This book presents a selection of innovative ideas currently shaping the development and testing of geographical systems models by means of statistical and computational approaches. It spans all geographic scales, deals with both individuals and aggregates, and represents natural, human, and integrated spatial systems. This book is relevant to researchers, (post and under)graduates, and professionals in the areas of quantitative geography, spatial analysis, spatial modelling, and geographical information sciences.
This unique book brings together a comprehensive set of papers on the background, theory, technical issues and applications of agent-based modelling (ABM) within geographical systems. This collection of papers is an invaluable reference point for the experienced agent-based modeller as well those new to the area. Specific geographical issues such as handling scale and space are dealt with as well as practical advice from leading experts about designing and creating ABMs, handling complexity, visualising and validating model outputs. With contributions from many of the world’s leading research institutions, the latest applied research (micro and macro applications) from around the globe exemplify what can be achieved in geographical context. This book is relevant to researchers, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students, and professionals in the areas of quantitative geography, spatial analysis, spatial modelling, social simulation modelling and geographical information sciences.
This is the era of Big Data and computational social science. It is an era that requires tools which can do more than visualise data but also model the complex relation between data and human action, and interaction. Agent-Based Models (ABM) - computational models which simulate human action and interaction – do just that. This textbook explains how to design and build ABM and how to link the models to Geographical Information Systems. It guides you from the basics through to constructing more complex models which work with data and human behaviour in a spatial context. All of the fundamental concepts are explained and related to practical examples to facilitate learning (with models developed in NetLogo with all code examples available on the accompanying website). You will be able to use these models to develop your own applications and link, where appropriate, to Geographical Information Systems. All of the key ideas and methods are explained in detail: geographical modelling; an introduction to ABM; the fundamentals of Geographical Information Science; why ABM and GIS; using QGIS; designing and building an ABM; calibration and validation; modelling human behavior. An applied primer, that provides fundamental knowledge and practical skills, it will provide you with the skills to build and run your own models, and to begin your own research projects.
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Urban development and migration from rural to urban areas are impacting prime agricultural land and natural landscapes, particularly in the less developed countries. These phenomena will persist and require serious study by those monitoring global environmental change. To address this need, various models have been devised to analyze urbanization and the physical, socioeconomic, and institutional factors impacting urban development. The most promising and rapidly developing of these paradigms take advantage of new Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Modelling Urban Development with Geographical Information Systems and Cellular Automata presents one such cutting-edge model that is more than just predictive. It describes how the model simulates the urbanization process, and it provides theoretical context to promote understanding. Starting with a practical overview of the modelling techniques used in urban development research, the author focuses on the cellular automata model and its greatest strength – the incorporation of fuzzy set and fuzzy logic approaches through which urban development can be viewed as a spatially and temporally continuous process. Real-Life Application to Develop Future Planning Methods The text describes a landmark study underway, in which the fuzzy constrained cellular automata model has been implemented in a GIS environment to simulate urban development in Sydney, Australia. Featuring a survey of associated research and a geographical database for the Sydney simulation, this book answers many general "what if" questions for urban planners and details a new approach that they can adapt to their own testing and evaluation needs. This modeling method will provide researchers and planners with the means to not just predict population trends, but to better prepare for their consequences.
The last few years have witnessed an enormous interest in application of GIS in hydrology and water resources. This is partly evidenced by organization of sev eral national and international symposia or conferences under the sponsorship of various professional organizations. This increased interest is, in a large measure, in response to growing public sensitivity to environmental quality and management. The GIS technology has the ability to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, and visualize the diverse sets of geo-referenced data. On the other hand, hydrology is inherently spatial and distributed hydrologic models have large data requirements. The integration of hydrology and GIS is therefore quite natural. The integration involves three major components: (1) spatial data construction, (2) integration of spatial model layers, and (3) GIS and model interface. GIS can assist in design, calibration, modification and comparison of models. This integration is spreading worldwide and is expected to accelerate in the foreseeable future. Substantial op portunities exist in integration of GIS and hydrology. We believe there are enough challenges in use of GIS for conceptualizing and modeling complex hydrologic processes and for globalization of hydrology. The motivation for this book grew out of the desire to provide under one cover a range of applications of GIS tech nology in hydrology. It is hoped that the book will stimulate others to write more comprehensive texts on this subject of growing importance.
This volume looks at the temporal and volatile ways in which Frankfurt and Tel Aviv engage the global economy and function as nodes within global networks. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative empirical studies of leading sectors, it systematically analyzes the process of network formation and highlights the role of national and regional policy. It will be of interest to academics, researchers, practitioners and policymakers working in urban and economic geography, public policy and economic development.
"Papers presented at the Training Programme on Mathematical Modelling in GIS/GPS and Digital Cartography, held at Jaipur during 1st February to 2nd March 2005".--[Source inconnue].
In August 1989, a Summer Institute was held at the Academie van Bouwkunst, the seventeenth century home of Amsterdam's School of Architecture, Town Planning and Landscape. The meeting brought together experts in Geographical Information Systems from throughout the world to address an international audience of planners. The contents of this book reflect many of the themes that were presented and discussed at the conference. The Summer Institute, let alone this volume, would not have been possible without the support of the International Association for the Development and Management of Existing and New Towns (INTNAIVN), the International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISoCaRP), The National Physical Planning Agency of the Netherlands (RPD) and the Berlage Studio. We wish to acknowledge the assistance provided by these organisations and by the various sponsors: The Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, the Municipality of Amsterdam, Logisterion b.v., ESRI, UNISYS, MABON b.v., SPSS, PRIME Computer Inc., PANDATA. The provision of hardware facilities by the various computer companies allowed immensely valuable 'hands on' experience to be gained by all the participants.
During the past twenty years, a broad spectrum of theories and methods have been developed in physics, chemistry and molecular biology to explain structure formation in complex systems. These methods have been applied to many different fields such as economics, sociology and town planning, and this book reflects the interdisciplinary nature of complexity and self-organisation. The main focus is on the emergence of collective phenomena from individual or microscopic interactions. Presents a wide-ranging overview from fundamental aspects of the evolution of complexity, to applications in biology, ecology, sociology, economics, and urban structure formation.
This text is concerned with the subject of spatial scale in the context of geographical research using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and provides an overview of the subject.
The 16 contributions to Geographical Information Systems in Assessing Natural Hazards report on GIS investigations into landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and groundwater pollution hazards. Current methods for predicting extreme events are critically discussed, the emphasis being on the intrinsic complexity of this type of operation, requiring many spatial data, long historical records and sound models of the physical processes involved. Within this context, the potentials and limitations of GIS are addressed in terms of data acquisition, spatial data structures and modelling for simulation of the causal phenomena. Geographic Information Systems in Assessing Natural Hazards will help investigators in both public and private institutions to evaluate the actual effectiveness of GIS in coping with natural disasters, and to develop new strategies for projects aimed at the assessment and mitigation of the effects of such catastrophic events.
Cutting-edge techniques for groundwater modeling using GIStechnology Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical InformationSystems covers fundamental information on flow and masstransport modeling and demonstrates how GIS technology makes thesemodels and analyses more accurate than ever before. GIS technology allows for swift organization, quantification,and interpretation of large quantities of geohydrological data withcomputer accuracy and minimal risk of human error. This book'scompanion Web site provides the Princeton Transport Code, as wellas the plug-in extensions required to interface this code with theArgus ONE numerical environment software enclosed with this book.Plug-in extensions for MODFLOW and MT3D computer codes can be foundat the Argus ONE Web site (www.argusint.com). The process for usingthe Geographic Modeling Approach (GMA) to model groundwater flowand transport is demonstrated step by step with a field examplefrom Tucson, Arizona. The GMA is composed of the Argus ONEGeographic Information Modeling system and the Princeton TransportCode groundwater flow and transport model, interfaced through theplug-in extension available on Argus ONE. Enhanced with more than 150 illustrations and screen captures,Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical InformationSystems is a fundamental book for civil engineers,hydrologists, environmental engineers, geologists, and students inthese fields, as well as software engineers working on GISapplications and environmental attorneys and regulators. When usedin combination with the free modeling software, this book providesan excellent student text.
Derived from presentations made at the fourth annual UK National Conference on GIS Research, this work consists of contributions by leading experts in: geography, mathematics, computing science, surveying, archaeology, planning and medicine.
The primary focus of this text is on the process of cartographic modeling and GIS modeling. The text goes beyond cartographic modeling to incorporate supplementary or complementary technologies and logics to show that spatio-temporal modeling is not limited to cartographic modeling, nor to Map Algebra. DeMers consistent, friendly and engaging style has been highly praised by reviewers of this title as well as users of his market leading Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems.
All I am offering is a scientifically based truth - nothing more. This book will forever change your mind about many things. Read and discover the real answers for the following questions: What are the Earth nearest and distant future preparing for us? What causing of asthma, influenza and some other illnesses? How and when will the Earth magnetic poles flip occur? What creating such powerful hurricanes like Katrina? Where did life in the Universe come from? What scientists do not want you to know? Where did life on the Earth come from? Why is the global warming happening? How did our solar system appear? When does the doomsday come? What is going on with our Sun? Why did Neanderthals extinct? What is the comic time bomb? Was there any life on Mars? Why did dinosaurs die out? What makes life possible? Is asteroids threat real? Why did Ice Age occur? What are UFOs?
This volume presents a set of coherent, cross-referenced perspectives on incorporating the spatial representation andanalytical power of GIS with agent-based modelling of evolutionary and non-linear processes and phenomena. Many recent advances in software algorithms for incorporating geographic data in modeling social and ecological behaviors, and successes in applying such algorithms, had not been adequately reported in the literature. This book seeks to serve as the standard guide to this broad area.
This book covers fundamental aspects of spatial data modelling specifically on the aspect of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and structuring. Realisation of "true" 3D GIS spatial system needs a lot of effort, and the process is taking place in various research centres and universities in some countries. The development of spatial data modelling for 3D objects is the focus of this book.