Provides readers with experience of working on difficult unsolved problems. No deep mathematical background is required.
This brief presents four practical methods to effectively explore causal relationships, which are often used for explanation, prediction and decision making in medicine, epidemiology, biology, economics, physics and social sciences. The first two methods apply conditional independence tests for causal discovery. The last two methods employ association rule mining for efficient causal hypothesis generation, and a partial association test and retrospective cohort study for validating the hypotheses. All four methods are innovative and effective in identifying potential causal relationships around a given target, and each has its own strength and weakness. For each method, a software tool is provided along with examples demonstrating its use. Practical Approaches to Causal Relationship Exploration is designed for researchers and practitioners working in the areas of artificial intelligence, machine learning, data mining, and biomedical research. The material also benefits advanced students interested in causal relationship discovery.
This text provides an overview of major critical theorists from across disciplines—including the humanities, social sciences, and education—that discusses the importance of these critical perspectives for the advancement of LIS research and scholarship. * A basic bibliography of the theorist's work follows each topic presentation; some chapters also include works of critical commentary on the theorist's writings * Indexes of key terms and concepts are provided throughout the chapters
With age-appropriate, inquiry-centered curriculum materials and sound teaching practices, middle school science can capture the interest and energy of adolescent students and expand their understanding of the world around them. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science, developed by the National Science Resources Center (NSRC), is a valuable tool for identifying and selecting effective science curriculum materials that will engage students in grades 6 through 8. The volume describes more than 400 curriculum titles that are aligned with the National Science Education Standards. This completely new guide follows on the success of Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science, the first in the NSRC series of annotated guides to hands-on, inquiry-centered curriculum materials and other resources for science teachers. The curriculum materials in the new guide are grouped in five chapters by scientific area--Physical Science, Life Science, Environmental Science, Earth and Space Science, and Multidisciplinary and Applied Science. They are also grouped by type--core materials, supplementary units, and science activity books. Each annotation of curriculum material includes a recommended grade level, a description of the activities involved and of what students can be expected to learn, a list of accompanying materials, a reading level, and ordering information. The curriculum materials included in this book were selected by panels of teachers and scientists using evaluation criteria developed for the guide. The criteria reflect and incorporate goals and principles of the National Science Education Standards. The annotations designate the specific content standards on which these curriculum pieces focus. In addition to the curriculum chapters, the guide contains six chapters of diverse resources that are directly relevant to middle school science. Among these is a chapter on educational software and multimedia programs, chapters on books about science and teaching, directories and guides to science trade books, and periodicals for teachers and students. Another section features institutional resources. One chapter lists about 600 science centers, museums, and zoos where teachers can take middle school students for interactive science experiences. Another chapter describes nearly 140 professional associations and U.S. government agencies that offer resources and assistance. Authoritative, extensive, and thoroughly indexed--and the only guide of its kind--Resources for Teaching Middle School Science will be the most used book on the shelf for science teachers, school administrators, teacher trainers, science curriculum specialists, advocates of hands-on science teaching, and concerned parents.
This book introduces the reader to the area of inverse problems. The study of inverse problems is of vital interest to many areas of science and technology such as geophysical exploration, system identification, nondestructive testing and ultrasonic tomography. The aim of this book is twofold: in the first part, the reader is exposed to the basic notions and difficulties encountered with ill-posed problems. Basic properties of regularization methods for linear ill-posed problems are studied by means of several simple analytical and numerical examples. The second part of the book presents two special nonlinear inverse problems in detail - the inverse spectral problem and the inverse scattering problem. The corresponding direct problems are studied with respect to existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on parameters. Then some theoretical results as well as numerical procedures for the inverse problems are discussed. The choice of material and its presentation in the book are new, thus making it particularly suitable for graduate students. Basic knowledge of real analysis is assumed. In this new edition, the Factorization Method is included as one of the prominent members in this monograph. Since the Factorization Method is particularly simple for the problem of EIT and this field has attracted a lot of attention during the past decade a chapter on EIT has been added in this monograph as Chapter 5 while the chapter on inverse scattering theory is now Chapter 6.The main changes of this second edition compared to the first edition concern only Chapters 5 and 6 and the Appendix A. Chapter 5 introduces the reader to the inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics, PPAM 2003, held in Czestochowa, Poland, in September 2003. The 149 papers presented were carefully selected and improved during two rounds of reviewing and revision. The papers are organized in topical sections on parallel and distributed architectures, scheduling and load balancing, performance analysis and prediction, parallel and distributed non-numerical algorithms, parallel and distributed programming, tools and environments, applications, evolutionary computing, soft computing data and knowledge management, numerical methods and their applications, multi-dimensional systems, grid computing, heterogeneous platforms, high performance numerical computation, large-scale scientific computation, and bioinformatics applications.
This book offers an up-to-date overview of the research on philosophy of mathematics education, one of the most important and relevant areas of theory. The contributions analyse, question, challenge, and critique the claims of mathematics education practice, policy, theory and research, offering ways forward for new and better solutions. The book poses basic questions, including: What are our aims of teaching and learning mathematics? What is mathematics anyway? How is mathematics related to society in the 21st century? How do students learn mathematics? What have we learnt about mathematics teaching? Applied philosophy can help to answer these and other fundamental questions, and only through an in-depth analysis can the practice of the teaching and learning of mathematics be improved. The book addresses important themes, such as critical mathematics education, the traditional role of mathematics in schools during the current unprecedented political, social, and environmental crises, and the way in which the teaching and learning of mathematics can better serve social justice and make the world a better place for the future.
Includes no. 53a: British wartime books for young people.
For a comprehensive guide to home-based education that does not promote any particular curriculum or religious view, this is one book parents should buy! Parents will appreciate practical advice on getting started, adjusting to new roles, designing schoolwork that is both child-centered and fun, and planning for social and emotional growth. Parents will turn to curriculum chapters again and again. Features interviews and tips from many home school parents as well as long lists of resources. 430 pages of tips and tools!
Erinnern wir uns nicht alle mit Schrecken an die ratlosen Momente vor der Tafel im Matheunterricht? Mit Kurvendiskussionen und Dreisatz dürften jedenfalls nur wenige Spaß und Spannung verbinden... Bis jetzt! Denn nun wagt sich Alex Bellos in den Kaninchenbau der Mathematik: in das Reich von Geometrie und Algebra, von Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung, Statistik und logischen Paradoxa. Auf der anderen Seite des Erdballs, am Amazonas, zählen die Mitglieder des Indianerstammes der Munduruku nur bis fünf und halten die Vorstellung, dass dies nicht genügen solle, für reichlich lächerlich. Bei uns in Deutschland dagegen finden jährlich die Meisterschaften der besten Kopfrechner der Welt statt - 2010 wurde in Magdeburg eine elfjährige Inderin zur Nummer eins unter den "Mathleten" gekürt. Die Mathe-Weltmeisterin unter den Tieren ist hingegen die Schimpansin Ai, die Alex Bellos im japanischen Inuyama aufspürt und über deren Rechenkünste er nur staunen kann. Auch wenn er von den bahnbrechenden Überlegungen Euklids erzählt oder erklärt, warum man in Japan seine Visitenkarten keinesfalls zu Dodekaedern falten sollte - Bellos führt uns durch das wahrhaft erstaunliche Reich der Zahlen und bringt uns eine komplexe Wissenschaft spielerisch nahe. Mit seiner Mischung aus spannender Reportage, Wissenschaftsgeschichte und mathematischen Kabinettstückchen erbringt er souverän den Beweis, dass die Gleichung Mathematik = Langeweile eindeutig nicht wahr ist. Quod erat demonstrandum.