This book brings together a collection of emergent research that moves the debate on desistance beyond a general consideration of individual and social structural influences. The authors examine empirical developments which have implications for policy surrounding resettlement and re-offending, but also for punishment practices. Presenting thought-provoking theoretical advances and critiques, the editors challenge and enrich traditional understandings of desistance. A wide range of chapters explore how some criminal justice interventions hinder the desistance process, but also how alternative approaches may be more helpful in promoting and supporting desistance. Thorough and diverse, this book will be of great interest to scholars of criminology and criminal justice, social policy, sociology and psychology, and of special interest to researchers and practitioners working with (ex-)offenders.
Life imprisonment has replaced the death penalty as the most common sentence imposed for heinous crimes worldwide. Consequently, it has become the leading issue of international criminal justice reform. In the first survey of its kind, Dirk van Zyl Smit and Catherine Appleton argue for a human rights–based reappraisal of this harsh punishment.
In recent years attention has switched from how adolescents are attracted into crime, to how adults reduce their offending and then stop – the process of desistance. There are now around a dozen major longitudinal and in-depth studies around the world which have followed or are following offenders over their life course, charting their offending history and their social and economic circumstances. The book is the first to offer a global perspective on desistance and brings together international leading experts in the field from countries including the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Spain, the USA, and Australia to set out what we know about desistance, and to advance our theoretical understanding. Drawing on leading studies, this book sets the academic agenda for future work on desistance and examines the implications and potential positive effects of this research on desistance processes among current offenders. Global Perspectives on Desistance is divided into three sections: Agency, structure and desistance from crime, Life phases and desistance, Criminal justice and state interventions. Comprehensive and forward-thinking, this book is ideal for students studying criminology, probation and social work, social policy, sociology, and psychology. It is also essential reading for academic criminologists, sociologists, and policy makers and practitioners working in corrections and reform.
Die multisystemische Therapie (MST) ist ein empirisch abgesichertes Verfahren, das als Alternative zu stationären Behandlungskonzepten auch ambulant angewendet werden kann. In über 30 Ländern wird MST inzwischen erfolgreich mit Kindern und Jugendlichen in über 400 Programmen praktiziert. In diesem Buch werden die Prinzipien der multisystemischen Therapie erläutert. Außerdem bekommen Leser klare Leitlinien an die Hand: für die Indikation und um individuelle Interventionen bei delinquenten Jugendlichen und Kindern zu planen und durchzuführen.
This major new book brings together leading researchers in the field in order to describe and analyse internationally significant theoretical and empirical work on offender supervision, and to address the policy and practice implications of this work within and across jurisdictions. Arising out of the work of the international Collaboration of Researchers for the Effective Development of Offender Supervision (CREDOS), this book examines questions and issues that have arisen both within effectiveness research, and from research on desistance from offending. The book draws out the lessons that can be learned not just about ‘what works?’, but about how and why particular practices support desistance in specific jurisdictional, cultural and local contexts. Key themes addressed in this book include: New directions in theory and paradigms for practice Staff skills and effective offender supervision Different issues and challenges in improving offender supervision The role of families, ‘significant others’ and social networks Understanding and supporting compliance within supervision Exploring the social, political, organisational and historical contexts of offender supervision Offender Supervision will be essential reading for academics, undergraduate and postgraduate students, policy makers, managers and practitioners interested in offender supervision.
Manche radikalen Denker glauben, man müsse lediglich für mehr soziale Gerechtigkeit sorgen, um auch mehr gegenseitigen Respekt zwischen den Menschen zu wecken. Aber ist das überhaupt realistisch? Zieht Selbstachtung nicht automatisch mangelnden Respekt gegenüber denjenigen nach sich, die im unbarmherzigen sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Wettbewerb die Benachteiligten sind? Bei der Suche nach Antworten greift Sennett auch auf seine eigene Lebensgeschichte zurück: Aufgewachsen in einem Ghetto von Chicago, gelang ihm zunächst mit Hilfe der Musik und dann des Studiums in Harvard der soziale Aufstieg. Erneut erweist sich Sennett als konstruktiver kritischer Geist mit Weitblick, als jemand, der mit Hilfe anschaulicher Beispiele grundlegende gesellschaftliche Veränderungen benennt.
Criminology is in a period of much theoretical ferment. Older theories have been revitalized, and newer theories have been set forth. The very richness of our thinking about crime, however, leads to questions about the relative merits of these competing paradigms. Accordingly, in this volume advocates of prominent theories are asked to "take stock" of their perspectives. Their challenge is to assess the empirical status of their theory and to map out future directions for theoretical development. The volume begins with an assessment of three perspectives that have long been at the core of criminology: social learning theory, control theory, and strain theory. Drawing on these traditions, two major contemporary macro-level theories of crime have emerged and are here reviewed: institutional-anomie theory and collective efficacy theory. Critical criminology has yielded diverse contributions discussed in essays on feminist theories, radical criminology, peacemaking criminology, and the effects of racial segregation. The volume includes chapters examining Moffitt's insights on life-course persistent/adolescent-limited anti-social behavior and Sampson and Laub's life-course theory of crime. In addition, David Farrington provides a comprehensive assessment of the adequacy of the leading developmental and life-course theories of crime. Finally, Taking Stock presents essays that review the status of perspectives that have direct implications for the use of criminological knowledge to control crime. Taken together, these chapters provide a comprehensive update of the field's leading theories of crime. The volume will be of interest to criminological scholars and will be ideal for classroom use in courses reviewing contemporary theories of criminal behavior.
This fourth edition of Theoretical Criminology, the standard text and reference in its field, has been extensively revised and completely updated. New sections include material on neurotransmitters, environmentally induced biological components of behavior, impulsiveness and crime, neighborhoods as causes of crime, situational contexts of crime, the decline and resurgence of strain theories, and control-ology. The text also examines Gottfredson and Hirsch's General Theory of Crime, Katz's Seductions of Crime, Hagan's Structural Criminology, and Black's Behavior of Law, as well as postmodern criminology and feminist criminology. A new chapter on developmental criminology discusses criminal careers, longitudinal research, the relationship between age and crime, Thornberry's interactional theory, and Sampson and Laub's age-graded theory of informal social control. A second new chapter on integrated theories discusses recent efforts by Elliott et al., Braithwaite, Tittle, Vila, and Bernard and Snipes. The text presents each type of theory accurately and comprehensively within its historical context. Relevant empirical research is reviewed and assessed, and research issues related to theory testing are also discussed. The writing style is lively and readable, designed to appeal to students at all levels. Offering the most accurate, clear, and comprehensive presentation of criminology theories, Theoretical Criminology continues to retain its premier position in the field of criminology, a position it has held for almost 40 years.
​ „Der Mensch mit abweichendem Verhalten ist ein Mensch, auf den diese Bezeichnung erfolgreich angewandt worden ist; abweichendes Verhalten ist Verhalten, das Menschen als solches bezeichnen“: Es ist einer der klassischen Sätze der Devianzsoziologie in einem der Klassiker des Feldes. Howard S. Becker betont fernab von alten und simplistischen Fragen danach, „warum Menschen Regeln brechen“, welche Situationen und welche Prozesse dazu führen, dass Menschen in Positionen geraten, in denen sie als „Regelbrecher“ betitelt werden, wie sie mit diesen Positionen umgehen und sich auch gegen diese wehren. „Außenseiter“ erschien erstmals 1963 in New York und wurde 1981 bei S. Fischer in deutscher Übersetzung publiziert. Seit den frühen neunziger Jahren vergriffen, liegt hier nun eine von Michael Dellwing überarbeitete und herausgegebene Version vor.
This comprehensive handbook provides an overview of key theoretical perspectives, concepts, and methodological approaches that, while applied to diverse phenomena, are united in their general approach to the study of lives across age phases. In surveying the wide terrain of life course studies with dual emphases on theory and empirical research, this important reference work presents probative concepts and methods and identifies promising avenues for future research. Included are sections on history and cross-national variability, normative structuring, movement through the life course, transitions in the life course, turning points, connections between life phases, methodology, and the future of the life course. A major reference work and a seminal text, it is essential reading for social scientists studying phases within the life course, social psychologists in sociology and psychology, demographers and academics in the field of the life course as well as students in these disciplines.
Human Development and Criminal Behavior proposes an exten- sive agenda for crime research. The book is part of a pio- neering effort to understand the causes of crime, particu- larly its developmental course. It defines and sets the con- ditions necessary to conduct an accelerated longitudinal study of individuals at risk to become engaged in criminal careers. This work offers a blueprint for research to eluci- date and possibly prevent crime in our society.
Die Logik der Unvernunft Wie gehen wir mit Geld um? Was bedeutet es uns? Warum sind so viele Menschen bereit, sich hoffnungslos zu verschulden? Und was treibt Banker, den Kollaps unseres Finanzsystems zu riskieren? In der erweiterten Neuausgabe seines internationalen Bestsellers zeigt Dan Ariely, wie unsere Entscheidungen gelenkt werden und weshalb wir in vielen Lebenssituationen zu unserem eigenen Nachteil handeln. »Ein ebenso amüsantes wie lehrreiches Buch.« Der Spiegel Denken hilft zwar, nützt aber nichts von Dan Ariely: im eBook erhältlich!
In der Entwicklungspsychologie hat sich - auch unter dem Einfluss soziodemographischen Wandels - ein Paradigmenwechsel zu einer lebensspannenumfassenden Perspektive vollzogen. In diesem Lehrbuch werden zentrale Ansätze und Ergebnisse der Lebensspannen-Entwicklungspsychologie umfassend und anschaulich dargestellt. Neben grundlegenden theoretischen und methodischen Fragen werden u. a. folgende Themen behandelt: Biologische und verhaltensgenetische Aspekte von Entwicklungsprozessen; Altern und kognitive Funktionen; Selbst und Identität im Lebenszyklus; adaptive Dynamiken und Bewältigungsprozesse; Familien- und Partnerschaftsentwicklung; Entwicklung in sozialen und kulturellen Kontexten; Beratungs- und Interventionskonzepte; Aspekte positiver Entwicklung.
Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth reports the results of a large longitudinal study from 1972 to 1985 on a sample of delinquents and a comparison sample of the population in Montreal. A clarification emerges from this extensive study: how to describe criminal activity in a comprehensive theory of crime which integrates the offense, offending, and patterns of offending. Using a developmental approach, Drs. Le Blanc and Fréchette observed a gradation of crimes with subjects progressing through five distinct stages of offending. In all, the research investigates the factors that sustain the development of offending and the mechanisms which accelerate, stabilize, and decelerate the commission of crimes. This book represents a significant advance in the understanding of the development of criminal activity.
Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.

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