Meta-Analysis shows concisely, yet comprehensively, how to apply statistical methods to achieve a literature review of a common research domain. It demonstrates the use of combined tests and measures of effect size to synthesize quantitatively the results of independent studies for both group differences and correlations. Strengths and weaknesses of alternative approaches, as well as of meta-analysis in general, are presented.
Providing researchers with a practical and accessible advice, the Fourth Edition of the lauded Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis offers thoroughly updated information. Author Harris M. Cooper draws on more than 30 years of experience to show readers how to conduct a comprehensive synthesis of past research.
Der Klassiker zu den Forschungsmethoden – rundum erneuert, didaktisch verbessert und aktueller denn je! Dieses Buch ist ein fundierter und verlässlicher Begleiter für Studierende, Forschende und Berufstätige – da ist alles drin: Grundlagen: Wissenschaftstheorie, Qualitätskriterien sowie ethische Aspekte. Anwendung: Alle Phasen des Forschungsprozesses von der Festlegung des Forschungsthemas, des Untersuchungsdesigns und der Operationalisierung über Stichprobenziehung, Datenerhebungs- und Datenanalysemethoden bis zur Ergebnispräsentation. Vertiefung: Effektgrößen, Metaanalysen, Strukturgleichungsmodelle, Evaluationsforschung. Die 5. Auflage wurde grundlegend überarbeitet: Klarheit: Verbesserte Gliederung der Kapitel sowie des gesamten Buches. Aktualität: Beiträge zu Online-Methoden, Mixed-Methods-Designs und anderen neueren Entwicklungen. Lernfreundlichkeit: Viele Abbildungen, Tabellen, Definitionsboxen, Cartoons, Übungsaufgaben und Lernquiz mit Lösungen. Praxisbezug: Reale Studienbeispiele aus verschiedenen sozial- und humanwissenschaftlichen Fächern (z.B. Psychologie, Kommunikationswissenschaft, Erziehungswissenschaft, Medizin, Soziologie). Eine Begleit-Website bietet Lern-Tools für Studierende und Materialien für Lehrende.
Meta-analysis is a powerful statistical methodology for synthesizing research evidence across independent studies. This is the first comprehensive handbook of meta-analysis written specifically for ecologists and evolutionary biologists, and it provides an invaluable introduction for beginners as well as an up-to-date guide for experienced meta-analysts. The chapters, written by renowned experts, walk readers through every step of meta-analysis, from problem formulation to the presentation of the results. The handbook identifies both the advantages of using meta-analysis for research synthesis and the potential pitfalls and limitations of meta-analysis (including when it should not be used). Different approaches to carrying out a meta-analysis are described, and include moment and least-square, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, all illustrated using worked examples based on real biological datasets. This one-of-a-kind resource is uniquely tailored to the biological sciences, and will provide an invaluable text for practitioners from graduate students and senior scientists to policymakers in conservation and environmental management. Walks you through every step of carrying out a meta-analysis in ecology and evolutionary biology, from problem formulation to result presentation Brings together experts from a broad range of fields Shows how to avoid, minimize, or resolve pitfalls such as missing data, publication bias, varying data quality, nonindependence of observations, and phylogenetic dependencies among species Helps you choose the right software Draws on numerous examples based on real biological datasets
The past decade has been a period of enormous growth in the field of research synthesis. The second edition Handbook thoroughly revises original chapters to assure that the volume remains the most authoritative source of information for researchers undertaking meta-analysis today. In response to the increasing use of research synthesis in the formation of public policy, the second edition includes a new chapter on both the strengths and limitations of research synthesis in policy debates and decisions. Another new chapter looks at computing effect sizes and standard errors from clustered data, such as schools or clinics. Authors also discuss updated techniques for locating hard-to-find "fugitive" literature, ways of systematically assessing the quality of a study, and progress in statistical methods for detecting and estimating the effects of publication bias
Contracting out public sector services and divesting public enterprises are reforms that have enjoyed widespread global popularity in recent years. Better services, lower prices and greater accountability are the promises made by politicians, senior executives, and investment companies when functions are moved from the public sector to private enterprise. But in Privatization, Graeme A. Hodge challenges these assumptions. Through an examination of hundreds of international studies on the performance of privatization activities, Hodge demonstrates that privatizing public services is often not the guaranteed panacea portrayed by its political supporters. Importantly, privatization activities can lead to modest gains, but there are also winners and losers in this reform. It therefore deserves far more care and balanced debate than it usually attracts.
The book addresses the relationship between knowledge, complexity and innovation systems. It integrates research findings from a broad area including economics, business studies, management studies, geography, mathematics and science & technology contributions from a wide range group of international experts. In particular, it offers insights about knowledge creation and spillovers, innovation and learning systems, innovation diffusion processes and innovation policies. The contributions provide an excellent coverage of current conceptual and theoretical developments and valuable insights from both empirical and conceptual work. The reader gets an overview about the state of the art of the role of innovation systems and knowledge creation and diffusion in geographical space.
“The Handbook is a comprehensive treatment of literature synthesis and provides practical advice for anyone deep in the throes of, just teetering on the brink of, or attempting to decipher a meta-analysis. Given the expanding application and importance of literature synthesis, understanding both its strengths and weaknesses is essential for its practitioners and consumers. This volume is a good beginning for those who wish to gain that understanding.” —Chance “Meta-analysis, as the statistical analysis of a large collection of results from individual studies is called, has now achieved a status of respectability in medicine. This respectability, when combined with the slight hint of mystique that sometimes surrounds meta-analysis, ensures that results of studies that use it are treated with the respect they deserve....The Handbook of Research Synthesis is one of the most important publications in this subject both as a definitive reference book and a practical manual.”—British Medical Journal The Handbook of Research Synthesis is the definitive reference and how-to manual for behavioral and medical scientists applying the craft of research synthesis. It draws upon twenty years of ground-breaking advances that have transformed the practice of synthesizing research literature from an art into a scientific process in its own right. Editors Harris Cooper and Larry V. Hedges have brought together leading authorities to guide the reader through every stage of the research synthesis process—problem formulation, literature search and evaluation, statistical integration, and report preparation. The Handbook of Research Synthesis incorporates in a single volume state-of-the-art techniques from all quantitative synthesis traditions, including Bayesian inference and the meta-analytic approaches. Distilling a vast technical literature and many informal sources, the Handbook provides a portfolio of the most effective solutions to problems of quantitative data integration. The Handbook of Research Synthesis also provides a rich treatment of the non-statistical aspects of research synthesis. Topics include searching the literature, managing reference databases and registries, and developing coding schemes. Those engaged in research synthesis will also find useful advice on how tables, graphs, and narration can be deployed to provide the most meaningful communication of the results of research synthesis. The Handbook of Research Synthesis is an illuminating compilation of practical instruction, theory, and problem solving. It provides an accumulation of knowledge about the craft of reviewing a scientific literature that can be found in no other single source. The Handbook offers the reader thorough instruction in the skills necessary to conduct powerful research syntheses meeting the highest standards of objectivity, systematicity, and rigor demanded of scientific enquiry. This definitive work will represent the state of the art in research synthesis for years to come.
New drugs, new devices, improved surgical techniques, and innovative diagnostic procedures and equipment emerge rapidly. But development of these technologies has outpaced evaluation of their safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and ethical and social consequences. This volume, which is "strongly recommended" by The New England Journal of Medicine "to all those interested in the future of the practice of medicine," examines how new discoveries can be translated into better care, and how the current system's inefficiencies prevent effective health care delivery. In addition, the book offers detailed profiles of 20 organizations currently involved in medical technology assessment, and proposes ways to organize U.S. efforts and create a coordinated national system for evaluating new medical treatments and technology.
Research in learning and behavioral disabilities, employing a variety of methods and techniques, has provided information relevant to practitioners. This volume discusses, applies and evaluates different methodological approaches to learning and behavioral disorder research; and serves as a reference to educators, researchers, and others.
Franchising is a unique collection of articles that offers a handpicked selection of the main outstanding 'classic' texts in franchising knowledge. Researchers, students, professional advisors and anyone with a serious interest in the development of this extremely topical subject can now have, at their fingertips, the key articles and papers that have contributed to the philosophy of cloning business success. Many researchers in the field have only heard of the names, 'Brickley and Dark', 'Rubin', 'Hunt' or 'Oxenfeldt and Kelly', but may never have seen their seminal works through the difficulty in locating the material. Their original articles are reproduced in full here, complete with supporting analysis from the editors.
The Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods shows how to make intelligent and conscious decisions so that researchers can refine and hone their research questions as new knowledge is gained, unanticipated obstacles are encountered, or contextual shifts take place - all key elements in the iterative nature of applied research. With examples and illustrations from the authors' own experiences, this book gives readers a practical guide to conducting applied research.
The application and interpretation of statistics are central to ecological study and practice. Ecologists are now asking more sophisticated questions than in the past. These new questions, together with the continued growth of computing power and the availability of new software, have created a new generation of statistical techniques. These have resulted in major recent developments in both our understanding and practice of ecological statistics. This novel book synthesizes a number of these changes, addressing key approaches and issues that tend to be overlooked in other books such as missing/censored data, correlation structure of data, heterogeneous data, and complex causal relationships. These issues characterize a large proportion of ecological data, but most ecologists' training in traditional statistics simply does not provide them with adequate preparation to handle the associated challenges. Uniquely, Ecological Statistics highlights the underlying links among many statistical approaches that attempt to tackle these issues. In particular, it gives readers an introduction to approaches to inference, likelihoods, generalized linear (mixed) models, spatially or phylogenetically-structured data, and data synthesis, with a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding and subsequent application to data analysis. Written by a team of practicing ecologists, mathematical explanations have been kept to the minimum necessary. This user-friendly textbook will be suitable for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology who are interested in updating their statistical tool kits. A companion web site provides example data sets and commented code in the R language.
Research on education has come into the political spotlight as the demand grows for reliable and credible information for the guidance of policy and practice in the education reform environment. Many debates among the education research community feature questions concerning the nature of evidence and these questions have also appeared in broader policy and practice arenas. Inquiry has generally, over the past years, created bodies of scientific knowledge that have profound implications for education. Dramatic advances in understanding how people learn, how young children acquire early reading skills, and how to design and evaluate educational and psychological measurements is a good example of this. However, the highly contextualized nature of education and the wide range of disciplinary perspectives that rely on it have made the identification of reducible, generalizable principles difficult and slow to achieve. Due to this, the U.S. Department of Education's National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board (NERPPB) has asked the NRC to establish a study committee to consider the scientific underpinnings of research in education. The committee consists of members with expertise in statistics, psychology, sociology, anthropology, philosophy of science, history of education, economics, chemistry, biology, and education practice. The committee worked with the three questions in mind: What are the principles of scientific quality in education research?, How can research-based knowledge in education cumulate?, and How can a federal research agency promote and protect scientific quality in the education research it supports?. A workshop was held on March 7-8, 2001 that was organized into three main sessions: Supporting Scientific Quality at the Federal level, The Interface of Research and Practice in Education, and Evidence and Inference. Science, Evidence, and Inference in Education: Report of a Workshop summarizes this workshop through these three ideas. The report also includes what the committee plans to do next, the workshop agenda, and information on the workshop's participants and speakers.
This volume provides an essential roster of primary research methods as they apply to health communication inquiry. Editor Bryan B. Whaley brings together key health communication researchers to write about their primary methodological areas. Their chapters offer guidance and insights for a variety of approaches to answering research questions. The methods included here cover: Exploration and Description: interview/focus groups, case study, ethnography, and surveys; Examining Messages and Interpersonal Exchanges: narrative analysis, conversational analysis, analyzing physician-patient interactions, social network analysis, and content analysis; Causal Explication: experimental research, meta-analysis, and meta-synthesis; and Cultural, Population, and Critical Concerns: rhetorical methods and criticism, and methodological issues when investigating stigmatized populations, and groups with health disparities. Chapters cite or use examples from allied health areas -- nursing, public health, sociology, medicine -- to demonstrate the breadth of health communication studies. This work highlights the importance of methodology in health communication research in multiple contexts. Developed to provide a fundamental reference for investigating health communication, this volume will serve as an invaluable tool for researchers and students across the social science and health disciplines.
A comprehensive, easy-to-understand guide to the entire research process, this book quickly and efficiently equips advanced students and research assistants to conduct a full-scale investigation. The book is organized around the idea of a 'research script' that is, it follows the standard mode of research planning and design, data collection and analysis, and results writing. The volume contains 35 chapters, some co-authored by advanced graduate students who give their fellow students a touch of the 'real world' adding to the clarity and practicality of many chapters.