This is a new revised version of Dr. Laslett's standard edition of Two Treatises. First published in 1960, and based on an analysis of the whole body of Locke's publications, writings, and papers. The Introduction and text have been revised to incorporate references to recent scholarship since the second edition and the bibliography has been updated.
This is the revised version of Peter Laslett's acclaimed edition of Two Treatises of Government, which is widely recognised as one of the classic pieces of recent scholarship in the history of ideas, read and used by students of political theory throughout the world. This 1988 edition revises Dr Laslett's second edition (1970) and includes an updated bibliography, a guide to further reading and a fully reset and revised introduction which surveys advances in Locke scholarship since publication of the second edition. In the introduction, Dr Laslett shows that the Two Treatises were not a rationalisation of the events of 1688 but rather a call for a revolution yet to come.
Das vorliegende Buch gibt eine legitimationstheoretische Antwort auf die Fragen, ob die auswärtige Gewalt exekutivischer Natur ist und welchen Beitrag das Europäische Parlament zur europäischen Außenpolitik zu leisten vermag und zieht sie zur Entfaltung einer legitimen europäischen Außenpolitik heran. Die Monographie zeichnet ein Gesamtbild der auswärtigen Gewalt des Europäischen Parlaments im Vergleich zur auswärtigen Gewalt des Deutschen Bundestages und derjenigen des US-amerikanischen Kongresses. Das Locke ́sche Dogma der außenpolitischen Prärogative der Exekutive dominiert nicht nur im nationalen Rahmen, insbesondere in der Rechtsprechung des BVerfG, vielmehr ist es auch symmetrisch auf Unionsebene wirksam. Dieses Dogma analysiert die Arbeit im Geflecht Lockes Legitimitätstheorie und Gewaltenteilungslehre. Daneben steht eine Untersuchung des diesem Dogma zugrundeliegenden Gesetzesbegriffes, die für die auswärtige Gewalt der Union nutzbar gemacht wird. Das Werk arbeitet die legitimationsstiftende Leistung des Europäischen Parlaments zu außenpolitischen Handlungen der EU heraus und sichert die abstrakt gewonnenen Erkenntnisse empirisch durch ausgewählte Fallstudien ab.
John Locke's account of natural law, which forms the very basis of his political philosophy, has troubled many critics over time. The two works that shed light on Locke's theory are the early Essays on the Law of Nature and the Second Treatise of Government, published over 20 years later. Many critics have assumed that the early work presents a voluntarist approach to natural law and the second a rationalist approach, but the present analysis in this book shows that Locke's theory is consistent. Both works present a concept of the law of nature that must be placed between voluntarism and rationalism. (Series: Polyptoton. Munster Collection, Academic Writings / Polyptoton. Munsteraner Sammlung Akademischer Schriften - Vol. 3)
Thomas Paine, einer der Grundervater der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika, hat eine Vielzahl von politischen Schriften verfasst. Sein Lebensmotto war: Die Welt ist mein Land und Gutes zu tun meine Religion.." Nach diesem Motto lebte er und verfasste seine Werke. Seine Schriften hatten grossen Einfluss auf das Denken seiner Zeitgenossen. Abraham Lincoln und Thomas Edison bekannten sich zu ihm. Paine verstand es, komplizierte Sachverhalte verstandlich darzustellen. Der hier vorliegende zweite Band seiner politischen Werke enthalt eine Vielzahl politischer Schreiben, Briefe und Aufsatze. Dieses Buch ist ein unveranderter Nachdruck der deutschsprachigen Originalausgabe von 1852
This study in the history of ideas consults a wide range of sources both known and less familiar to trace the development in the 18th century of an anthropological historiography, which aims to ascertain the unity of human nature and human cultural history. The study unfolds a picture of European enlightenment thinking that reflects seemingly irrational phenomena of imagination together with the cultural practices and mythologies of ‘uncivilized’ peoples and thus formulates fundamental questions for modern anthropology and the philosophy of history.
The concept of the just war poses one of the most important ethical questions to date. Can war ever be justified and, if so, how? When is a cause of war proportional to its costs and who must be held responsible? The monograph Just and Unjust Wars in Shakespeare demonstrates that the necessary moral evaluation of these questions is not restricted to the philosophical moral and political discourse. This analysis of Shakespeare's plays, which focuses on the histories, tragedies and Roman plays in chronological order, brings to light that the drama includes an elaborate and complex debate of the ethical issues of warfare. The plays that feature in this analysis range from Henry VI to Coriolanus and they are analysed according to the three Aquinian principles of legitimate authority, just cause and right intention. Also extending the principles of analysis to more modern notions of responsibility, proportionality and the jus in bello-presupposition, this monograph shows that just war theory constitutes a dominant theoretical approach to war in the Shakespearean canon.
This is a guide to the vast amount of literature on the history of political thought which has appeared in English since 1945. The editors provide an annotation of the content of many entries and, where appropriate, indicate their significance, controversial nature and readability.
An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Context brings together Professor Tully's most important and innovative statements on Locke in a systematic treatment of the latter's thought that is at once contextual and critical. Each essay has been rewritten and expanded for this volume, and each seeks to understand a theme of Locke's political philosophy by interpreting it in light of the complex contexts of early modern European political thought and practice. These historical studies are then used in a variety of ways to gain critical perspectives on the assumptions underlying current debates in political philosophy and the history of political thought. The themes treated include government, toleration, discipline, property, aboriginal rights, individualism, power, labour, self-ownership, community, progress, liberty, participation, and revolution.
This collection considers one of the most important figures of the modern canon of political philosophy, John Locke. A physician by training and profession, Locke not only wrote one of the most important and well-known treatises of the modern canon, but also made important contributions in the areas of seventeenth-century law and public policy, epistemology, philosophy of language, religion, and economics. There has been a long-standing debate in feminist scholarship on Locke as to whether this early founder of modern liberal thought was a strong feminist or whether he ushered in a new, and uniquely modern, form of sexism. The essays grapple with this controversy but also move beyond it to the meaning of gender, the status of femininity and masculinity, and how these affect Locke's construction of the state and law. The volume opens with three of the early "classic" feminist essays on Locke and follows them with reflective essays by their original authors that engage Locke with issues of globalization and international justice. Other essays examine Locke's midwifery notes, his treatise on education, his writings on Christianity, his contributions to poor-law policy, his economic writings, and his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In addition to essays by leading feminist theorists, the volume also includes essays by some leading Locke scholars for whom gender is not normally a primary focus, so that the volume should speak to a wide range of scholarly interests and concerns. Besides the editors, the contributors are Teresa Brennan, Melissa Butler, Terrell Carver, Carole Pateman, Carol Pech, Gordon Schochet, Mary Lyndon Shanley, Jeremy Waldron, Joanne Wright, and Linda Zerilli.
Die 24 Beiträge präsentieren zentrale Forschungsergebnisse des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms "Ideen als gesellschaftliche Gestaltungskraft im Europa der Neuzeit." Sie geben Einblick in die neuesten Tendenzen ideengeschichtlicher Forschung, gruppiert um fünf Themenschwerpunkte: Politikdiskurse der frühen Neuzeit, Theorieeffekte in Recht, Politik und Gesellschaft, die Ideengeschichte des europäischen Nationalismus, Verschränkungen moralischer und rechtlicher Normsetzung sowie die gesellschaftliche Rolle wissenschaftlicher Ideen, Diskurse und Praktiken im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert.
This study provides a comprehensive reinterpretation of the meaning of Locke's political thought. John Dunn restores Locke's ideas to their exact context, and so stresses the historical question of what Locke in the Two Treatises of Government was intending to claim. By adopting this approach, he reveals the predominantly theological character of all Locke's thinking about politics and provides a convincing analysis of the development of Locke's thought. In a polemical concluding section, John Dunn argues that liberal and Marxist interpretations of Locke's politics have failed to grasp his meaning. Locke emerges as not merely a contributor to the development of English constitutional thought, or as a reflector of socio-economic change in seventeenth-century England, but as essentially a Calvinist natural theologian.
Coinage and currency—abstract and socially created units of value and power—were basic to early modern society. By controlling money, the people sought to understand and control their complex, expanding, and interdependent world. In Making Money in Sixteenth-Century France, Jotham Parsons investigates the creation and circulation of currency in France. The royal Cour des Monnaies centralized monetary administration, expanding its role in the emerging modern state during the sixteenth century and assuming new powers as an often controversial repository of theoretical and administrative expertise. The Cour des Monnaies, Parsons shows, played an important role in developing the contemporary understanding of money, as a source of both danger and opportunity at the center of economic and political life. More practically, the Monnaies led generally successful responses to the endemic inflation of the era and the monetary chaos of a period of civil war. Its work investigating and prosecuting counterfeiters shone light into a picaresque world of those who used the abstract and artificial nature of money for their own ends. Parson's broad, multidimensional portrait of money in early modern France also encompasses the literature of the age, in which money’s arbitrary and dangerous power was a major theme.
'Man being born...to perfect freedom...hath by nature a power...to preserve his property, that is, his life, liberty and estate.' Locke's Second Treatise of Government (1689) is one of the great classics of political philosophy, widely regarded as the foundational text of modern liberalism. In it Locke insists on majority rule, and regards no government as legitimate unless it has the consent of the people. He sets aside people's ethnicities, religions, and cultures and envisages political societies which command our assent because they meet our elemental needs simply as humans. His work helped to entrench ideas of a social contract, human rights, and protection of property as the guiding principles for just actions and just societies. Published in the same year, A Letter Concerning Toleration aimed to end Christianity's wars of religion and called for the separation of church and state so that everyone could enjoy freedom of conscience. In this edition of these two major works, Mark Goldie considers the contested nature of Locke's reputation, which is often appropriated by opposing political and religious ideologies. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.
This volume guides the reader through a detailed examination of the text to an understanding of Locke’s political ideas in relation to his writings on philosophy, education, religion and economics and the influence these ideas had upon eighteenth-century political theorists. The author shows how Locke carefully constructed his political perspective as a defence of the principles of natural rights, constitutional government and popular resistance. He offers an original interpretation of the Two Treatises..., emphasizing the specific ways in which Locke’s political purposes in writing the work influence his discussion of such concepts as the state of nature, property, consent and tyranny. The author discusses the historical and biographical context of the work and demonstrates how eighteenth century political thinkers developed or rejected aspects of Locke’s political theory and summarizes important recent studies of Locke’s work.
Examines how knowledge is socially constructed within particular discourse communities.