Optical Waves in Layered Media presents a clear picture of the propagation of optical waves in layered media and teaches the reader how to design and analyze optical devices using such media. Starting from the simplest case of plane wave propagation in homogeneous media, the author introduces a new matrix method for studying the optical properties of multilayer structures consisting of isotropic materials. He then describes propagation in anisotropic layered media and in inhomogeneous layers, guided waves, the coupling of modes, and the optical properties of superlattices and quantum wells. Optical Waves in Layered Media bridges the gap between theory and practice by means of numerical examples based on real-life situations.
This textbook offers the first unified treatment of wave propagation in electronic and electromagnetic systems and introduces readers to the essentials of the transfer matrix method, a powerful analytical tool that can be used to model and study an array of problems pertaining to wave propagation in electrons and photons. It is aimed at graduate and advanced undergraduate students in physics, materials science, electrical and computer engineering, and mathematics, and is ideal for researchers in photonic crystals, negative index materials, left-handed materials, plasmonics, nonlinear effects, and optics. Peter Markos and Costas Soukoulis begin by establishing the analogy between wave propagation in electronic systems and electromagnetic media and then show how the transfer matrix can be easily applied to any type of wave propagation, such as electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic waves. The transfer matrix approach of the tight-binding model allows readers to understand its implementation quickly and all the concepts of solid-state physics are clearly introduced. Markos and Soukoulis then build the discussion of such topics as random systems and localized and delocalized modes around the transfer matrix, bringing remarkable clarity to the subject. Total internal reflection, Brewster angles, evanescent waves, surface waves, and resonant tunneling in left-handed materials are introduced and treated in detail, as are important new developments like photonic crystals, negative index materials, and surface plasmons. Problem sets aid students working through the subject for the first time.
This book presents the important analytical technique of magnetic microscopy. This method is applied to analyze layered structures with high resolution. This book presents a number of layer-resolving magnetic imaging techniques that have evolved recently. Many exciting new developments in magnetism rely on the ability to independently control the magnetization in two or more magnetic layers in micro- or nanostructures. This in turn requires techniques with the appropriate spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity. The book begins with an introductory overview, explains then the principles of the various techniques and gives guidance to their use. Selected examples demonstrate the specific strengths of each method. Thus the book is a valuable resource for all scientists and practitioners investigating and applying magnetic layered structures.
Explains in detail the basics, theory, design, fabrication, and operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. All the chapters are written by pioneers and key experts who have exclusive access to the most up-to-date innovations in the respective fields.
Describes how laser radiation propagates in natural and artificial materials and how the state of radiation can be controlled and manipulated (phase intensity, polarization) by various means. New concepts and useful techniques are described in the problems. Includes many figures, tables, and examples.
This book presents current theories of diffraction, imaging, and related topics based on Fourier analysis and synthesis techniques, which are essential for understanding, analyzing, and synthesizing modern imaging, optical communications and networking, as well as micro/nano systems. Applications covered include tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR; optical communications and networking devices; computer-generated holograms and analog holograms; and wireless systems using EM waves.
NOW UPDATED—THE HIGHLY PRACTICAL GUIDE TO ANALYZING LIQUIDCRYSTAL DISPLAYS The subject of liquid crystal displays has vigorously evolvedinto an exciting interdisciplinary field of research anddevelopment, involving optics, materials, and electronics. Updatedto reflect recent advances, the Second Edition of Optics ofLiquid Crystal Displays now offers a broader, morecomprehensive discussion on the fundamentals of display systems andteaches readers how to analyze and design new components andsubsystems for LCDs. New features of this edition include: Discussion of the dynamics of molecular reorientation Expanded information of the method of Poincaré sphere invarious optical components, including achromatic wave plates andcompensators Neutral and negative Biaxial thin films for compensators Circular polarizers and anti-reflection coatings The introduction of wide field-of-view wave plates andfilters Comprehensive coverage of VA-LCD and IPS-LCD Additional numerical examples This updated edition is intended as a textbook for students inelectrical engineering and applied physics, as well as a referencebook for engineers and scientists working in the area of researchand development of display technologies.
A comprehensive introduction to this fast growing technology This book provides an introduction to the rapidly advancing and expanding field of fiber optic sensors, with chapters contributed by internationally recognized experts. Each of the three sections-Basic Components, Technology, and Applications-offers a stand-alone primer on a key area of the field. Together, they give engineers, scientists, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates a comprehensive resource on fiber optic sensors. Initial chapters cover optical fibers, light sources, and detectors and optical modulators, introducing the fundamental building blocks of fiber optic sensors and pointing out the many connections between these elements and fiber optic sensor technology. Subsequent chapters cover: * Extrinsic or hybrid fiber optic sensors * Intensity sensors for monitoring temperature, position, and other environmental aspects * The Fabry-Perot based fiber optic sensor * The Mach-Zehnder interferometer * The Sagnac interferometer and fiber gyroscopes * Displacement fiber optic sensors * Polarization sensors * Industrial applications of fiber optic sensors * Fiber optic smart structures Pooling the expertise of leading professionals, Fiber Optic Sensors supplies an integral resource for understanding a key area of optical science and telecommunications.
The discovery of the Fractional Fourier Transform and its role in optics and data management provides an elegant mathematical framework within which to discuss diffraction and other fundamental aspects of optical systems. This book explains how the fractional Fourier transform has allowed the generalization of the Fourier transform and the notion of the frequency transform. It will serve as the standard reference on Fourier transforms for many years to come.
Provides a particularly good discussion of the electromagnetics of light in bounded media (i.e., fibers). * The only book that treats the two complementary topics, fiber and integrated optics. * A careful and thorough presentation of the topics that make it well suited for self-study. * Includes numerous figures, problems and worked-out solutions. * Discusses all the topics essential to modern optical communication systems including optical fibers, quantum electronics, optical amplifiers, and lasers among others. * Concludes with a chapter that applies the design skills developed throughout the book to realistic problems in fiber optic communication systems. * Heavily illustrated with over 300 figures specially formatted to aid in comprehension.
Recent earthquakes and space program-related news serve as potent reminders of the uses fiber optic technology offers to an increasingly complex world. Like living organisms sensitive to subtle changes in the environment, buildings, structures, and space vehicles can be equipped to sense and react to their surroundings by means of hair-thin glass fiber sensors embedded in structural materials and capable of carrying information and measuring changes in stress and other environmental factors. Data is collected and transmitted to a central location, where the findings are assessed and damage corrected. Fiber Optic Smart Structures pools the expertise of thirty-three leading professionals, many of whom are pioneers in the field, and offers a comprehensive introduction to this fast growing technology. Beginning with a historical overview and a look at the background technology, the book goes on to discuss methods of embedding optical fibers in modern high-strength, lightweight composite materials; ingress and egress of optical fibers; and more specialized application concerns, including use of the Fabry-Perot interferometer and Bragg grating sensors. Lower cost options are considered in light of performance trade-offs, and broad area coverage through single-line stringing of multiple fiber sensors is compared with single and distributed sensor approaches. The last section of the book treats the use of fiber optic smart structures in a wide range of settings. Discussions include applications in environments where high temperature and ultrasonic waves play a role; in the aerospace industry, where changes in the structural integrity of the system demand real-time automatic changes; and a rapidly emerging new direction, earthquake-resistant buildings and, along similar lines, bridges that perform self-diagnostics. The first and only comprehensive professional reference in this important, emerging field, Fiber Optic Smart Structures is a major addition to the libraries of aerospace engineers, mechanical scientists, fiber optics researchers and engineers, architects, and structural engineers. It is also a first-rate graduate-level textbook. The first and only comprehensive reference on this important and emerging field... Fiber Optic Smart Structures is the ultimate resource for engineers, architects, researchers, and anyone with an interest in this promising new technology. Thirty-three of the world's leading professionals--many of them pioneers in the field--bring you comprehensive coverage of every important aspect of fiber optic smart structure technology, including its history and evolution, background technologies, structural and assembly issues, sensing devices, and numerous applications. Topics of particular interest include: * An introduction to advanced composite materials associated with fiber optic smart structures * Structural integrity of materials containing embedded optical fibers * Methods of fiber optic ingress and egress for smart structures * Detailed descriptions of the most useful and promising fiber optic sensors, including those based on the Fabry-Perot interferometer and Bragg grating * Extended discussions of applications, including the use of fiber optic smart structures in high-temperature environments, quality control procedures, aircraft and space vehicles, earthquake-resistant buildings, and bridges that perform self-diagnostics * And much more
Develops the underlying theory of acousto-optics from first principles, formulating results suitable for subsequent calculations and design. Special attention is given to design procedures for the entire range of acousto-optic devices and a wide variety of applications for these devices is also described. Further topics include bulk wave and thin-film devices, transducer theory, isotropic and birefringent interaction. Suitable for use as a textbook or practical design handbook, includes generous problem sections illustrating important characteristics of TeO2, LN, and GaP.
The fundamental science and latest applications of liquid crystal technologies An excellent professional reference and superior upper-level student text, Liquid Crystals, Second Edition is a comprehensive treatment of all the basic principles underlying the unique physical and optical properties of liquid crystals. Written by an internationally known pioneer in the nonlinear optics of liquid crystals, the book also provides a unique, in-depth discussion of the mechanisms and theoretical principles behind all major nonlinear optical phenomena occurring in liquid crystals. Fully revised and updated with the latest developments, this Second Edition covers: Basic physics and optical properties of liquid crystals Nematics, as well as other mesophases such as smectics, ferroelectrics, and cholesterics Fundamentals of liquid crystals for electro-optics, and display and non-display related applications Various theoretical and computational techniques used in describing optical propagation through liquid crystals and anisotropic materials Nonlinear optics of liquid crystals, including updated literature reviews and fundamental discussions Structured to follow a natural sequence of instruction, from basic physics to the latest specialized optical, electro-optical, and nonlinear applications, Liquid Crystals is a textbook that grounds students in the fundamentals before introducing them to the most current discoveries in the field. Written in a clear, reader-friendly style, it features numerous figures, tables, and illustrations, including important and hard-to-find device and material parameters. Invaluable to students, researchers, and those working with liquid crystal applications in various industries, Liquid Crystals, Second Edition is the most comprehensive and up-to-date resource available.
Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advanced topics, such as Fourier optics and holography, guided-wave and fiber optics, semiconductor sources and detectors, electro-optic and acousto-optic devices, nonlinear optical devices, optical interconnects and switches, and optical fiber communications. Each of the twenty-two chapters of the first edition has been thoroughly updated. The Second Edition also features entirely new chapters on photonic-crystal optics (including multilayer and periodic media, waveguides, holey fibers, and resonators) and ultrafast optics (including femtosecond optical pulses, ultrafast nonlinear optics, and optical solitons). The chapters on optical interconnects and switches and optical fiber communications have been completely rewritten to accommodate current technology. Each chapter contains summaries, highlighted equations, exercises, problems, and selected reading lists. Examples of real systems are included to emphasize the concepts governing applications of current interest.
This text presents the fundamental physics at work in imaging systems. It offers a coherent treatment of the principles, mathematics and statistics needed to understand imaging systems.
While most books on electro-optical systems concentrate on an individual subfield, this one presents an overview of the whole field, providing researchers with working knowledge of a number of cross-disciplinary areas. It includes essential information on how to build modern electro-optical instruments such as microscopes, cameras, optical inspection equipment, and spectrometers, and optical-related computer equipment.
This book is the first book devoted to nonlinear optics that treats the subject simply and consistently, with concise yet thorough descriptions of all interrelated phenomena, from the microscopic to the macroscopic. Using a simple model of a time-independent interaction of monochromatic light with an atomic gas, it describes the elementary nonlinear processes that emerge for an isolated atom, the optical characteristics of the medium averaged over a large number of atoms and depending on the intensity of light, and the basic nonlinear optics phenomena observed in the propagation of an intense light wave through the medium. The analytical-theoretical description of nonlinear optics phenomena serves as the focal point for the subjects covered, which the authors have singled out as the main phenomena that qualititively distinguish nonlinear optics from the common linear optics of weak light fluxes. Includes a list of notations and a list of references designed to make it easy for readers to pursue specific areas of research.