This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in first-order logic; SLD-resolution, logic programming, and the foundations of PROLOG; and many-sorted first-order logic. Numerous problems appear throughout the book, and two Appendixes provide practical background information.
This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in first-order logic; SLD-resolution, logic programming, and the foundations of PROLOG; and many-sorted first-order logic. Numerous problems appear throughout the book, and two Appendixes provide practical background information.
There are many kinds of books on formal logic. Some have philosophers as their intended audience, some mathematicians, some computer scientists. Although there is a common core to all such books they will be very dif ferent in emphasis, methods, and even appearance. This book is intended for computer scientists. But even this is not precise. Within computer sci ence formal logic turns up in a number of areas, from program verification to logic programming to artificial intelligence. This book is intended for computer scientists interested in automated theorem proving in classical logic. To be more precise yet, it is essentially a theoretical treatment, not a how-to book, although how-to issues are not neglected. This does not mean, of course, that the book will be of no interest to philosophers or mathematicians. It does contain a thorough presentation of formal logic and many proof techniques, and as such it contains all the material one would expect to find in a course in formal logic covering completeness but not incompleteness issues. The first item to be addressed is, what are we talking about and why are we interested in it. We are primarily talking about truth as used in mathematical discourse, and our interest in it is, or should be, self-evident. Truth is a semantic concept, so we begin with models and their properties. These are used to define our subject.
This text and software package introduces readers to automated theorem proving, while providing two approaches implemented as easy-to-use programs. These are semantic-tree theorem proving and resolution-refutation theorem proving. The early chapters introduce first-order predicate calculus, well-formed formulae, and their transformation to clauses. Then the author goes on to show how the two methods work and provides numerous examples for readers to try their hand at theorem-proving experiments. Each chapter comes with exercises designed to familiarise the readers with the ideas and with the software, and answers to many of the problems.
This book introduces the notions and methods of formal logic from a computer science standpoint, covering propositional logic, predicate logic, and foundations of logic programming. The classic text is replete with illustrative examples and exercises. It presents applications and themes of computer science research such as resolution, automated deduction, and logic programming in a rigorous but readable way. The style and scope of the work, rounded out by the inclusion of exercises, make this an excellent textbook for an advanced undergraduate course in logic for computer scientists.
Recent years have seen the development of powerful tools for verifying hardware and software systems, as companies worldwide realise the need for improved means of validating their products. There is increasing demand for training in basic methods in formal reasoning so that students can gain proficiency in logic-based verification methods. The second edition of this successful textbook addresses both those requirements, by continuing to provide a clear introduction to formal reasoning which is both relevant to the needs of modern computer science and rigorous enough for practical application. Improvements to the first edition have been made throughout, with extra and expanded sections on SAT solvers, existential/universal second-order logic, micro-models, programming by contract and total correctness. The coverage of model-checking has been substantially updated. Further exercises have been added. Internet support for the book includes worked solutions for all exercises for teachers, and model solutions to some exercises for students.
Introduction to proof theory and its applications in mathematical logic, theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.
Mathematical Logic for Computer Science is a mathematics textbook with theorems and proofs, but the choice of topics has been guided by the needs of students of computer science. The method of semantic tableaux provides an elegant way to teach logic that is both theoretically sound and easy to understand. The uniform use of tableaux-based techniques facilitates learning advanced logical systems based on what the student has learned from elementary systems. The logical systems presented are: propositional logic, first-order logic, resolution and its application to logic programming, Hoare logic for the verification of sequential programs, and linear temporal logic for the verification of concurrent programs. The third edition has been entirely rewritten and includes new chapters on central topics of modern computer science: SAT solvers and model checking.
This book introduces an important group of logics that have come to be known under the umbrella term 'susbstructural'. Substructural logics have independently led to significant developments in philosophy, computing and linguistics. An Introduction to Substrucural Logics is the first book to systematically survey the new results and the significant impact that this class of logics has had on a wide range of fields.The following topics are covered: * Proof Theory * Propositional Structures * Frames * Decidability * Coda Both students and professors of philosophy, computing, linguistics, and mathematics will find this to be an important addition to their reading.
Demonstrating the different roles that logic plays in the disciplines of computer science, mathematics, and philosophy, this concise undergraduate textbook covers select topics from three different areas of logic: proof theory, computability theory, and nonclassical logic. The book balances accessibility, breadth, and rigor, and is designed so that its materials will fit into a single semester. Its distinctive presentation of traditional logic material will enhance readers' capabilities and mathematical maturity. The proof theory portion presents classical propositional logic and first-order logic using a computer-oriented (resolution) formal system. Linear resolution and its connection to the programming language Prolog are also treated. The computability component offers a machine model and mathematical model for computation, proves the equivalence of the two approaches, and includes famous decision problems unsolvable by an algorithm. The section on nonclassical logic discusses the shortcomings of classical logic in its treatment of implication and an alternate approach that improves upon it: Anderson and Belnap's relevance logic. Applications are included in each section. The material on a four-valued semantics for relevance logic is presented in textbook form for the first time. Aimed at upper-level undergraduates of moderate analytical background, Three Views of Logic will be useful in a variety of classroom settings. Gives an exceptionally broad view of logic Treats traditional logic in a modern format Presents relevance logic with applications Provides an ideal text for a variety of one-semester upper-level undergraduate courses
New corrected printing of a well-established text on logic at the introductory level.
The first introductory textbook on description logics, relevant to computer science, knowledge representation and the semantic web.
This text provides a practical, modern approach to teaching logic and set theory, equipping students with the necessary mathematical understanding and skills required for the mathematical specification of software. It covers all the areas of mathematics that are considered essential to computer science including logic, set theory, modern algebra (group theory), graph theory and combinatorics, whilst taking into account the diverse mathematical background of the students taking the course. In line with current undergraduate curricula this book uses logic extensively, together with set theory, in mathematical specification of software. Languages such as Z and VDM are used for this purpose. Features Particular emphasis is placed on the application of logic in the fields of software engineering, artificial intelligence and natural language processing 0201179571B04062001
The Little Prover introduces inductive proofs as a way to determine facts about computer programs. It is written in an approachable, engaging style of question-and-answer, with the characteristic humor of The Little Schemer (fourth edition, MIT Press). Sometimes the best way to learn something is to sit down and do it; the book takes readers through step-by-step examples showing how to write inductive proofs. The Little Prover assumes only knowledge of recursive programs and lists (as presented in the first three chapters of The Little Schemer) and uses only a few terms beyond what novice programmers already know. The book comes with a simple proof assistant to help readers work through the book and complete solutions to every example.
In writing this book, our goal was to produce a text suitable for a first course in mathematical logic more attuned than the traditional textbooks to the re cent dramatic growth in the applications oflogic to computer science. Thus, our choice oftopics has been heavily influenced by such applications. Of course, we cover the basic traditional topics: syntax, semantics, soundnes5, completeness and compactness as well as a few more advanced results such as the theorems of Skolem-Lowenheim and Herbrand. Much ofour book, however, deals with other less traditional topics. Resolution theorem proving plays a major role in our treatment of logic especially in its application to Logic Programming and PRO LOG. We deal extensively with the mathematical foundations ofall three ofthese subjects. In addition, we include two chapters on nonclassical logics - modal and intuitionistic - that are becoming increasingly important in computer sci ence. We develop the basic material on the syntax and semantics (via Kripke frames) for each of these logics. In both cases, our approach to formal proofs, soundness and completeness uses modifications of the same tableau method in troduced for classical logic. We indicate how it can easily be adapted to various other special types of modal logics. A number of more advanced topics (includ ing nonmonotonic logic) are also briefly introduced both in the nonclassical logic chapters and in the material on Logic Programming and PROLOG.
Rigorous introduction is simple enough in presentation and context for wide range of students. Symbolizing sentences; logical inference; truth and validity; truth tables; terms, predicates, universal quantifiers; universal specification and laws of identity; more.
Based on the ACM model curriculum guidelines, this text covers the fundamentals of computer science required for first year students embarking on a computing degree. Data representation of text, audio, images, and numbers; computer hardware and software, including operating systems and programming languages; data organization topics such as SQL database models - they're all [included]. Progressing from the bits and bytes level to the higher levels of abstraction, this birds-eye view provides the foundation to help you succeed as you continue your studies in programming and other areas in the computer field.-Back cover.
Concise text begins with overview of elementary mathematical concepts and outlines theory of Boolean algebras; defines operators for elimination, division, and expansion; covers syllogistic reasoning, solution of Boolean equations, functional deduction. 1990 edition.
Logic Programming is the name given to a distinctive style of programming, very different from that of conventional programming languages such as C++ and Java. By far the most widely used Logic Programming language is Prolog. Prolog is a good choice for developing complex applications, especially in the field of Artificial Intelligence. Logic Programming with Prolog does not assume that the reader is an experienced programmer or has a background in Mathematics, Logic or Artificial Intelligence. It starts from scratch and aims to arrive at the point where quite powerful programs can be written in the language. It is intended both as a textbook for an introductory course and as a self-study book. On completion readers will know enough to use Prolog in their own research or practical projects. Each chapter has self-assessment exercises so that readers may check their own progress. A glossary of the technical terms used completes the book. This second edition has been revised to be fully compatible with SWI-Prolog, a popular multi-platform public domain implementation of the language. Additional chapters have been added covering the use of Prolog to analyse English sentences and to illustrate how Prolog can be used to implement applications of an 'Artificial Intelligence' kind. Max Bramer is Emeritus Professor of Information Technology at the University of Portsmouth, England. He has taught Prolog to undergraduate computer science students and used Prolog in his own work for many years.