to one another. These oversights often blind interviewers to ensuing errors of interpretation, as well as to the limitations of the interview as a means of acquiring data. To conflict these problems, Professor Briggs presents an analysis of the 'communicative blunders' that he himself committed in conducting research interviews among Spanish-speakers in northern New Mexico. By focusing on these errors and exploring how they may be avoided, he is able to propose new techniques for designing, implementing, and analyzing interview-based research. These rest on identifying the subjects' resources for conveying information, and the relative compatability of the shared rules and understandings that underlie their strategies with those associated with interviews. Critical of existing paradigms of interviewing, which he sees as deriving from Western 'folk' theories of reality and communication, Briggs shows that the development of more sophisticated interviewing methodologies requires further research into interviewing itself. Briggs's conclusions provide a basis for the reexamination of current uses of interviews in a wide range of contexts - from social science research to job applications, welfare and health care delivery, criminal and legal investigations, journalism and broadcasting, and other areas of everyday life. His book will appeal to linguists, sociologists, anthropologists, historians, psychologists, as well as other readers whose research or professional activities depend on the use of interviews.
In the past fi fteen years there has been a growi ng interest in the development of children's awareness of language as an object in itself -- a phenomenon now generally referred to as metal inguistic awareness. Until the publication of an earlier volume in the Springer Series in Language and Communication, The Chitd's Conoeption oi Language, edited by A. Sinclair, R. J. Jarvella, and W. J. M. Levelt, there had been no systematic treatment of metalinguistic awareness. The major goal of that volume was to map out the field of study by describing the phenomenon of interest and defining major theoretical issues. The aim of the present volume is to present an overview of metalinguistic awareness in children which reflects the current state of research and theory. The volume is divided into three major sections. The first considers various conceptual and methodological issues that have arisen from efforts to study metalinguistic awareness. It addresses such questions as what is metalinguistic awareness, when does it begin to emerge, and what tasks and procedures can be employed to assess its development in young children. The second sect ion cri ti ca 11y revi ews the research that has been conducted i nto the four general types of metalinguistic awareness -- phonologieal, word, syntactic, and pragmatic awareness. In the final section the development of metalinguistic awareness is examined in relation to general cognitive development, reading acquisition, bilingualism, and early childhood education.
Concept Mapping in Mathematics: Research into Practice is the first comprehensive book on concept mapping in mathematics. It provides the reader with an understanding of how the meta-cognitive tool, namely, hierarchical concept maps, and the process of concept mapping can be used innovatively and strategically to improve planning, teaching, learning, and assessment at different educational levels. This collection of research articles examines the usefulness of concept maps in the educational setting, with applications and examples ranging from primary grade classrooms through secondary mathematics to pre-service teacher education, undergraduate mathematics and post-graduate mathematics education. A second meta-cognitive tool, called vee diagrams, is also critically examined by two authors, particularly its value in improving mathematical problem solving. Thematically, the book flows from a historical development overview of concept mapping in the sciences to applications of concept mapping in mathematics by teachers and pre-service teachers as a means of analyzing mathematics topics, planning for instruction and designing assessment tasks including applications by school and university students as learning and review tools. This book provides case studies and resources that have been field tested with school and university students alike. The findings presented have implications for enriching mathematics learning and making problem solving more accessible and meaningful for students. The theoretical underpinnings of concept mapping and of the studies in the book include Ausubel’s cognitive theory of meaningful learning, constructivist and Vygotskian psychology to name a few. There is evidence particularly from international studies such as PISA and TIMSS and mathematics education research, which suggest that students’ mathematical literacy and problem solving skills can be enhanced through students collaborating and interacting as they work, discuss and communicate mathematically. This book proposes the meta-cognitive strategy of concept mapping as one viable means of promoting, communicating and explicating students’ mathematical thinking and reasoning publicly in a social setting (e.g., mathematics classrooms) as they engage in mathematical dialogues and discussions. Concept Mapping in Mathematics: Research into Practice is of interest to researchers, graduate students, teacher educators and professionals in mathematics education.
This volume explores the question of how children themselves experience and manage migration and by what means they construct their own identity. It considers experiences from both their places of origin and their host societies. What role does the cultural background of the society of origin and the strategies of integration found in the host society play in the creation of identity and of a concept of home, origin, and belonging? How do children express processes of cultural orientation and integration (music, media, fashion, style) and what role do peer groups and social milieus play? How do migrant children experience xenophobia and a lack of acceptance on the side of the host society and how do they counterbalance such experiences? The approach of this work is both comparative and interdisciplinary. Contributors have different theoretical and methodological backgrounds, and the contributions address different social and cultural settings both with regard to place of origin and host society. Jacqueline Kn÷rr, is an anthropologist and head of the Research Group, Integration and Conflict as Dimensions of Cultural Tradition, Social Dynamics and Historical Experience in the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle/Saale, Germany. Her main areas of research are West Africa and Indonesia.
Following the defeat of the Greek Army in 1922 by nationalist Turkish forces, the 1923 Lausanne Convention specified the first internationally ratified compulsory population exchange. It proved to be a watershed in the eastern Mediterranean, having far-reaching ramifications both for the new Turkish Republic, and for Greece which hadto absorb over a million refugees. Known as the Asia Minor Catastrophe by the Greeks, it marked the establishment of the independent nation state for the Turks. The consequences of this event have received surprisingly little attention despite the considerable relevance for the contemporary situation in the Balkans. This volume addresses the challenge of writing history from both sides of the Aegean and provides, for the first time, a forum for multidisciplinary dialogue across national boundaries.
Based on interviews with key actors in the policy-making process, this book maps the changes in education policy and policy making in the Thatcherite decade. The focus of the book is the 1988 Education Reform Act, its origins, purposes and effects, and it looks behind the scenes at the priorities of the politicians, civil servants and government advisers who were influential in making changes. Using direct quotations from senior civil servants and former secretaries of state it provides a fascinating insight into the way in which policy is made. The book focuses on real-life political conflicts, examining the way in which education policy was related to the ideal of society projected by Thatcherism. It looks in detail at the New Right government advisers and think tanks; the industrial lobby, addressing issues such as the National Curriculum, national testing and City Technical Colleges. The author sets these important issues within a clear theoretical framework which illuminates the whole process of policy making.
The question of why countries give aid and assistance to other countries has long been a topic of debate- is it altruism, or selfishness? The assumption is sometimes made that donors from developing countries might be more motivated by altruism than ‘traditional’ western donors. This book demonstrates that on the contrary, the provision of development assistance can be used to serve national interests, allowing so-called ‘emerging’ donors to gain soft power in the international sphere by improving their image and global influence. Technical cooperation, or the transfer of knowledge, is an area of particular interest, as it can enable donors to position themselves as a global leader in a given field, with a unique set of skills and expertise in a knowledge area. This book uses the Brazilian case to demonstrate how a country such as Brazil can seek power and influence by providing no-strings-attached technical assistance. The empirical analysis unpicks the motivations behind development assistance, and how it can be used as a foreign policy tool. In doing so, the book sheds light upon the similarities and variations in the provision of technical cooperation as a foreign policy tool by China, India, and Brazil. This book will be of interest to researchers of International Development, South-South Cooperation, International Relations, and those working on Brazil specifically.
This practical handbook is designed to help language teachers, teacher trainers, and students learn more about their options for using computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and develop an understanding of the theory and research supporting these options. The chapters in New Perspectives on CALL for Second Language Classrooms synthesize previous CALL theory and research and describe practical applications to both second and foreign language classrooms, including procedures for evaluating these applications. The implementation of CALL at the institutional level is also addressed, with attention to designing multimedia language laboratories and creating collaborative CALL-based projects between educational institutions. Although many chapters locate their descriptions of CALL activities and projects within the ESL/EFL setting, the principles and activities described are equally useful for other language settings. The book does not require prior knowledge of CALL, computers, or software. To assist readers, a glossary of CALL terms and an appendix of CALL Web sites are provided. The book also has its own accompanying Web site (http://www.erlbaum.com/callforL2classrooms) presenting chapter abstracts, author contact information, and regularly updated links to pedagogical, research, and teacher development sites. By integrating theoretical issues, research findings, and practical guidelines on different aspects of CALL, this book offers teachers multiple levels of resources for their own professional development, for needs-based creation of specific CALL activities, for curriculum design, and for implementation of institutional and inter-institutional CALL projects.
Policy analysis has always attended to the role of elite actors, but much less often has the policy activity of ‘street level’ actors been attended to. The ‘implementation’ paradigm has tended to caricature the level of practice in terms of ‘resistors’ or policy failure, and ignored the demanding, creative and complex processes of enacting policy. The move from policy texts to policy in action involves sophisticated processes of interpretation and translation, as well as, at times, opposition, subversion and strategic compliance. The chapters in this book, in different ways, seek to get inside the policy process to understand what policy actors really do – how they manage impossible and multiple policy expectations, how they attempt to do policy with limited resources in conditions often unimagined by those who write policy, and how they translate abstract policy formulations into things that are doable, immediate and relevant. The collection re-writes the policy process and offers new ways of researching policy and policy outcomes. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Education Policy.
Hybrid Hong Kong attempts to attract and excite the intellectual, cultural, economic and political elites as well as the intelligent laymen of Hong Kong - hopefully enough for them to take a closer look at their society - while engendering a public discourse on the city's identity, its past, present and future. Hong Kong is at its crossroads. With a colonial past and having been handed over, and back, to China in 1997, the city has since been going through a process of re-sinification and re-integration (not entirely wanted) into the Pearl River Delta region of mainland China, all of which have far-reaching consequences for identity politics, culture, loyalty and attachment, and everyday livelihood. The hybridity concept offers an in-between space, and time, to narrate, describe and make sense of the many layers of entanglement of cultural, anthropological, economic and political forces that impinge, impact, sometimes confuse, even disturb, the everyday lives of the Hongkongers who have decided to call the city home. The book probes a range of sites and locales of a Hongkonger's natural habitat, including film and television, ethnicity, popular music videos, gay identities, fashion, art, theatre, Cantopop electronic dance music, museum, visual arts, the Muslim youth, food and cuisine, and Chinese and western medicines. Based on ethnography, fieldwork and participant observation, Hybrid Hong Kong intends to display and explain hybridity as it is performed in the public as well as private spheres of city life. This book was originally published as a special issue of Visual Anthropology.
Cross-Cultural Roots of Minority Child Development was the first volume to analyze minority child development by comparing minority children to children in their ancestral countries, rather than to children in the host culture. It was a ground-breaking volume that not only offered an historical reconstruction of the cross-cultural roots of minority child development, but a new cultural-historical approach to developmental psychology as well. It was also one of the best attempts to develop guidelines for building models of development that are multicultural in perspective, thus challenging scholars across the behavioral sciences to give more credence to the impact of culture on development and socialization in their respective fields of work. A true classic, Cross-Cultural Roots of Minority Child Development will remain an essential resource for any scholar who is interested in minority child development and engages in cross-cultural research and multidisciplinary methodologies.
A selection of the year's outstanding contributions to the understanding and treatment of the normal and disturbed child.
The Education Reform Act introduced in England and Wales in 1988 brought about enormous changes in schools, both as management units and as educational institutions. This book, first published in 1992, was the first to look at the effects of the Act in all its aspects on the basis of empirical evidence gathered from schools over the first three years of the Act's implementation. It looks at how change is being achieved in the Local Management of Schools, the influence of the market on schools, the introduction of the National Curriculum and the place of Special Needs provision in the new education scene. This book will be of interest to all who want to know about educational reform in Britain. It will also be of interest to those in the fields of education policy, educational management and sociology of education.
After a research project has been designed and the data have been gathered, what is the best way to transform the myriad varieties of data into something useful? Authors Amanda Coffey and Paul Atkinson underscore the diversity of approaches at the disposal of the qualitative researcher by using a single data set--doctoral students and faculty members in social anthropology--that they analyze using a number of techniques. User-friendly and accessible, Making Sense of Qualitative Data is not intended as a comprehensive cookbook of methods. It describes and illustrates a number of key, complementary approaches to qualitative data and offers practical advice on the many ways to analyze data, which the reader is encouraged to explore and enjoy. Practical and straightforward, with special attention paid to the possibilities in computer-aided analysis, Making Sense of Qualitative Data is an invaluable resource to students and professionals in qualitative and research methods, sociology, anthropology, communication, management, and education.
This book subjects the ongoing reforms in UK education to a rigorous critical interrogation. It takes as its main concerns the introduction of market forces, managerialism and the National Curriculum into the organization of schools and the work of teachers and argues that these reforms are combining to fundamentally reconstruct the work of teaching, to generate and ramify multiple inequalities and to destroy civic virtue in education.
In Generating Texts, Sharon Cadman Seelig tests traditional notions of genre by analyzing parallels between works that confound existing categories. Seelig pairs three seventeenth-century prose works with three other works, each of a later century. Proceeding from her authors' similarities in method and common sets of assumptions (such as concern with process and discovery, time and eternity, or the nature of the self), she uncovers parallels showing that genre is not simply a set of formal features but rather a particular way of seeing the world that grows out of authorial attitude, impulse, and occasion.
This collection, comprised of chapters focused on the intellectual histories and present circumstances of curriculum studies in Brazil, is Pinar's summary of exchanges (occurring over a two-year period) between the authors and members of an International Panel (scholars working in Finland, South Africa, the United States).
The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both naturalistic and formal-educational settings, which illustrate aspects of L2 production and perception. In Phonological Analysis a more abstract and comparative perspective is taken, in order to use recent theories modeling the route of L1/L2 pronunciation and reading ability development to account for observable tendencies in learner behavior. Pedagogical Perspectives consists of four contributions of high practical value, which look at the mastery of native-like or highly intelligible pronunciation as an important component of L2 education.