Covers the key environmental developments in the Mediterranean throughout recorded history and includes case studies charting the agricultural problems of ancient Mesopotamia, climatic change contributing to the downfall of the Roman Empire, and the impact of dam building at Aswan on the Nile.
The Barbary macaque (all too often mistakenly called an ape) was first brought to the attention of the Conservation Working Party of the Primate Society of Great Britain late 1979 when John Fa reported that 'surplus' animals were being sent from Gibraltar to dubious locations, such as an Italian safari park. Since there had been no scientific input into the Army's management of the monkey colony on Gibraltar, and there was concern about inbreeding, nutrition and health - about the long-term viability of the colony, it was felt that the Society could help. The Gibraltar Scientific Authority and the Army were very receptive to our offer and ideas, and this topic occupied successive chairmen over the last few years - Robin Dunbar and Richard Wrangham, myself and now Miranda Stevenson - with constant prompting and help from John Fa. Considerations soon extended to the status of the species as a whole, so that there have been three main aspects:- (1) the improved health of a larger self-sustaining population on Gibraltar, (2) the status and behavioural biology of natural populations in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria), and (3) the breeding achievements in European parks and zoos, and their potential for reintroduction to suitable areas in North Africa, along with other possibilities. Robin Dunbar organized the compilation of recommendations for managing the Gibraltar colony with regard to numbers, age-sex struc ture and behavioural relationships, with some observations on diet to avoid obesity and infertility.
Revised papers from a symposium entitled "The impact of ancient man on the landscape of the Eastern Mediterranean region and the Near East" held in Groningen, the Netherlands, March 1989.
In the past decade, there has been much debate over the environmental impact of forestry. People are justifiably concerned about what is happening to the local and global forest environments, but they are also confused by the polarized rhetoric that has characterized both sides of the debate. In Balancing Act, Hamish Kimmins calls for a balanced, more objective approach to forestry issues in order to bridge the gap between the most extreme opponents in the debate. He suggests that we need to begin with a common understanding of what forestry is about and how forest ecosystems work. He outlines the scientific and ecological aspects of the major environmental issues facing British Columbia and the world today, arguing that we need to disentangle the scientific from the value-based social aspects of these questions. He also contends that much of the current debate about forests and their management ignores the time dimension of ecosystems, and he calls for a more dynamic view of current environmental issues in forestry -- one that accounts for change. The first few chapters provide an outline of the basic principles of forestry and ecology, and subsequent chapters discuss the major environmental issues facing forestry in the 1990s. These include clearcutting, slashburning, management chemicals, old growth, biological diversity, 'new forestry, ' climate change, acid rain, the comparison between temperate and tropical forestry, and long-term decisions in forestry. Balancing Act is essential reading for those who are searching for an objective, accurate, and readable evaluation of the issues at the heart of the forestry/environment debate. By emphasizing that forests are not static but change over time, Kimmins adds an important, often ignored, dimension to the discussion. Only by understanding all the intricacies of the ecosystems can we learn to manage our forests in a sustainable fashion.
'The continued poverty of the majority of the planet's inhabitants and excessive consumption by the minority are the two major causes of environmental degradation The present course is unsustainable and postponing action is no longer an option. Inspired political leadership and intense cooperation across all regions and sectors will be needed to put both existing and new policy instruments to work. ' From the Synthesis Global Environment Outlook 2000 (GEO-2000) is a comprehensive and authoritative review and analysis of environmental conditions around the world. It is the flagship publication of the world's leading environmental organization, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and is based on information provided by more than 30 regional and international collaborating centres. The book presents a region-by-region analysis of the state of the world's environment, highlighting key global concerns and making recommendations for policy action. The regions covered include Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, West Asia and the Polar Areas. Chapter 1: Global Perspectives describes the main drivers of environmental change, such as the economy, population growth, political organization and regionalization, as well as potential impacts of recent global developments including the growth of the consumer culture, trade and international debt. Chapter 2: The State of the Environment provides a global and region-by-region overview of the environment at the end of the second millennium. The chapter covers global issues such as ozone, climate change, El Nifio and nitrogen loading, and universal issues of land and food, forests, biodiversity, freshwater, marine and coastal areas, atmosphere and urban areas. Chapter 3: Policy Responses reviews the broad range of policy instruments and responses being used to address environmental issues, including multilateral environmental agreements, and analyses the difficulties of compliance, implementation and assessment. Chapter 4: Future Perspectives looks at environmental issues that will require priority attention in the 21st century and some alternative policy options that could be used in the regions. Chapter 5: Outlook and Recommendations makes recommendations for future action based on the environmental legacy left by past and present policy and management systems. GEO-2000 will be the benchmark reference and guide to the state of the global environment. Written in clear, non-technical language and supported throughout by informative graphics and tables, it is essential reading for all those involved in environmental policy making, implementation and assessment, and for researchers and students of regional and global environmental issues. Originally published in 1999
This book presents the latest scientific and management information on multiaged silviculture, an emerging strategy for managing forestry systems worldwide. Over recent decades, forest science and management have tended to emphasize plantation silviculture. Whilst this clearly meets our wood production needs, many of the world's forests need to be managed far less intensively and more flexibly in order to maintain their natural ecosystem functions together with the values inherent in those processes. Developing multiaged management strategies for these complex forest ecosystems represents a global challenge to successfully integrate available science with sustainable management practices. Multiaged Silviculture covers the ecology and dynamics of multiaged stands, the management operations associated with regeneration, tending, and stocking control, and the implications of this strategy on production, genetic diversity, and stand health. It is primarily aimed at graduate level students and researchers in the fields of forestry and silviculture, but will also be of relevance and use to all professional foresters and silviculturists.
The State of the World's Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture is FAO's first flagship publication on the global status of land and water resources. It is an 'advocacy' report, to be published every three to five years, and targeted at senior level decision makers in agriculture as well as in other sectors. SOLAW is aimed at sensitizing its target audience on the status of land resources at global and regional levels and FAO's viewpoint on appropriate recommendations for policy formulation. SOLAW focuses on these key dimensions of analysis: (i) quantity, quality of land and water resources, (ii) the rate of use and sustainable management of these resources in the context of relevant socio-economic driving factors and concerns, including food security and poverty, and climate change. This is the first time that a global, baseline status report on land and water resources has been made. It is based on several global spatial databases (e.g. land suitability for agriculture, land use and management, land and water degradation and depletion) for which FAO is the world-recognized data source. Topical and emerging issues on land and water are dealt with in an integrated rather than sectoral manner. The implications of the status and trends are used to advocate remedial interventions which are tailored to major farming systems within different geographic regions.
“Anyone who doubts the power of history to inform the present should read this closely argued and sweeping survey. This is rich, timely, and sobering historical fare written in a measured, non-sensationalist style by a master of his craft. One only hopes (almost certainly vainly) that today’s policymakers take its lessons to heart.”—Brian Fagan, Los Angeles Times Published in 2002, Deforesting the Earth was a landmark study of the history and geography of deforestation. Now available as an abridgment, this edition retains the breadth of the original while rendering its arguments accessible to a general readership. Deforestation—the thinning, changing, and wholesale clearing of forests for fuel, shelter, and agriculture—is among the most important ways humans have transformed the environment. Surveying ten thousand years to trace human-induced deforestation’s effect on economies, societies, and landscapes around the world, Deforesting the Earth is the preeminent history of this process and its consequences. Beginning with the return of the forests after the ice age to Europe, North America, and the tropics, Michael Williams traces the impact of human-set fires for gathering and hunting, land clearing for agriculture, and other activities from the Paleolithic age through the classical world and the medieval period. He then focuses on forest clearing both within Europe and by European imperialists and industrialists abroad, from the 1500s to the early 1900s, in such places as the New World, India, and Latin America, and considers indigenous clearing in India, China, and Japan. Finally, he covers the current alarming escalation of deforestation, with our ever-increasing human population placing a potentially unsupportable burden on the world’s forests.
The complex and dynamic interlinks between natural resource management (NRM) and development have long been recognized by national and international research and development organizations and have generated voluminous literature. However, much of what is available in the form of university course books, practical learning manuals and reference materials in NRM is based on experiences from outside Africa. Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa: A Resource Book provides an understanding of the various levels at which NRM issues occur and are being addressed scientifically, economically, socially and politically. The book's nine chapters present state-of-the-art perspectives within a holistic African context. The book systematically navigates the tricky landscape of integrated NRM, with special reference to Eastern and Southern Africa, against the backdrop of prevailing local, national, regional and global social, economic and environmental challenges. The authors' wide experience, the rich references made to emerging challenges and opportunities, and the presentation of different tools, principles, approaches, case studies and processes make the book a rich and valuable one-stop resource for postgraduate students, researchers, policymakers and NRM practitioners. The book is designed to help the reader grasp in-depth NRM perspectives and presents innovative guidance for research design and problem solving, including review questions, learning activities and recommended further reading. The book was developed through a writeshop process by a multi-disciplinary team of lecturers from the University of Nairobi, Egerton University, Kenyatta University, the University of Zimbabwe, the University of Malawi, Makerere University and the University of Dar es Salam. In addition, selected NRM experts from regional and international research organizations including the World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), the Africa Forest Forum, RUFORUM, IIRR and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) participated in the writeshop and contributed material to the book.
The patterns of land use that have evolved in Europe reflect the boundaries set by the natural environment and socio-economic responses to the needs of the population. Over the centuries man has been able to overcome increasingly the constraints placed on land use by the natural environment through the development of new technologies and innovations, driven by an increasing population and rising material expectations. However, activities are still ultimately constrained by natural limitations such as climatic characteristics and associated edaphic and vegetational features. A major problem for land management, in its broadest sense, can be a reluctance to foresee the consequent ecological changes. This means that mitigating strategies will not be implemented in time to prevent environmental degradation and social hardship, although in many parts of Europe, over some centuries, demands have been met in a sustainable way, by sound, prudent and temperate expectations that have dictated management regimes. The management of land in Europe has always been a complex challenge: land is the primary, though finite resource. DeciSions regarding the use of land and manipulation of ecosystem dynamics today may affect the long-term primary productivity of the resource. Decisions to change land use may be virtually irreversible; urbanization is an illustration of the influence of population density on the land resource.
Forests and trees support sustainable agriculture. They stabilize soils and climate, regulate water flows, give shade and shelter, and provide a habitat for pollinators and the natural predators of agricultural pests. They also contribute to the food security of hundreds of millions of people, for whom they are important sources of food, energy and income. Yet, agriculture remains the major driver of deforestation globally, and agricultural, forestry and land policies are often at odds. State of the World’s Forests (SOFO) 2016 shows that it is possible to increase agricultural productivity and food security while halting or even reversing deforestation, highlighting the successful efforts of Costa Rica, Chile, the Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Tunisia and Viet Nam. Integrated land-use planning is the key to balancing land uses, underpinned by the right policy instruments to promote both sustainable forests and agriculture.