This unique book brings together a comprehensive set of papers on the background, theory, technical issues and applications of agent-based modelling (ABM) within geographical systems. This collection of papers is an invaluable reference point for the experienced agent-based modeller as well those new to the area. Specific geographical issues such as handling scale and space are dealt with as well as practical advice from leading experts about designing and creating ABMs, handling complexity, visualising and validating model outputs. With contributions from many of the world’s leading research institutions, the latest applied research (micro and macro applications) from around the globe exemplify what can be achieved in geographical context. This book is relevant to researchers, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students, and professionals in the areas of quantitative geography, spatial analysis, spatial modelling, social simulation modelling and geographical information sciences.
This book presents a selection of innovative ideas currently shaping the development and testing of geographical systems models by means of statistical and computational approaches. It spans all geographic scales, deals with both individuals and aggregates, and represents natural, human, and integrated spatial systems. This book is relevant to researchers, (post and under)graduates, and professionals in the areas of quantitative geography, spatial analysis, spatial modelling, and geographical information sciences.
Urban development and migration from rural to urban areas are impacting prime agricultural land and natural landscapes, particularly in the less developed countries. These phenomena will persist and require serious study by those monitoring global environmental change. To address this need, various models have been devised to analyze urbanization and the physical, socioeconomic, and institutional factors impacting urban development. The most promising and rapidly developing of these paradigms take advantage of new Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Modelling Urban Development with Geographical Information Systems and Cellular Automata presents one such cutting-edge model that is more than just predictive. It describes how the model simulates the urbanization process, and it provides theoretical context to promote understanding. Starting with a practical overview of the modelling techniques used in urban development research, the author focuses on the cellular automata model and its greatest strength – the incorporation of fuzzy set and fuzzy logic approaches through which urban development can be viewed as a spatially and temporally continuous process. Real-Life Application to Develop Future Planning Methods The text describes a landmark study underway, in which the fuzzy constrained cellular automata model has been implemented in a GIS environment to simulate urban development in Sydney, Australia. Featuring a survey of associated research and a geographical database for the Sydney simulation, this book answers many general "what if" questions for urban planners and details a new approach that they can adapt to their own testing and evaluation needs. This modeling method will provide researchers and planners with the means to not just predict population trends, but to better prepare for their consequences.
Introduction to GIS. Spatial data models. Spatial data structures. Spatial data input. Visualization and query of spatial data. Spatial data transformations. Tools for map analysis: single maps. Tools for map analysis: map pairs. Tools for map analysis: multiple maps.
This is the era of Big Data and computational social science. It is an era that requires tools which can do more than visualise data but also model the complex relation between data and human action and interaction. Agent-Based Models (ABM) - computational models which simulate human action and interaction – do just that. This textbook explains how to design and build ABM and how to link the models to Geographical Information Systems. It guides you from the basics through to constructing more complex models which work with data and human behaviour in a spatial context. All of the fundamental concepts are explained and related to practical examples to facilitate learning (with models developed in NetLogo with all code examples available on the accompanying website). You will be able to use these models to develop your own applications and link, where appropriate, to Geographical Information Systems. All of the key ideas and methods are explained in detail: geographical modelling; an introduction to ABM; the fundamentals of Geographical Information Science; why ABM and GIS; using QGIS; designing and building an ABM; calibration and validation; modelling human behaviour; visualisation and 3D ABM; using Big Geosocial Data, GIS and ABM. An applied primer, that provides fundamental knowledge and practical skills, it will provide you with the skills to build and run your own models, and to begin your own research projects.
Most government agencies and private companies are investing significant resources in the production and use of geographical data. The capabilities of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for data analysis are also improving, to the extent that the potential performance of GIS software and the data available for analysis outstrip the abilities of managers and analysts to use and analyze the information. This is especially true for environmental applications. Here the need to keep up-to-date is essential for providing effective and efficient services. Environmental Modeling with GIS and Remote Sensing derives from a training course run by ITC for professionals and managers in the environmental sciences, detailing the applications of remote sensing and GIS for environmental modeling and assessment. It sets out the current research results and provides operational methods for environmental mapping and monitoring.
Geographical Information Systems has moved from the domain of the computer specialist into the wider archaeological community, providing it with an exciting new research method. This clearly written but rigorous book provides a comprehensive guide to that use. Topics covered include: the theoretical context and the basics of GIS; data acquisition including database design; interpolation of elevation models; exploratory data analysis including spatial queries; statistical spatial analysis; map algebra; spatial operations including the calculation of slope and aspect, filtering and erosion modeling; methods for analysing regions; visibility analysis; network analysis including hydrological modeling; the production of high quality output for paper and electronic publication; and the use and production of metadata. Offering an extensive range of archaeological examples, it is an invaluable source of practical information for all archaeologists, whether engaged in cultural resource management or academic research. This is essential reading for both the novice and the advanced user.
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This edited collection deals with the international issue of conserving and allocating water as the world's population continues to grow dramatically. Hydrologic and Hydraulic Modeling Support with Geographic Information Systems discusses applications such as watershed delineation, topographic characteristic extraction, and floodplain extent determination and provides an informed basis for water resource professionals to make sound decisions.
Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale Mapping Users have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review of state of the art technologies associated with these challenges, including the most recent developments in cartometric analysis techniques able to support high levels of automation among multi scale derivation techniques. The book illustrates the application of these ideas within existing and emerging technologies. In addition to providing a comprehensive theoretical underpinning, the book demonstrates how theoretical developments have translated into commercial systems deployed within NMAs. The book explores relevance of open systems in support of collaborative research and open source web based map services. State of the art review on multi scale representation techniques Detailed consideration of database requirements and object modeling in support of emerging applications (3D, mobile) and innovative delivery (map generalisation services) Illustration through existing map production environment implementations Consolidated bibliography (680 entries), 200 illustrations, author and subject index
Spatial Analysis: Modelling in a GIS Environment Edited by PaulLongley and Michael Batty Digital data and information are usedincreasingly by academics, professionals, local authorities, andgovernment departments. Powerful new technologies, such asgeographic information systems (GIS), are being developed toanalyse such data, and GIS technologies are rapidly becoming partof the emergent world digital infrastructure. This book shows howcomputer methods of analysis and modelling, built around GIS, canbe used to identify ways in which our cities and regions might bebetter planned and understood. The contributors to this book areall actively involved in research using geographic informationsystems. This book will be valuable reading for: Geographers, researchers, and regional analysts Population theorists and regional economists with interests inlarge-scale demographic and employment data Planners and policy-makers who wish to use GIS to improve theirdecision making Business analysts who wish to explore markets using the mostrecent advances in digital spatial data technology All those interested in geodemographics Paul Longley is Professor of Geography at the Department ofGeography, University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Michael Batty isProfessor of Spatial Analysis and Planning at the UniversityCollege London. United Kingdom.
Professionals who work with grieving families, including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, family therapists, physicians and nurses who work with dying patients and their families, hospice and patient home-care workers, clergy. The book also serves as a text in courses on bereavement, family development, family and child therapy, and child developmental psychopathology.
A concise text presenting the fundamental concepts in Geographical Information Systems (GIS), emphasising an understanding of techniques in management, analysis and graphic display of spatial information. Divided into five parts - the first part reviews the development and application of GIS, followed by a summary of the characteristics and representation of geographical information. It concludes with an overview of the functions provided by typical GIS systems. Part Two introduces co-ordinate systems and map projections, describes methods for digitising map data and gives an overview of remote sensing. Part Three deals with data storage and database management, as well as specialised techniques for accessing spatial data. Spatial modelling and analytical techniques for decision making form the subject of Part Four, while the final part is concerned with graphical representation, emphasising issues of graphics technology, cartographic design and map generalisation.
GIS data and tools are revolutionizing transportation research and decision making, allowing transportation analysts and professionals to understand and solve complex transportation problems that were previously impossible. Here, Miller and Shaw present a comprehensive discussion of fundamental geographic science and the applications of these principles using GIS and other software tools. By providing thorough and accessible discussions of transportation analysis within a GIS environment, this volume fills a critical niche in GIS-T and GIS literature.
Spatial dimensions need to be properly captured if modeling and engineering techniques are to be successfully applied in addressing environmental problems. The links between the geographical information systems (GIS) that capture this data, simulation modeling, and engineering offer tremendous possibilities for building versatile support systems for managing the environment. GIS, Environmental Modeling and Engineering focuses on using GIS and external models to solve real environmental problems, promoting the critical thinking needed for the effective applications of these systems and their analytical outputs. Divided into three major sections, this textbook first concentrates on defining GIS, identifying how data is structured, and explaining common functionality. The text examines GIS from a technological perspective, exploring the evolution of its scientific basis and its synergies with other technologies within a geocomputational paradigm. The next section explores modeling from a neutral scientific perspective in its role of simulating phenomena, as well as from a more specific perspective in its role within environmental science and engineering. The third and largest section looks at how GIS and simulation modeling are joined. It provides case studies and covers issues such as interoperability, data quality, model validity, space-time dynamics, and decision-support systems. This volume provides seniors and postgraduate students with a structured, coherent text that goes beyond introductory subject matter by enabling readers to think critically about the data acquisition process and the results they get from the technology.
We are facing an immense growth of digital data and information resources, both in terms of size, complexity, modalities and intrusiveness. Almost every aspect of our existence is being digitally captured. This is exemplified by the omnipresent existence of all kinds of data storage, far beyond those stored in traditional relational databases. The spectrum of data being digitally stored runs from multimedia data repositories to your purchases in most stores. Every tweet that you broadcast is captured for posterity. Needless to say this situation posses new research opportunities, challenges and problems in the ways we store, manipulate, search, and - in general - make use of such data and information. Attempts to cope with these problems have been emerging all over the world with thousands of people devoted to developing tools and techniques to deal with this new area of research. One of the prominent scholars and researchers in this field was the late Professor Ashley Morris who died suddenly and tragically at a young age. Ashley's career begun in industry, where he specialized in databases.
Spatial models have been in existence in the environmental and social sciences for a long time. More recently, specialised software for the capture, manipulation and presentation of spatial data, which can be referred to as `Geographical Information Systems' (GIS), have vastly increased the range of possibilities of organising spatial data by new and efficient ways of spatial integration and spatial interpolation. Coupled with the improvements in data availability and increases in computer memory and speed, these novel techniques give rise to new types of spatial models which exploit the technological potential now available, make better use of existing data, stimulate the collection of new data and open up new ways of working with geographic information. This book explores the potential and impact of GIS on spatial modelling.
This contributed volume collects cutting-edge research in Geographic Information Science & Technologies, Location Modeling, and Spatial Analysis of Urban and Regional Systems. The contributions emphasize methodological innovations or substantive breakthroughs on many facets of the socio-economic and environmental reality of urban and regional contexts.
State-of-the-art GIS spatial data management and analysis tools are revolutionizing the field of water resource engineering. Familiarity with these technologies is now a prerequisite for success in engineers’ and planners’ efforts to create a reliable infrastructure. GIS in Water Resource Engineering presents a review of the concepts and applications of GIS in the various sub-fields of water resource engineering. After a summary review of analyses and database functions, the book addresses concepts and applications in the following areas: Surface Water Hydrology Groundwater Hydrology Water Supply and Irrigation systems Wastewater and Stormwater Systems Floodplain Management Water Quality Water Resource Monitoring and Forecasting River Basin Planning and Management The book develops a general understanding of the nature of GIS and how it is used to create and analyze geographic data. The author first introduces primary field data collection methods and describes procedures for interpretation and analysis. The second portion of the book focuses on the linkage of GIS data with water resource analysis and management models. Applications are presented with descriptions of GIS database development, analysis background theory, and model integration with GIS. The profound impact of GIS systems on water resources engineering continues to grow. GIS in Water Resource Engineering arms engineers and planners with an arsenal of tools to assist in the creation of a reliable, environmentally sensitive, infrastructure.
Spatial Modeling in GIS and R for Earth and Environmental Science offers an integrated approach to spatial modelling using both GIS and R. Given the importance of Geographical Information Systems and geostatistics across a variety of applications in Earth and Environmental Science, a clear link between GIS and open source software is essential for the study of spatial objects or phenomena that occur in the real world and facilitate problem solving. Organized into clear sections on applications and using case studies, the book helps researchers to more quickly understand GIS data and formulate more complex conclusions. Spatial Modeling in GIS and R for Earth and Environmental Science is the first reference to provide methods and applications for combining the use of R and GIS in modeling spatial processes and is therefore an essential tool for students and researchers in earth and environmental science, especially those looking to better utilize GIS and spatial modeling. Offers a clear interdisciplinary guide to serve researchers in a variety of fields including hazards, land surveying, remote sensing, cartography, geophysics, geology, natural resources, environment, and geography Provides an overview, methods, and case studies for each application Expresses concepts and methods at an appropriate level for both students and new users to learn by example