The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters can be used as reference materials or lecture notes for classes and tutorials (doctoral schools, master classes).
This monograph addresses the state of the art of reduced order methods for modeling and computational reduction of complex parametrized systems, governed by ordinary and/or partial differential equations, with a special emphasis on real time computing techniques and applications in computational mechanics, bioengineering and computer graphics. Several topics are covered, including: design, optimization, and control theory in real-time with applications in engineering; data assimilation, geometry registration, and parameter estimation with special attention to real-time computing in biomedical engineering and computational physics; real-time visualization of physics-based simulations in computer science; the treatment of high-dimensional problems in state space, physical space, or parameter space; the interactions between different model reduction and dimensionality reduction approaches; the development of general error estimation frameworks which take into account both model and discretization effects. This book is primarily addressed to computational scientists interested in computational reduction techniques for large scale differential problems.
Despite the advent and maturation of high-performance computing, high-fidelity physics-based numerical simulations remain computationally intensive in many fields. As a result, such simulations are often impractical for time-critical applications such as fast-turnaround design, control, and uncertainty quantification. The objective of this thesis is to enable rapid, accurate analysis of high-fidelity nonlinear models to enable their use in time-critical settings. Model reduction presents a promising approach for realizing this goal. This class of methods generates low-dimensional models that preserves key features of the high-fidelity model. Such methods have been shown to generate fast, accurate solutions when applied to specialized problems such as linear time-invariant systems. However, model reduction techniques for highly nonlinear systems has been limited primarily to approaches based on the heuristic proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)--Galerkin approach. These methods often generate inaccurate responses because 1) POD--Galerkin does not generally minimize any measure of the system error, and 2) the POD basis is not constructed to minimize errors in the system's outputs of interest. Furthermore, simulation times for these models usually remain large, as reducing the dimension of a nonlinear system does not necessarily reduce its computational complexity. This thesis presents two model reduction techniques that addresses these shortcomings of the POD--Galerkin method. The first method is a `compact POD' approach for computing the small-dimensional trial basis; this approach is applicable to parameterized static systems. The compact POD basis is constructed using a goal-oriented framework that allows sensitivity derivatives to be employed as snapshots. The second method is a Gauss--Newton with approximated tensors (GNAT) method applicable to nonlinear systems. Similar to other POD-based approaches, the GNAT method first executes high-fidelity simulations during a costly `offline' stage; it computes a POD subspace that optimally represents the state as observed during these simulations. To compute fast, accurate `online' solutions, the method introduces two approximations that satisfy optimality and consistency conditions. First, the method decreases the system dimension by searching for the solutions in the low-dimensional POD subspace. As opposed to performing a Galerkin projection, the method handles the resulting overdetermined system of equations arising at each time step by formulating a least-squares problem; this ensures that a measure of the system error (i.e. the residual) is minimized. Second, the method decreases the model's computational complexity by approximating the residual and Jacobian using the `gappy POD' technique; this requires computing only a few rows of the approximated quantities. For computational mechanics problems, the GNAT method leads to the concept of a sample mesh: the subset of the mesh needed to compute the selected rows of the residual and Jacobian. Because the reduced-order model uses only the sample mesh for computations, the online stage requires minimal computational resources.
Many physical, chemical, biomedical, and technical processes can be described by partial differential equations or dynamical systems. In spite of increasing computational capacities, many problems are of such high complexity that they are solvable only with severe simplifications, and the design of efficient numerical schemes remains a central research challenge. This book presents a tutorial introduction to recent developments in mathematical methods for model reduction and approximation of complex systems. Model Reduction and Approximation: Theory and Algorithms contains three parts that cover (I) sampling-based methods, such as the reduced basis method and proper orthogonal decomposition, (II) approximation of high-dimensional problems by low-rank tensor techniques, and (III) system-theoretic methods, such as balanced truncation, interpolatory methods, and the Loewner framework. It is tutorial in nature, giving an accessible introduction to state-of-the-art model reduction and approximation methods. It also covers a wide range of methods drawn from typically distinct communities (sampling based, tensor based, system-theoretic).?? This book is intended for researchers interested in model reduction and approximation, particularly graduate students and young researchers.
This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the last Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering (SCEE) Conference, held in Sinaia, Romania, in 2006. The series of SCEE conferences aims at addressing mathematical problems which have a relevance to industry, with an emphasis on modeling and numerical simulation of electronic circuits, electromagnetic fields but also coupled problems and general mathematical and computational methods.
Simulation based on mathematical models plays a major role in computer aided design of integrated circuits (ICs). Decreasing structure sizes, increasing packing densities and driving frequencies require the use of refined mathematical models, and to take into account secondary, parasitic effects. This leads to very high dimensional problems which nowadays require simulation times too large for the short time-to-market demands in industry. Modern Model Order Reduction (MOR) techniques present a way out of this dilemma in providing surrogate models which keep the main characteristics of the device while requiring a significantly lower simulation time than the full model. With Model Reduction for Circuit Simulation we survey the state of the art in the challenging research field of MOR for ICs, and also address its future research directions. Special emphasis is taken on aspects stemming from miniturisations to the nano scale. Contributions cover complexity reduction using e.g., balanced truncation, Krylov-techniques or POD approaches. For semiconductor applications a focus is on generalising current techniques to differential-algebraic equations, on including design parameters, on preserving stability, and on including nonlinearity by means of piecewise linearisations along solution trajectories (TPWL) and interpolation techniques for nonlinear parts. Furthermore the influence of interconnects and power grids on the physical properties of the device is considered, and also top-down system design approaches in which detailed block descriptions are combined with behavioral models. Further topics consider MOR and the combination of approaches from optimisation and statistics, and the inclusion of PDE models with emphasis on MOR for the resulting partial differential algebraic systems. The methods which currently are being developed have also relevance in other application areas such as mechanical multibody systems, and systems arising in chemistry and to biology. The current number of books in the area of MOR for ICs is very limited, so that this volume helps to fill a gap in providing the state of the art material, and to stimulate further research in this area of MOR. Model Reduction for Circuit Simulation also reflects and documents the vivid interaction between three active research projects in this area, namely the EU-Marie Curie Action ToK project O-MOORE-NICE (members in Belgium, The Netherlands and Germany), the EU-Marie Curie Action RTN-project COMSON (members in The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and Romania), and the German federal project System reduction in nano-electronics (SyreNe).
This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the 10th International Conference on Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering (SCEE), held in Wuppertal, Germany in 2014. The book is divided into five parts, reflecting the main directions of SCEE 2014: 1. Device Modeling, Electric Circuits and Simulation, 2. Computational Electromagnetics, 3. Coupled Problems, 4. Model Order Reduction, and 5. Uncertainty Quantification. Each part starts with a general introduction followed by the actual papers. The aim of the SCEE 2014 conference was to bring together scientists from academia and industry, mathematicians, electrical engineers, computer scientists, and physicists, with the goal of fostering intensive discussions on industrially relevant mathematical problems, with an emphasis on the modeling and numerical simulation of electronic circuits and devices, electromagnetic fields, and coupled problems. The methodological focus was on model order reduction and uncertainty quantification. this book="" will="" appeal="" to="" mathematicians="" and="" electrical="" engineers.="" it="" offers="" a="" valuable="" starting="" point="" for="" developers="" of="" algorithms="" programs="" who="" want="" learn="" about="" recent="" advances="" in="" other="" fields="" as="" well="" open="" problems="" coming="" from="" industry.="" moreover,="" be="" use="" representatives="" industry="" with="" an="" interest="" new="" program="" tools="" mathematical="" methods.
This comprehensive textbook presents a clean and coherent account of most fundamental tools and techniques in Parameterized Algorithms and is a self-contained guide to the area. The book covers many of the recent developments of the field, including application of important separators, branching based on linear programming, Cut & Count to obtain faster algorithms on tree decompositions, algorithms based on representative families of matroids, and use of the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. A number of older results are revisited and explained in a modern and didactic way. The book provides a toolbox of algorithmic techniques. Part I is an overview of basic techniques, each chapter discussing a certain algorithmic paradigm. The material covered in this part can be used for an introductory course on fixed-parameter tractability. Part II discusses more advanced and specialized algorithmic ideas, bringing the reader to the cutting edge of current research. Part III presents complexity results and lower bounds, giving negative evidence by way of W-hardness, the Exponential Time Hypothesis, and kernelization lower bounds. All the results and concepts are introduced at a level accessible to graduate students and advanced undergraduate students. Every chapter is accompanied by exercises, many with hints, while the bibliographic notes point to original publications and related work.
"This book confronts the problem of meaning by fusing together methods specific to different fields and exploring the computational efficiency and scalability of these methods"--Provided by publisher.
This monograph presents theoretical methods involving the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman formalism in conjunction with set-valued techniques of nonlinear analysis to solve significant problems in dynamics and control. The emphasis is on issues of reachability, feedback control synthesis under complex state constraints, hard or double bounds on controls, and performance in finite time. Guaranteed state estimation, output feedback control, and hybrid dynamics are also discussed. Although the focus is on systems with linear structure, the authors indicate how to apply each approach to nonlinear and nonconvex systems. The main theoretical results lead to computational schemes based on extensions of ellipsoidal calculus that provide complete solutions to the problems. These computational schemes in turn yield software tools that can be applied effectively to high-dimensional systems. Ellipsoidal Techniques for Problems of Dynamics and Control: Theory and Computation will interest graduate and senior undergraduate students, as well as researchers and practitioners interested in control theory, its applications, and its computational realizations.
Complex communicating computer systems -- computers connected by data networks and in constant communication with their environments -- do not always behave as expected. This book introduces behavioral modeling, a rigorous approach to behavioral specification and verification of concurrent and distributed systems. It is among the very few techniques capable of modeling systems interaction at a level of abstraction sufficient for the interaction to be understood and analyzed. Offering both a mathematically grounded theory and real-world applications, the book is suitable for classroom use and as a reference for system architects. The book covers the foundation of behavioral modeling using process algebra, transition systems, abstract data types, and modal logics. Exercises and examples augment the theoretical discussion. The book introduces a modeling language, mCRL2, that enables concise descriptions of even the most intricate distributed algorithms and protocols. Using behavioral axioms and such proof methods as confluence, cones, and foci, readers will learn how to prove such algorithms equal to their specifications. Specifications in mCRL2 can be simulated, visualized, or verified against their requirements. An extensive mCRL2 toolset for mechanically verifying the requirements is freely available online; this toolset has been successfully used to design and analyze industrial software that ranges from healthcare applications to particle accelerators at CERN. Appendixes offer material on equations and notation as well as exercise solutions.
Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images. It also describes challenging real-world applications where vision is being successfully used, both for specialized applications such as medical imaging, and for fun, consumer-level tasks such as image editing and stitching, which students can apply to their own personal photos and videos. More than just a source of “recipes,” this exceptionally authoritative and comprehensive textbook/reference also takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene. These problems are also analyzed using statistical models and solved using rigorous engineering techniques. Topics and features: structured to support active curricula and project-oriented courses, with tips in the Introduction for using the book in a variety of customized courses; presents exercises at the end of each chapter with a heavy emphasis on testing algorithms and containing numerous suggestions for small mid-term projects; provides additional material and more detailed mathematical topics in the Appendices, which cover linear algebra, numerical techniques, and Bayesian estimation theory; suggests additional reading at the end of each chapter, including the latest research in each sub-field, in addition to a full Bibliography at the end of the book; supplies supplementary course material for students at the associated website, http://szeliski.org/Book/. Suitable for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course in computer science or engineering, this textbook focuses on basic techniques that work under real-world conditions and encourages students to push their creative boundaries. Its design and exposition also make it eminently suitable as a unique reference to the fundamental techniques and current research literature in computer vision.
This monograph is an exposition of the theory of central simple algebras with involution, in relation to linear algebraic groups. It provides the algebra-theoretic foundations for much of the recent work on linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Involutions are viewed as twisted forms of (hermitian) quadrics, leading to new developments on the model of the algebraic theory of quadratic forms. In addition to classical groups, phenomena related to triality are also discussed, as well as groups of type $F_4$ or $G_2$ arising from exceptional Jordan or composition algebras. Several results and notions appear here for the first time, notably the discriminant algebra of an algebra with unitary involution and the algebra-theoretic counterpart to linear groups of type $D_4$. This volume also contains a Bibliography and Index. Features: original material not in print elsewhere a comprehensive discussion of algebra-theoretic and group-theoretic aspects extensive notes that give historical perspective and a survey on the literature rational methods that allow possible generalization to more general base rings
This is the most authoritative and accessible single-volume reference book on applied mathematics. Featuring numerous entries by leading experts and organized thematically, it introduces readers to applied mathematics and its uses; explains key concepts; describes important equations, laws, and functions; looks at exciting areas of research; covers modeling and simulation; explores areas of application; and more. Modeled on the popular Princeton Companion to Mathematics, this volume is an indispensable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in other disciplines seeking a user-friendly reference book on applied mathematics. Features nearly 200 entries organized thematically and written by an international team of distinguished contributors Presents the major ideas and branches of applied mathematics in a clear and accessible way Explains important mathematical concepts, methods, equations, and applications Introduces the language of applied mathematics and the goals of applied mathematical research Gives a wide range of examples of mathematical modeling Covers continuum mechanics, dynamical systems, numerical analysis, discrete and combinatorial mathematics, mathematical physics, and much more Explores the connections between applied mathematics and other disciplines Includes suggestions for further reading, cross-references, and a comprehensive index
This book provides a basic introduction to reduced basis (RB) methods for problems involving the repeated solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from engineering and applied sciences, such as PDEs depending on several parameters and PDE-constrained optimization. The book presents a general mathematical formulation of RB methods, analyzes their fundamental theoretical properties, discusses the related algorithmic and implementation aspects, and highlights their built-in algebraic and geometric structures. More specifically, the authors discuss alternative strategies for constructing accurate RB spaces using greedy algorithms and proper orthogonal decomposition techniques, investigate their approximation properties and analyze offline-online decomposition strategies aimed at the reduction of computational complexity. Furthermore, they carry out both a priori and a posteriori error analysis. The whole mathematical presentation is made more stimulating by the use of representative examples of applicative interest in the context of both linear and nonlinear PDEs. Moreover, the inclusion of many pseudocodes allows the reader to easily implement the algorithms illustrated throughout the text. The book will be ideal for upper undergraduate students and, more generally, people interested in scientific computing. All these pseudocodes are in fact implemented in a MATLAB package that is freely available at https://github.com/redbkit
This book provides a thorough introduction to the mathematical and algorithmic aspects of certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations. Central aspects ranging from model construction, error estimation and computational efficiency to empirical interpolation methods are discussed in detail for coercive problems. More advanced aspects associated with time-dependent problems, non-compliant and non-coercive problems and applications with geometric variation are also discussed as examples.
Mathematical models are used to simulate, and sometimes control, the behavior of physical and artificial processes such as the weather and very large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits. The increasing need for accuracy has led to the development of highly complex models. However, in the presence of limited computational accuracy and storage capabilities model reduction (system approximation) is often necessary. Approximation of Large-Scale Dynamical Systems provides a comprehensive picture of model reduction, combining system theory with numerical linear algebra and computational considerations. It addresses the issue of model reduction and the resulting trade-offs between accuracy and complexity. Special attention is given to numerical aspects, simulation questions, and practical applications.
"Written by three experts in the field, Deep Learning is the only comprehensive book on the subject." -- Elon Musk, cochair of OpenAI; cofounder and CEO of Tesla and SpaceX Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.
The past decade has seen many advances in physical layer wireless communication theory and their implementation in wireless systems. This textbook takes a unified view of the fundamentals of wireless communication and explains the web of concepts underpinning these advances at a level accessible to an audience with a basic background in probability and digital communication. Topics covered include MIMO (multi-input, multi-output) communication, space-time coding, opportunistic communication, OFDM and CDMA. The concepts are illustrated using many examples from real wireless systems such as GSM, IS-95 (CDMA), IS-856 (1 x EV-DO), Flash OFDM and UWB (ultra-wideband). Particular emphasis is placed on the interplay between concepts and their implementation in real systems. An abundant supply of exercises and figures reinforce the material in the text. This book is intended for use on graduate courses in electrical and computer engineering and will also be of great interest to practising engineers.
Increasing concerns of global climatic change have stimulated research in all aspects of carbon exchange. This has restored interest in leaf-photosynthetic models to predict and assess changes in photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in different environments. This is a comprehensive presentation of the most widely used models of steady-state photosynthesis by an author who is a world authority. Treatments of C3, C4 and intermediate pathways of photosynthesis in relation to environment have been updated to include work on antisense transgenic plants. It will be a standard reference for the formal analysis of photosynthetic metabolism in vivo by advanced students and researchers.