There is an increasing awareness that access to financial services can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. This study focuses on the delivery of financial services in Brazil, one of the world's most important emerging financial markets. It examines different aspects of financial service provision, and explores approaches to address problems of financial exclusion. Topics discussed include: microfinance schemes; private banking; rural finance systems; institutional infrastructure; and the role of government policy.
The Complete Guide to Avoiding and Fixing Common Rails 3 Code and Design Problems As developers worldwide have adopted the powerful Ruby on Rails web framework, many have fallen victim to common mistakes that reduce code quality, performance, reliability, stability, scalability, and maintainability. Rails™ AntiPatterns identifies these widespread Rails code and design problems, explains why they’re bad and why they happen—and shows exactly what to do instead. The book is organized into concise, modular chapters—each outlines a single common AntiPattern and offers detailed, cookbook-style code solutions that were previously difficult or impossible to find. Leading Rails developers Chad Pytel and Tammer Saleh also offer specific guidance for refactoring existing bad code or design to reflect sound object-oriented principles and established Rails best practices. With their help, developers, architects, and testers can dramatically improve new and existing applications, avoid future problems, and establish superior Rails coding standards throughout their organizations. This book will help you understand, avoid, and solve problems with Model layer code, from general object-oriented programming violations to complex SQL and excessive redundancy Domain modeling, including schema and database issues such as normalization and serialization View layer tools and conventions Controller-layer code, including RESTful code Service-related APIs, including timeouts, exceptions, backgrounding, and response codes Third-party code, including plug-ins and gems Testing, from test suites to test-driven development processes Scaling and deployment Database issues, including migrations and validations System design for “graceful degradation” in the real world
Microfinance India: State of the Sector Report 2010 presents the growth of the microfinance sector in India in its entirety. It offers in-depth, well-researched and well-analyzed evidence on how the sector has made an impact at various levels of the economy and society. The report provides most recent statistical data relating to the sector's growth and expansion across models. It highlights perspectives on current issues and documents new interest, new investments and innovations in the sector. The report collects information from authoritative sources, studies and reports on the sector and field studies on specific developments of interest. Included in the report are: a comparison of the performance of SHG and MFI models, Microfinance Penetration Indices that compare client outreach across states and discussions on innovations and novel experiments in the sector and themes of topical relevance. It also identifies knowledge and practice gaps that require further research and study. The best reference book on the annual trends and progress of the Indian microfinance sector, the report is a must for every microfinance practitioner.
'To take birth as a poor man itself is a big punishment. We are facing many difficulties and there is none to support us. We cannot die also. ... Our condition is like applying perfumed oil to mustache when there is no food to eat.' - Male focus group discussion, Appipuram, Andhra Pradesh India has experienced accelerating growth in the last 10 years, yet millions of Indians remain mired in poverty. Why? Most books on growth and poverty reduction are dominated by the perspectives of policy makers and academic experts. 'Moving Out of Poverty: The Promise of Empowerment and Democracy in India' brings together the voices of poor men and women from 300 villages across Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, as it seeks to understand how these people have managed to escape poverty, while others remain stuck, and still others fall into poverty. The study explores the role of institutions such as family, markets and local panchayats, and factors such as aspiration, empowerment, social exclusion and conflict, health and asset accumulation, in explaining escape from poverty and falling into poverty.
Master the Civil Service Exams offers complete test preparation for the written exam so you can pursue a government job. Math, verbal and clerical exercises, plus four full-length practice tests, build skills and confidence, while experts in the field provide an inside scoop on how to become a first-rate job candidate. You will also find up-to-date information on the civil service job market and projected areas of growth.
This book is the product of a study conducted by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Ministry of Urban Housing and Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA). Its objective is to highlight some of the problems faced by street vendors in conducting their daily business and to examine how financial institutions, especially those in the banking sector, can include street vendors in their credit policies. Data was collected from 15 cities across the country. Not surprisingly, while issues such as public space utilisation have been deliberated upon at length, those concerning the nature of credit transactions and concurrently the financial inclusion of street vendors have scarcely received focussed attention. In the absence of formal credit, street vendors largely depend on loan sharks, who charge high interest rates ranging from 350% to 800% per annum. The problem of formal credit aside, another equally important factor is the inflexible attitude of the civic authorities towards street vending. Given their informal status, this is particularly apparent because they are forced to conduct business in the absence of legal protection, making them vulnerable to rent seeking by the authorities. The acceptance of the National Policy for Urban Street Vendors by a few states and the subsequent bill to protect the livelihood of street vendors should help them gain legitimacy and subsequently credit to run their businesses at proper rates. The book examines and analyses these issues.
This fifth edition of the Macquarie, measuring a new awareness of environment and fragility, will mark a turning of the tide in our consciousness, in the span of our response, in the way we give voice to place – and place to voice. (Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia)Since the Macquarie Dictionary was first published in 1981, its reputation as Australia's national dictionary has gone from strength to strength. It is now nationally and internationally regarded as the standard reference on Australian English. A comprehensive and up-to-date account of our variety of English, it not only includes all those words and senses peculiar to Australian English, but also those common to the whole English-speaking world.
"Sharp, funny, thought-provoking . . . a really great portrait of two young women as they're figuring out how to be adults." - Celeste Ng, "Late Night with Seth Meyers Podcast" Winner of the 2017 Sunday Times Young Writer of the Year Frances is a cool-headed and darkly observant young woman, vaguely pursuing a career in writing while studying in Dublin. Her best friend and comrade-in-arms is the beautiful and endlessly self-possessed Bobbi. At a local poetry performance one night, Frances and Bobbi catch the eye of Melissa, a well-known photographer, and as the girls are then gradually drawn into Melissa's world, Frances is reluctantly impressed by the older woman's sophisticated home and tall, handsome husband, Nick. However amusing and ironic Frances and Nick's flirtation seems at first, it gives way to a strange intimacy, and Frances's friendship with Bobbi begins to fracture. As Frances tries to keep her life in check, her relationships increasingly resist her control: with Nick, with her difficult and unhappy father, and finally, terribly, with Bobbi. Desperate to reconcile her inner life to the desires and vulnerabilities of her body, Frances's intellectual certainties begin to yield to something new: a painful and disorienting way of living from moment to moment. Written with gem-like precision and marked by a sly sense of humor, Conversations with Friends is wonderfully alive to the pleasures and dangers of youth, and the messy edges of female friendship.
The only guide you need to pass any state's Firefighter Exam!
The ultimate guide to contemporary Australian English, this is a major revision of the most authoritative Australian Dictionary written for all Australians.
This book brings together the latest thinking about poverty dynamics from diverse analytic traditions. While covering a vast body of conceptual and empirical knowledge about economic and social mobility, it takes the reader on compelling journeys of multigenerational accounts of three villages in Kanartaka, India, twelve years in the life of a street child in Burkina Faso, and much more. Leading development practitioners and scholars from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology critically examine the literature from their disciplines and contribute new frameworks and evidence from their own works. The 'Moving Out of Poverty' series launched in 2007 is under the editorial direction of Deepa Narayan, Senior Advisor of the World Bank and former director of the pathbreaking 'Voices of the Poor' series. It features the results of new comparative research across more than 500 communities in 15 countries to understand how and why people move out of poverty, and presents other work which builds on interdisciplinary and contextually grounded understandings of growth and poverty reduction.
REA's EMT Crash Course® is the only book of its kind for the last-minute studier or any prospective Emergency Medical Technician who wants a quick refresher before taking the NREMT Certification Exam. Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Written by an EMS Program Director and NREMT paramedic with 30 years of experience, EMT Crash Course® relies on the author's careful analysis of the exam's content and actual test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our fully indexed targeted review covers all the official test categories including airway, ventilation, oxygenation, trauma, cardiology, medical, and EMS operations and is packed with practice questions and answers at the end of each chapter. Also included are tips and insights on résumé building, information on finding additional training opportunities, and more. Expert Test-taking Strategies Our experienced EMT author explains the structure of the NREMT Certification Exam, so you know what to expect on test day. He also shares detailed question-level strategies and shows you the best way to answer questions. By following our expert tips and advice, you can score higher on every section of the exam. Must-know Key Terms Knowing the right medical terminology can make a real difference in your test score. That's why we cover more than 400 EMT terms you need to know before you take your exam. Full-length Online Practice Exam The book comes with a true-to-format online practice test with diagnostic feedback, topic-level scoring, and detailed answer explanations to help students gauge their test-readiness. No matter how or when you prepare for the EMT exam, REA's EMT Crash Course® will show you how to study efficiently and strategically, so you can get a great score!