Human-wildlife conflict is a major issue in conservation. As people encroach into natural habitats, and as conservation efforts restore wildlife to areas where they may have been absent for generations, contact between people and wild animals is growing. Some species, even the beautiful and endangered, can have serious impacts on human lives and livelihoods. Tigers kill people, elephants destroy crops and African wild dogs devastate sheep herds left unattended. Historically, people have responded to these threats by killing wildlife wherever possible, and this has led to the endangerment of many species that are difficult neighbours. The urgent need to conserve such species, however, demands coexistence of people and endangered wildlife. This book presents a variety of solutions to human-wildlife conflicts, including novel and traditional farming practices, offsetting the costs of wildlife damage through hunting and tourism, and the development of local and national policies.
Carnivores provide innumerable ecological benefits and play a unique role in preserving and maintaining ecosystem services and function, but at the same time they can create serious problems for human populations. A key question for conservation biologists and wildlife managers is how to manage the world's carnivore populations to conserve this important natural resource while mitigating harmful impacts on humans. In People and Predators, leading scientists and researchers offer case studies of human-carnivore conflicts in a variety of landscapes, including rural, urban, and political. The book covers a diverse range of taxa, geographic regions, and conflict scenarios, with each chapter dealing with a specific facet of human-carnivore interactions and offering practical, concrete approaches to resolving the conflict under consideration. Chapters provide background on particular problems and describe how challenges have been met or what research or tools are still needed to resolve the conflicts. People and Predators will helps readers to better understand issues of carnivore conservation in the 21st century, and provides practical tools for resolving many of the problems that stand between us and a future in which carnivores fulfill their historic ecological roles.
Conflicts about wildlife are usually portrayed and understood as resulting from the negative impacts of wildlife on human livelihoods or property. However, a greater depth of analysis reveals that many instances of human-wildlife conflict are often better understood as people-people conflict, wherein there is a clash of values between different human groups. Understanding Conflicts About Wildlife unites academics and practitioners from across the globe to develop a holistic view of these interactions. It considers the political and social dimensions of 'human-wildlife conflicts' alongside effective methodological approaches, and will be of value to academics, conservationists and policy makers.
Winner of The Wildlife Society's 2009 Wildlife Publication Award for outstanding edited book As human populations around the world continue to expand, reconciling nature conservation with human needs and aspirations is imperative. The emergence in recent decades of the academic field of human dimensions of fish and wildlife management is a proactive response to this complex problem. Wildlife and Society brings together leading researchers in the range of specialties that are relevant to the study of human dimensions of fish and wildlife work around the globe to provide theoretical and historical context as well as a demonstration of tools, methodologies, and idea-sharing for practical implementation and integration of practices. Chapters document the progress on key issues and offer a multifaceted presentation of this truly interdisciplinary field. The book • presents an overview of the changing culture of fish and wildlife management; • considers social factors creating change in fish and wildlife conservation; • explores how to build the social component into the philosophy of wildlife management; • discusses legal and institutional factors; • examines social perspectives on contemporary fish and wildlife management issues. Wildlife and Society is uniquely comprehensive in its approach to presenting the past, present, and future of human dimensions of fish and wildlife research and application. It offers perspectives from a wide variety of academic disciplines as well as presenting the views of practitioners from the United States, Europe, Africa, and Latin America. It is an important new reference for anyone concerned with fish and wildlife management or environmental conservation and protection.
As more and more people crowd onto less and less land, incidences of human-wildlife conflicts will only increase. A comprehensive overview of this emerging field, Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management discusses the issues facing wildlife managers and anyone else dealing with interactions between wildlife and humans. By defining the discipline of wildlife damage management, this book fills a void in the fields of wildlife management and ecology. The director of the Jack H. Berryman Institute, the only academic institute devoted to wildlife damage management, author Michael Conover is the leader in this field. In this book, he stresses the inter-relatedness of wildlife damage management within the larger discipline of wildlife conservation and provides an extensive review of the scientific literature. He includes case-studies that document how an integrated approach to wildlife management can resolve wildlife-human conflicts. Nowhere else will you find the authoritative coverage and depth of theoretical information available in Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management. The combination of descriptive prose, historical details, and liberal use of informative sidebars add to its appeal as a textbook, while the organization and scope make it the ideal reference for professionals.
"Ultimately, we can all trace our origins back to the savannas of Africa. Robin Reid's book provides an eloquent introduction into the biology of the savannas that shaped us as humans; simultaneously, she provides an insightful and comprehensive overview of current and future threats to East African savannas and the steps that need to be taken to conserve the world we first lived in. Don't go to East Africa without first reading this book; it will enhance your safari and empower your research."Andrew P. Dobson, author of "Conservation and Biodiversity " ""Savannas of Our Birth" provides a balanced, scientific, and accessible examination of the current state of East African savannas and the relationships among the wildlife and people who live there. Reid examines how savannas came to be and what alternative futures may be possible by trying to chart a middle ground in contentious debates about conservation and local rights."J. Terrence McCabe, author of "Cattle Bring Us to Our Enemies: Turkana Ecology, History, and Raiding in a Disequilibrium System" "Reid's research focusing on pastoralists has reminded me that wildlife and domestic livestock co-existed to their mutual benefit for the last 2000 years. With reopened eyes, I've even seen it for myself in the case of the Masai and the savanna wildlife I study. There is an extraordinary wealth of information in this book."Richard D. Estes, author of "The Behavior Guide to African Mammals""
This controversial expose of the conflict between humans and wildlife lifts the lid on the battle for turf: the future of conservation will depend on the relationship established between wildlife authorities and those bearing the brunt along the front line."
As formidable instruments of war, they have changed the destinies of empires. As marauding crop raiders, they are despised. As an endangered species, they are cherished. Numerous and often contrasting are the ways in which elephants have been regarded by humans across millennia. Today, with reduced forest cover, human population expansion, and increasing industrialization, interaction between the two species is unavoidable and conflict is not mere happenstance. What, then, is the future of this relationship? In South Asia, human-elephant relationships resonate with cultural significance. From the importance of elephants in ancient texts to the role of mahouts over centuries, from discussions on de-extinction to accounts of intimate companionship, the essays in this book�reveal the various dynamics of the relationship between two intelligent social mammals. Eschewing such binaries as human and animal or nature and culture, the essays present elephants as subjective agents who think, feel, and emote. Conflict, Negotiation, and Coexistence underscores the fact that we cannot understand elephant habitat and behaviour in isolation from the humans that help configure it. Significantly, nor can we understand human political, economic, and social life without the elephants that shape and share the world with them.�
Wolves were once common throughout North America and Eurasia. But by the early twentieth century, bounties and organized hunts had drastically reduced their numbers. Today, the wolf is returning to its ancestral territories, and the “coywolf”—a smaller, bolder wolf-coyote hybrid—is becoming more common. In Return of the Wolf, author Paula Wild gathers first-hand accounts of encounters with wolves and consults with wildlife experts for suggestions on how minimize conflict, respond to aggressive wolves and coexist with the apex predator. Wild explores the latest theories on how wolves became dogs, the evolving strategies to prevent livestock predation, and why Eurasian wolves seem more aggressive toward humans than their North American cousins. She also addresses the many misconceptions about wolves: for example, that they howl when hungry, kill for pleasure and always live in packs. What is true is that a wolf possesses a howl as unique as a human fingerprint and can trot eight kilometres per hour for most of the day or night in search of prey while using earth’s magnetic field to find its way. Some scientists consider wolves’ complex social structures and family bonds closer to humans’ than those of primates. In a skillful blend of natural history, Indigenous stories and interviews with scientists and conservationists, Wild examines our evolving relationship with wolves and how society’s attitudes affect the populations, behaviour and conservation of wolves today. As a highly social, intelligent animal, the wolf is proving adept at navigating the challenges of an ever-changing landscape. But their fate remains uncertain. Wolves are adapting to humans; can humans adapt to wolves?
For far too long humans have been ignoring nature. As the most dominant, overproducing, overconsuming, big-brained, big-footed, arrogant, and invasive species ever known, we are wrecking the planet at an unprecedented rate. And while science is important to our understanding of the impact we have on our environment, it alone does not hold the answers to the current crisis, nor does it get people to act. In Ignoring Nature No More, Marc Bekoff and a host of renowned contributors argue that we need a new mind-set about nature, one that centers on empathy, compassion, and being proactive. This collection of diverse essays is the first book devoted to compassionate conservation, a growing global movement that translates discussions and concerns about the well-being of individuals, species, populations, and ecosystems into action. Written by leading scholars in a host of disciplines, including biology, psychology, sociology, social work, economics, political science, and philosophy, as well as by locals doing fieldwork in their own countries, the essays combine the most creative aspects of the current science of animal conservation with analyses of important psychological and sociocultural issues that encourage or vex stewardship. The contributors tackle topics including the costs and benefits of conservation, behavioral biology, media coverage of animal welfare, conservation psychology, and scales of conservation from the local to the global. Taken together, the essays make a strong case for why we must replace our habits of domination and exploitation with compassionate conservation if we are to make the world a better place for nonhuman and human animals alike.
An insightful guide to understanding conflicts over the conservation of biodiversity and groundbreaking strategies to deal with them.
The second edition of Tigers of the World explores tiger biology, ecology, conservation, management, and the science and technology that make this possible. In 1988, when the first edition was published, tiger conservation was still in its infancy, and two decades later there has been a revolution not only in what is known, but how information about tigers is obtained and disseminated. In the fast changing world of conservation, there is a great need to summarize the vast and current state-of-the-art, to put this into historical perspective, and to speculate in what yet remains to be done. Tigers of the World, 2e fulfills this need by bringing together in a unique way the world’s leading tiger experts into one volume. Despite the challenges ahead, there are bright spots in this story and lessons aplenty not only for tiger specialists but large carnivore specialists, conservation biologists, wildlife managers, natural resource policymakers, and most importantly the caring public. *Examines the past twenty years of research from the world’s leading tiger experts on biology, politics, and conservation. *Describes latest methods used to disseminate and obtain information needed for conservation and care of this species. *Includes coverage on genetics and ecology, policy, poaching and trade, captive breeding and farming, and the status of Asia’s last wild tigers. *Excellent resource for grad courses in conservation biology, wildlife management, and veterinary programs. *New volume continues the classic Noyes Series in Animal Behavior, Ecology, Conservation and Management.
The entwined history of humans and elephants is fascinating but often sad. People have used elephants as beasts of burden and war machines, slaughtered them for their ivory, exterminated them as threats to people and ecosystems, turned them into objects of entertainment at circuses, employed them as both curiosities and conservation ambassadors in zoos, and deified and honored them in religious rites. How have such actions affected these pachyderms? What ethical and moral imperatives should humans follow to ensure that elephants are treated with dignity and saved from extinction? In Elephants and Ethics, Christen Wemmer and Catherine A. Christen assemble an international cohort of experts to review the history of human-elephant relations, discuss current issues of vital concern to elephant welfare, and assess the prospects for the ethical coexistence of both species. Part I provides an overview of the vexatious human-elephant relationship, from the history of our interactions to understanding elephant intelligence and sense of self. It concludes with a discussion of the issues of stress, pain, and suffering as experienced by elephants in human care and the problems inherent in assessing these subjectively. The second part explores how humans use elephants as tools and entertainment. It reviews domestic uses in Asia, examines the history and roles of elephants in zoos and circuses, and discusses the methods and ethics of training and caring for captive elephants. In Part III the contributors examine the fragile and conflict-filled world of human-elephant interactions in the wild. Each chapter delves into a different angle of the "elephant problem"- the all-too-human problem of our growing populations taking over space that was historically the domain of these pachyderms. The chapters explore attempts to tame and "train" elephants in populous areas, the struggle over balancing species preservation while maintaining biodiversity in protected areas, and the conundrums posed by hunting, tourism, and human-elephant competition on rural land. That the future health and survival of elephants is dependent on human actions is irrefutable. In addressing these issues from multiple perspectives, Elephants and Ethics promotes mutual understanding of the cultural, conservation, and economic difficulties at the root of the many troublesome human-elephant interactions and poses new questions about our responsibility toward these largest of land mammals.
This book explores the links between bushmeat and livelihoods in Africa, with a focus on the human dimension of the debate. Assembles biological, social and economic perspectives that illuminate the bushmeat debate Features a series of case studies that explore what species survive different intensities of bushmeat hunting and trapping Examines the shape and size of household bushmeat consumption and market trading Reviews governance and institutional impacts on wildlife management; lessons learned from agriculture, forest plant product, and development sectors; and perspectives from Asia and Latin America Provides an excellent resource for students and policy makers in wildlife management, conservation, and development
An engaging and at times sobering look at the coexistence of humans and animals in the 21st century and how their sometimes disparate needs affect environments, politics, economies, and culture worldwide. • Includes excerpts from 20 primary source documents related to animals • Offers a comprehensive look at a variety of aspects of human-animal relationships • Discusses how human actions affect the survival of other species, such as the northern spotted owl and bluefin tuna
For all the discussion in the media about creationism and 'Intelligent Design', virtually nothing has been said about the evidence in question - the evidence for evolution by natural selection. Yet, as this succinct and important book shows, that evidence is vast, varied, and magnificent, and drawn from many disparate fields of science. The very latest research is uncovering a stream of evidence revealing evolution in action - from the actual observation of a species splitting into two, to new fossil discoveries, to the deciphering of the evidence stored in our genome. Why Evolution is True weaves together the many threads of modern work in genetics, palaeontology, geology, molecular biology, anatomy, and development to demonstrate the 'indelible stamp' of the processes first proposed by Darwin. It is a crisp, lucid, and accessible statement that will leave no one with an open mind in any doubt about the truth of evolution.
Mountain Gorillas features stunning photos and four appendices documenting key biological and ecological information, habitat vegetation, milestones in mountain gorilla conservation, and travel information.
Most scientists and researchers working in tropical areas are convinced that parks and protected areas are the only real hope for saving land and biodiversity in those regions. Rather than giving up on parks that are foundering, ways must be found to strengthen them, and Making Parks Work offers a vital contribution to that effort. Focusing on the "good news" -- success stories from the front lines and what lessons can be taken from those stories -- the book gathers experiences and information from thirty leading conservationists into a guidebook of principles for effective management of protected areas. The book: offers a general overview of the status of protected areas worldwide presents case studies from Africa, Latin America, and Asia written by field researchers with long experience working in those areas analyzes a variety of problems that parks face and suggests policies and practices for coping with those problems explores the broad philosophical questions of conservation and how protected areas can -- and must -- resist the mounting pressures of an overcrowded worldContributors include Mario Boza, Katrina Brandon, K. Ullas Karanth, Randall Kramer, Jeff Langholz, John F. Oates, Carlos A. Peres, Herman Rijksen, Nick Salafsky, Thomas T. Struhsaker, Patricia C. Wright, and others.
The ideology of conservation in India today faces a crisis. Nature lovers, photographers, tourists continue to flock to the National Parks, hoping to see tigers in Ranthambor, lions in the Gir forests, and rare birds in Bharatpur. But smugglers and poachers, supported by politicians and business interests, sheltered by local communities, raid the protected forests for valuable exports. This tract traces the roots of such problems to the very ideology of conservation in India, and discusses its historical and conceptual basis.
Large carnivores include iconic species such as bears, wolves and big cats. Their habitats are increasingly being shared with humans, and there is a growing number of examples of human-carnivore coexistence as well as conflict. Next to population dynamics of large carnivores, there are considerable attitude shifts towards these species worldwide with multiple implications. This book argues and demonstrates why human dimensions of relationships to large carnivores are crucial for their successful conservation and management. It provides an overview of theoretical and methodological perspectives, heterogeneity in stakeholder perceptions and behaviour as well as developments in decision making, stakeholder involvement, policy and governance informed by human dimensions of large carnivore conservation and management. The scope is international, with detailed examples and case studies from Europe, North and South America, Central and South Asia, as well as debates of the challenges faced by urbanization, agricultural expansion, national parks and protected areas. The main species covered include bears, wolves, lynx, and leopards. The book provides a novel perspective for advanced students, researchers and professionals in ecology and conservation, wildlife management, human-wildlife interactions, environmental education and environmental social science.