In this volume specialists in mathematics, physics, and linguistics present the first comprehensive analysis of the ideas and influence of Hermann G. Graßmann (1809-1877), the remarkable universalist whose work recast the foundations of these disciplines and shaped the course of their modern development.
Die Erfindungen von Athanasius Kircher und Johann Philipp Kirnberger markieren die zeitlichen Eckpunkte des Zeitraumes, in dem Komponierkästchen, musikalische Automaten, Würfelspiele zur Erzeugung von Menuetten und Polonaisen, musikalische Farbenklaviere, Fantasiermaschinen u. a. Projekte entwickelt wurden. Sebastian Klotz analysiert diese Automaten, Tabellen, Kompositionshilfen und Würfelspiele und verdichtet seine Ergebnisse zu einer Geschichte der Formalisierung des Musikalischen. Indem Klotz das Operativwerden musikalischer Zeichen und die Auslagerung des musikalischen Denkakts in technische Medien aufeinander bezieht und durch eine Vielzahl von Abbildungen dokumentiert, kann er den vielfältigen Experimentierraum für die Musikgeschichte in grundlegender Weise erschließen.
In Pomponazzis Erkenntnistheorie, Paolo Rubini examines the radical views on human knowledge held by the Renaissance Aristotelian philosopher Pietro Pomponazzi (1462-1525), and interprets them in accordance with Pomponazzi’s ‘naturalistic’ conception of the mind as essentially corporeal.
The problem of body and soul has a long history that can be traced back to the beginnings of Greek culture. The existential question of what happened to the soul at the moment of death, whether and in what form there is life after death, and of the exact relationship between body and soul was answered in different ways in Greek philosophy, from the early days to Late Antiquity. The contributions in this volume not only do justice to the breadth of the topic, they also cover the entire period from the Pre-Socratics to Late Antiquity. Particular attention is paid to Plato, Aristotle and Hellenistic philosophers, that is the Stoics and the Epicureans.
This is a detailed history of one of the most important and dramatic episodes in modern science, recounted from the novel vantage point of the dawn of the information age and its impact on representations of nature, heredity, and society. Drawing on archives, published sources, and interviews, the author situates work on the genetic code (1953-70) within the history of life science, the rise of communication technosciences (cybernetics, information theory, and computers), the intersection of molecular biology with cryptanalysis and linguistics, and the social history of postwar Europe and the United States. Kay draws out the historical specificity in the process by which the central biological problem of DNA-based protein synthesis came to be metaphorically represented as an information code and a writing technologyand consequently as a book of life. This molecular writing and reading is part of the cultural production of the Nuclear Age, its power amplified by the centuries-old theistic resonance of the book of life metaphor. Yet, as the author points out, these are just metaphors: analogies, not ontologies. Necessary and productive as they have been, they have their epistemological limitations. Deploying analyses of language, cryptology, and information theory, the author persuasively argues that, technically speaking, the genetic code is not a code, DNA is not a language, and the genome is not an information system (objections voiced by experts as early as the 1950s). Thus her historical reconstruction and analyses also serve as a critique of the new genomic biopower. Genomic textuality has become a fact of life, a metaphor literalized, she claims, as human genome projects promise new levels of control over life through the meta-level of information: control of the word (the DNA sequences) and its editing and rewriting. But the author shows how the humbling limits of these scriptural metaphors also pose a challenge to the textual and material mastery of the genomic book of life.
This study on the genesis and formation of the scholastic concept of transcendental unity shows how gradually in the development of thinking, the notion of ‘the one’, due to its original relationship to being, was conceived as transcendental.
First Published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Presenting an advanced and authoritative perspective, this definitive study chronicles the rise and fall of the Order of the Illuminati, a mysterious Enlightenment-era guild surrounded by myth. Describing this enigmatic community in meticulous detail, more than 1,000 endnotes are included, citing scholars, professors, and academics. Contemporary accounts and the original documents of the Illuminati themselves are covered as well. Copiously illustrated and featuring biographies of more than 400 confirmed members, this survey brings to light a 200-year-old mystery.
The search for God is dictated not from without but from a profound sense of one's own moral being and worthiness to be happy. The core of Immanuel Kant's argument remains relevant to the experience of ordinary men and women. He wished to strengthen, not undermine, belief in God and in the spiritual nature of humankind. This 1763 essay is imporrtant in understanding the development of Kant's thought. It exposed the flaw in the Cartesian argument that the existence of a perfect being could be deduced from an idea or concept of such. Similarly, Kant saw the problem inherent in the Leibnizian view of a philosophical system modeled on mathematics: a philosopher who, like a mathematician, began with an arbitrary definition remained trapped in a circle of words. In The One Possible Basis for a Demonstration of the Existence of God, Kant diverged from the familiar forms of ontological argument. The result was a brilliant approach to divine being that anticipated his mature Critique of Pure Reason. With this Bison Book edition, The One Possible Basis appears in paperback for the first time. Gordon Treash's English translation, the only modern one, faces pages containing the original German. Treash, who is a professor of philosophy at Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, edited, with Paul A. Bogaard, Metaphysics as Foundation: Essays in Honor of Ivor Leclerc. Also available as a Bison Book is Kant's last major essay, The Conflict of the Faculties (1992).