More and more, the descendants of indigenous victims of genocide, land expropriation, forced labor, and other systematic human rights violations committed by colonial powers are seeking reparations under international law from the modern successor governments and corporations. As the number of colonial reparations cases increases, courts around the world are being asked to apply international law to determine whether reparations are due for atrocities and crimes that might have been committed long ago but whose lasting effects are alleged to injure the modern descendants of the victims. Sarkin analyzes the thorny issues of international law raised in such suits by focusing on groundbreaking cases in which he is involved as legal advisor to the paramount chief of the Herero people of Namibia. In 2001, the Herero became the first ethnic group to seek reparations under the legal definition of genocide by bringing multi-billion-dollar suits against Germany and German companies in a number of U.S. federal courts under the Alien Torts Claim Act of 1789. The Herero genocide, conducted in German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia) between 1904 and 1908, is recognized by the UN as the first organized state genocide in world history. Although the Herero were subjected to Germany's First Genocide, they have, unlike the victims of the Holocaust, received no reparations from Germany. By machine-gun massacres, starvation, poisoning, and forced labor in Germany's first concentration camps, the German Schutztruppe systematically exterminated as many as 105,000 Herero women, and children, composing most of the Herero population. Sarkin considers whether these historical events constitute legally defined genocide, crimes against humanity, and other international crimes. He evaluates the legal status of indigenous polities in Africa at the time and he explores the enduring impact in Namibia of the Germany's colonial campaign of genocide. He extrapolates the Herero case to global issues of reparations, apologies, and historical human rights violations, especially in Africa.
This book brings together a unique combination of experts in the area of conflict resolution and focuses on the role forgiveness can play in the process. It deals with the theology, public policy, psychological and social theory, and social policy implementation of forgiveness. The first section of the book explores how ideas like "forgiveness" and "reconciliation" are moving out from the seminary and academy into the world of public policy, and how these terms have been used and defined in the past. One of the contributors, Miroslav Volf, speaks to the Christian contribution of a more peaceful environment. The second section looks at forgiveness and public policy. One of the chapters, by Donald W. Shriver Jr., addresses forgiveness in a secular political forum.The third section of the book draws us to a more particular analysis of the relationship between forgiveness and reconciliation from voices in the academic and theological community. John Paul Lederach presents five qualities of practice in support of the reconciliation process. John Dawson gives hope for peace-making in a new century. The final section highlights the work of practitioners currently working with religion, public policy, and conflict transformation, particularly in areas such as Ireland and Africa. This book will be an essential for libraries, scholars, conflict negotiators, and all people who hope to understand the role of forgiveness in the peace process.Contributors include: Desmond M. Tutu, Rodney L. Petersen, Miroslav Volf, Stanley S. Harakas, Raymond G. Helmick, SJ, Joseph V. Montville, Douglas M. Johnston, Donna Hicks, Donald W. Shriver, Jr., Everett L. Worthington, Jr., John Paul Lederach, Ervin Staub, Laurie Anne Pearlman, John Dawson, Audrey R. Chapman, Olga Botcharova, Anthony da Silva, SJ, Geraldine Smythe, OP, Andrea Bartoli, Ofelia Ortega, and George F. R. Ellis.
This book focuses on the recurring struggle over the meaning of the Anglican Church’s role in the Indian residential schools--a long-running school system designed to assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture, in which sexual, psychological, and physical abuse were common. From the end of the nineteenth century until the outset of twenty-first century, the meaning of the Indian residential schools underwent a protracted transformation. Once a symbol of the Church’s sacred mission to Christianize and civilize Indigenous children, they are now associated with colonialism and suffering. In bringing this transformation to light, the book addresses why the Church was so quick to become involved in the Indian residential schools and why acknowledgment of their deleterious impact was so protracted. In doing so, the book adds to our understanding of the sociological process by which perpetrators come to recognize themselves as such.
The United States in the twenty-first century will be a nation of so-called minorities. Shifts in the composition of the American populace necessitate a radical change in the ways we as a nation think about race relations, identity, and racial justice. Once dominated by black-white relations, discussions of race are increasingly informed by an awareness of strife among nonwhite racial groups. While white influence remains important in nonwhite racial conflict, the time has come for acknowledgment of ways communities of color sometimes clash, and their struggles to heal the resulting wounds and forge strong alliances. Melding race history, legal theory, theology, social psychology, and anecdotes, Eric K. Yamamoto offers a fresh look at race and responsibility. He tells tales of explosive conflicts and halting conciliatory efforts between African Americans and Korean and Vietnamese immigrant shop owners in Los Angeles and New Orleans. He also paints a fascinating picture of South Africa's controversial Truth and Reconciliation Commission as well as a pathbreaking Asian American apology to Native Hawaiians for complicity in their oppression. An incisive and original work by a highly respected scholar, Interracial Justice greatly advances our understanding of conflict and healing through justice in multiracial America.
Slavery is America's family secret, a partially hidden phantom that continues to haunt our national imagination. Remembering Generations explores how three contemporary African American writers artistically represent this notion in novels about the enduring effects of slavery on the descendants of slaves in the post-civil rights era. Focusing on Gayl Jones's Corregidora (1975), David Bradley's The Chaneysville Incident (1981), and Octavia Butler's Kindred (1979), Ashraf Rushdy situates these works in their cultural moment of production, highlighting the ways in which they respond to contemporary debates about race and family. Tracing the evolution of this literary form, he considers such works as Edward Ball's Slaves in the Family (1998), in which descendants of slaveholders expose the family secrets of their ancestors. Remembering Generations examines how cultural works contribute to social debates, how a particular representational form emerges out of a specific historical epoch, and how some contemporary intellectuals meditate on the issue of historical responsibility--of recognizing that the slave past continues to exert an influence on contemporary American society.
At the century's end, societies all over the world are throwing off the yoke of authoritarian rule and beginning to build democracies. At any such time of radical change, the question arises: should a society punish its ancien regime or let bygones be bygones? Transitional Justice takes this question to a new level with an interdisciplinary approach that challenges the very terms of the contemporary debate. Ruti Teitel explores the recurring dilemma of how regimes should respond to evil rule, arguing against the prevailing view favoring punishment, yet contending that the law nevertheless plays a profound role in periods of radical change. Pursuing a comparative and historical approach, she presents a compelling analysis of constitutional, legislative, and administrative responses to injustice following political upheaval. She proposes a new normative conception of justice--one that is highly politicized--offering glimmerings of the rule of law that, in her view, have become symbols of liberal transition. Its challenge to the prevailing assumptions about transitional periods makes this timely and provocative book essential reading for policymakers and scholars of revolution and new democracies.
How can a just peace be built in sites of genocide, massive civil war, dictatorship, terrorism, and poverty? In Strategies of Peace, the first volume in the Studies in Strategic Peacebuilding series, fifteen leading scholars propose an imaginative and provocative approach to peacebuilding. Today the dominant thinking is the "liberal peace," which stresses cease fires, elections, and short run peace operations carried out by international institutions, western states, and local political elites. But the liberal peace is not enough, the authors argue. A just and sustainable peace requires a far more holistic vision that links together activities, actors, and institutions at all levels. By exploring innovative models for building lasting peace-a United Nations counter-terrorism policy that also promotes good governance; coordination of the international prosecution of war criminals with local efforts to settle civil wars; increasing the involvement of religious leaders, who have a unique ability to elicit peace settlements; and many others--the authors advance a bold new vision for peacebuilding.
This book provides a pragmatic analysis of presidential language. Pragmatics is concerned with "meaning in context," or the relationship between what we say and what we mean. John Wilson explores the various ways in which U.S. Presidents have used language within specific social contexts to achieve specific objectives. This includes obfuscation, misdirection, the use of metaphor or ambiguity, or in some cases simply lying. He focuses on six presidents: John F. Kennedy, Richard M. Nixon, Ronald W. Reagan, William F. Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack H. Obama. These presidents cover most of the last half of the twentieth century, and the first decade of the twenty first century, and each has been associated with a specific linguistic quality. John F. Kennedy was famed for his quality of oratory, Nixon for his manipulative use of language, Reagan for his gift of telling stories, Clinton for his ability to engage the public and to linguistically turn arguments and descriptions in particular directions. Bush, on the other hand, was famed for his inability to use language appropriately, and Obama returns us to the rhetorical flourishes of early Kennedy. In the case of each president, a range of specific examples are explored in order to highlight the ways in which a pragmatic analysis may provide an insight into presidential language. In many cases, what the president says is not necessarily what the president means.
This is a revised edition of Walker's well-known book in feminist ethics first published in 1997. Walker's book proposes a view of morality and an approach to ethical theory which uses the critical insights of feminism and race theory to rethink the epistemological and moral position of the ethical theorist, and how moral theory is inescapably shaped by culture and history. The main gist of her book is that morality is embodied in "practices of responsibility" that express our identities, values, and connections to others in socially patterned ways. Thus ethical theory needs to be empirically informed and politically critical to avoid reiterating forms of socially entrenched bias. Responsible ethical theory should reveal and question the moral significance of social differences. The book engages with, and challenges, the work of contemporary analytic philosophers in ethics. Moral Understandings has been influential in reaching a global audience in ethics and feminist philosophy, as well as in tangential fields like nursing ethics; research ethics; disability ethics; environmental ethics, and social and political theory. This revised edition contains a new preface, a substantive postscript to Chapter 1 about "the subject of moral philosophy"; the addition of a new chapter on the importance of emotion in practices of responsibility; and the addition of an afterword, which responds to critics of the book.
Exploring the connection between families and inequality, Failure to Flourish: How Law Undermines Family Relationships argues that the legal regulation of families stands fundamentally at odds with the needs of families. Strong, stable, positive relationships are essential for both individuals and society to flourish, but from transportation policy to the criminal justice system, and from divorce rules to the child welfare system, the legal system makes it harder for parents to provide children with these kinds of relationships, exacerbating the growing inequality in America. Failure to Flourish contends that we must re-orient the legal system to help families avoid crises and, when conflicts arise, intervene in a manner that heals relationships. To understand how wrong our family law system has gone and what we need to repair it, Failure to Flourish takes us from ancient Greece to cutting-edge psychological research, and from the chaotic corridors of local family courts to a quiet revolution under way in how services are provided to families in need. Incorporating the latest insights of positive psychology and social science research, the book sets forth a new, more emotionally intelligent vision for a legal system that not only resolves conflict but actively encourages the healthy relationships that are at the core of a stable society.
Das Thema "Erinnerung" prägt heute mehr denn je Politik und Gesellschaft. Die Debatten um das Berliner Holocaust-Mahnmal oder zur europäischen Identität beweisen es. Ziel des konkurrenzlosen Fachbuchs ist es, die interdisziplinäre und internationale Erinnerungs- und Gedächtnisforschung sowie hilfreiche Analysekategorien darzustellen. Fragen, wie z. B. welche Forschungstraditionen und Konzepte beherrschen die Diskussion, wie unterscheidet sich der Gedächtnisbegriff in den Einzeldisziplinen, auf welche Weise kann die gedächtnisbildende Wirkung der Literatur und der Medien beschrieben und analysiert werden, werden ausführlich beantwortet
Heo conceptualizes reconciliation in International Relations theory and fills a gap by building a theoretical framework for interstate reconciliation. Combining historical and political scientific approaches, she analyses case studies from Europe, the Middle East, and Northeast Asia.
"Comprehensive sociological research on the positive outcomes of altruism, inter-group apology, forgiveness, and reconciliation in ending group hatred after oppression, genocide and war"--Provided by publisher.
Have you ever ridden in a vehicle when the wheels were out of balance? The car will begin to vibrate at around 50 miles per hour, and this vibration will increase in intensity as you accelerate. Pretty soon, you will feel the vibration in the steering wheel, seats and floorboards, and instead of the tires spinning smoothly, they will literally "bounce" down the road. It's a bumpy and uncomfortable ride, and the life of the tires, ball bearings, shock absorbers and other components will be much shorter than if the tires had been kept in perfect balance. Your life can get in the same shape as unbalanced wheels. If you forge ahead without a plan, you may first notice things are a bit shaky. The more you do and the faster you go, the louder and more intense the shaking becomes. Soon, you feel the effects in your home, your family, your job and your relationship with others and with God. Your quality of life is diminished, and you begin "wearing out." In Balanced Living, you will learn how to regain the balance that God intended for each of us to have in all four areas of our lives: mental, physical, emotional and spiritual.
Apologia Politica defines and explores the nature of public apology, or what Nicholas Tavuchis calls "an apology from the many to the many." Focusing on collectivities and their agencies in the apology process, author Girma Negash examines public apology as ethical and public discourse, recommends criteria for the apology process, analyzes historical and contemporary cases, and formulates a guide to ethical conduct in public apologies.
Pope John Paul II was clearly one of the most influential persons of the 20th Century. He affected the world of politics, religion, and culture with a rhetorical zeal unmatched by few actors on the international stage. From the downfall of communism in Eastern Europe to his devotion to Mary to his championing of social justice and orthodox theology, this book examines his several moments of persuasive finesse as well as instances when his message could have been crafted more effectively. The essays in this collection examine his persuasive skills from several scholarly points of view. The book also offers analyses of media portrayals of this often-controversial figure. With contributions from some of the world's leading communication scholars, clergy, and social activists, this book is must reading for anyone interested in a deeper understanding of religious communication in general and John Paul II's rhetorical papacy in particular. Written by Catholics, Protestants, Mormons, agnostics, and atheists, the chapters approach the Pope with varying degrees of admiration, but always with intellectual respect.
This multi-disciplinary collection examines the recent wave of political apologies for acts of past injustice.