This book places oxygen on the center stage of chemistry in a manner that parallels the focus on carbon by 19th century chemists. One measure of the significance of oxygen chemistry is the greater diversity of oxygen-containing molecules than of carbon-containing molecules. One of the most important compounds is water, containing the properties of being a unique medium for biological chemistry and life, the source of all the dioxygen in the atmosphere, and the moderator of the earth's climate. Sawyer first introduces the biological origins of dioxygen and role of dioxygen in aerobic biology and oxidative metabolism, and in separate chapters discusses the oxidation-reduction thermodynamics of oxygen species, and the nature of the bonding for oxygen in its compounds. Additional chapters focus on the reactivities of specific oxygen compounds. The book will be of interest to chemists and biochemists, as well as graduate students, life scientists, and medical researchers.
Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion - new technology producing oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include numerous environmental benefits as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. The text compiles information about using oxygen to enhance high temperature industrial heating and melting processes - serving as a unique resource for specialists implementing the use of oxygen in combustion systems; combustion equipment and industrial gas suppliers; researchers; funding agencies for advanced combustion technologies; and agencies developing regulations for safe, efficient, and environmentally friendly combustion systems. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion: Examines the fundamentals of using oxygen in combustion, pollutant emissions, oxygen production, and heat transfer Describes ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, and incineration Discusses equipment, safety, design, and fuels Assesses recent trends including stricter environmental regulations, lower-cost methods of producing oxygen, improved burner designs, and increasing fuel costs Emphasizing applications and basic principles, this book will act as the primary resource for mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and environmental engineers and scientists; physical chemists; fuel technologists; fluid dynamists; and combustion design engineers. Topics include: General benefits Economics Potential problems Pollutant emissions Oxygen production Adsorption Air separation Heat transfer Ferrous metals Melting and refining processes Nonferrous metals Minerals Glass furnaces Incineration Safety Handling and storage Equipment design Flow controls Fuels
Oxygen takes the reader on an enthralling journey, as gripping as a thriller, as it unravels the unexpected ways in which oxygen spurred the evolution of life and death. The book explains far more than the size of ancient insects: it shows how oxygen underpins the origin of biological complexity, the birth of photosynthesis, the sudden evolution of animals, the need for two sexes, the accelerated ageing of cloned animals like Dolly the sheep, and the surprisingly long lives of bats and birds. Drawing on this grand evolutionary canvas, Oxygen offers fresh perspectives on our own lives and deaths, explaining modern killer diseases, why we age, and what we can do about it.
Explains the characteristics of oxygen, where it is found, how it is used by humans, and its relationship to other elements found in the periodic table.
Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this book and its counterpart, Active Oxygen in Biochemistry, explore the active research area of the chemistry and biochemistry of oxygen. Complementary but independent, the two volumes integrate subject areas including medicine, biology, chemistry, engineering, and environmental studies.
Proceeding held at Churchill College, Cambridge, England, April 1987. A reference for both the skilled and the uninitiated in the concepts and practices for the design and maintenance of all types of oxygen systems. Cov five areas: ignition of metals, nonmetal ignition, material selection for oxygen.
Throughout the world-in China, Japan, Cuba, Canada, Russia, and most of Europe-healing therapies using oxygen, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide have been common for treating a wide array of diseases, including cancer, HIV/AIDS, and arthritis. Yet in the United States, where the mainstream medical community is dependent upon funding from the pharmaceutical industry for research and physician training, these highly efficacious and relatively inexpensive therapies have been largely ignored. Dr. Pavel Yutsis, Medical Director of the CAM Institute for Integrative Therapies, has been using these bio-oxidative techniques for more than twenty years, from the beginning of his career in his native Russia. In Oxygen to the Rescue, Dr. Yutsis explains the difference between oxygenation and oxidation. He describes the four main types of oxygen therapy: o Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) o Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy o Ozone Therapy o Photoluminescence-or ultraviolet radiation of blood (UVIB), and discusses conventional uses versus experimental/controversial uses for each, as well as the means of administering these therapies.For example, HBOT is typically used by mainstream medicine to promote healing of burns and skin grafts, as well as to treat carbon dioxide poisoning and smoke inhalation. Hydrogen peroxide delivers oxygen to the blood and makes it possible for the body to use oxygen more effectively. It regulates sugar, enhances immune system function, and helps cells produce energy. Oxygen to the Rescue provides both the findings of scientific research and anecdotal evidence demonstrating that these underused therapies deserve to be acknowledged among frontline medicine in the United States.
Explores both electrochemistry fundamentals and the applications of oxygen in electrochemical systems. Much of the information is summarized in tables which are accompanied by a list of references to consult for details. Emphasizes fuel cells and metal/air batteries.
This book describes the interlaced histories of life and oxygen. It opens with the generation of oxygen in ancient stars and its distribution to newly formed planets like the Earth. Free O2 was not available on the early Earth, so the first life forms had to be anaerobic. Life introduced free O2 into the environment through the evolution of photosynthesis, which must have been a disaster for many anaerobes. Others found ways to deal with the toxic reactive oxygen species and even developed a much more efficient oxygen-based metabolism. The authors vividly describe how the introduction of O2 allowed the burst of evolution that created today’s biota. They also discuss the interplay of O2 and CO2, with consequences such as worldwide glaciations and global warming. On the physiological level, they present an overview of oxidative metabolism and O2 transport, and the importance of O2 in human life and medicine, emphasizing that while oxygen is essential, it is also related to aging and many disease states.
In this revised, updated, two-color edition of the acclaimed text Animal Physiology, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen introduces and develops the fundamental principles of animal physiology according to major environmental features--oxygen, food and energy, temperature, and water. The book is structured the same as the previous edition, but every chapter has been updated to take into account recent developments, with numerous new references and figures. New and expanded features include: extensive modifications to the chapter on Movement, Muscle and Biomechanics; new material on respiratory pigments; feeding and digestion in shrimp and hoatzin; plant defense compounds; diving in seals; high temperature tolerance; the patch clamp method for ion channel research; the pineal gland and melatonin. Two-color throughout for clear description and illustration of fundamental principles.
Annotation Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on [title] held in Las Cruces, NM, April 1989. Presents 22 papers on the special hazards associated with the use of oxygen. Contains recent literature on flammability and compatibility of materials in oxygen, design of oxygen components and systems, and test method development and evaluation. Illustrated. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
This rare and unique work consists of a broad overview of hyperviscosity, blood cell deformability, and platelet aggregation. These topics are written in combination with a comprehensive review of drugs bring developed to treat impaired oxygen delivery to tissue. It devotes much attention to the pathophysiology and pharmacology of platelet and red cell involvement. This easy-to-use volume describes in detail techniques for studying microcirculatory functional efficiency, blood cell rheology, and intravascular platelet thrombosis. It also provides the reader with more than 50 figures and nearly 1500 references at a glance. This book is an indispensable resource for all pharmaceutical researchers, physicians, and medical students interested in emerging therapeutic approaches to ischemia.
This exciting new text provides evidence-based information for anyone involved in hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). It outlines the physiologic principles that constitute the basis for understanding the clinical implications for treatment and describes recent advances and current research, along with new approaches to therapy.