One of the greatest challenges faced by designers of digital systems is optimizing the communication and interconnection between system components. Interconnection networks offer an attractive and economical solution to this communication crisis and are fast becoming pervasive in digital systems. Current trends suggest that this communication bottleneck will be even more problematic when designing future generations of machines. Consequently, the anatomy of an interconnection network router and science of interconnection network design will only grow in importance in the coming years. This book offers a detailed and comprehensive presentation of the basic principles of interconnection network design, clearly illustrating them with numerous examples, chapter exercises, and case studies. It incorporates hardware-level descriptions of concepts, allowing a designer to see all the steps of the process from abstract design to concrete implementation. ·Case studies throughout the book draw on extensive author experience in designing interconnection networks over a period of more than twenty years, providing real world examples of what works, and what doesn't. ·Tightly couples concepts with implementation costs to facilitate a deeper understanding of the tradeoffs in the design of a practical network. ·A set of examples and exercises in every chapter help the reader to fully understand all the implications of every design decision.
Foreword -- Foreword to the First Printing -- Preface -- Chapter 1 -- Introduction -- Chapter 2 -- Message Switching Layer -- Chapter 3 -- Deadlock, Livelock, and Starvation -- Chapter 4 -- Routing Algorithms -- Chapter 5 -- CollectiveCommunicationSupport -- Chapter 6 -- Fault-Tolerant Routing -- Chapter 7 -- Network Architectures -- Chapter 8 -- Messaging Layer Software -- Chapter 9 -- Performance Evaluation -- Appendix A -- Formal Definitions for Deadlock Avoidance -- Appendix B -- Acronyms -- References -- Index.
What makes some computers slow? Why do some digital systems operate reliably for years while others fail mysteriously every few hours? How can some systems dissipate kilowatts while others operate off batteries? These questions of speed, reliability, and power are all determined by the system-level electrical design of a digital system. Digital Systems Engineering presents a comprehensive treatment of these topics. It combines a rigorous development of the fundamental principles in each area with real-world examples of circuits and methods. The book not only serves as an undergraduate textbook, filling the gap between circuit design and logic design, but can also help practising digital designers keep pace with the speed and power of modern integrated circuits. The techniques described in this book, once used only in supercomputers, are essential to the correct and efficient operation of any type of digital system.
In designing a network device, you make dozens of decisions that affect the speed with which it will perform-sometimes for better, but sometimes for worse. Network Algorithmics provides a complete, coherent methodology for maximizing speed while meeting your other design goals. Author George Varghese begins by laying out the implementation bottlenecks that are most often encountered at four disparate levels of implementation: protocol, OS, hardware, and architecture. He then derives 15 solid principles-ranging from the commonly recognized to the groundbreaking-that are key to breaking these bottlenecks. The rest of the book is devoted to a systematic application of these principles to bottlenecks found specifically in endnodes, interconnect devices, and specialty functions such as security and measurement that can be located anywhere along the network. This immensely practical, clearly presented information will benefit anyone involved with network implementation, as well as students who have made this work their goal. FOR INSTRUCTORS: To obtain access to the solutions manual for this title simply register on our textbook website (textbooks.elsevier.com)and request access to the Computer Science subject area. Once approved (usually within one business day) you will be able to access all of the instructor-only materials through the "Instructor Manual" link on this book's academic web page at textbooks.elsevier.com. Addresses the bottlenecks found in all kinds of network devices, (data copying, control transfer, demultiplexing, timers, and more) and offers ways to break them Presents techniques suitable specifically for endnodes, including Web servers Presents techniques suitable specifically for interconnect devices, including routers, bridges, and gateways Written as a practical guide for implementers but full of valuable insights for students, teachers, and researchers Includes end-of-chapter summaries and exercises
With the ability to integrate a large number of cores on a single chip, research into on-chip networks to facilitate communication becomes increasingly important. On-chip networks seek to provide a scalable and high-bandwidth communication substrate for multi-core and many-core architectures. High bandwidth and low latency within the on-chip network must be achieved while fitting within tight area and power budgets. In this lecture, we examine various fundamental aspects of on-chip network design and provide the reader with an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in this field. Table of Contents: Introduction / Interface with System Architecture / Topology / Routing / Flow Control / Router Microarchitecture / Conclusions
This book outlines a set of issues that are critical to all of parallel architecture--communication latency, communication bandwidth, and coordination of cooperative work (across modern designs). It describes the set of techniques available in hardware and in software to address each issues and explore how the various techniques interact.
The new RISC-V Edition of Computer Organization and Design features the RISC-V open source instruction set architecture, the first open source architecture designed to be used in modern computing environments such as cloud computing, mobile devices, and other embedded systems. With the post-PC era now upon us, Computer Organization and Design moves forward to explore this generational change with examples, exercises, and material highlighting the emergence of mobile computing and the Cloud. Updated content featuring tablet computers, Cloud infrastructure, and the x86 (cloud computing) and ARM (mobile computing devices) architectures is included. An online companion Web site provides advanced content for further study, appendices, glossary, references, and recommended reading. Features RISC-V, the first such architecture designed to be used in modern computing environments, such as cloud computing, mobile devices, and other embedded systems Includes relevant examples, exercises, and material highlighting the emergence of mobile computing and the cloud
Advances in GPU Research and Practice focuses on research and practices in GPU based systems. The topics treated cover a range of issues, ranging from hardware and architectural issues, to high level issues, such as application systems, parallel programming, middleware, and power and energy issues. Divided into six parts, this edited volume provides the latest research on GPU computing. Part I: Architectural Solutions focuses on the architectural topics that improve on performance of GPUs, Part II: System Software discusses OS, compilers, libraries, programming environment, languages, and paradigms that are proposed and analyzed to help and support GPU programmers. Part III: Power and Reliability Issues covers different aspects of energy, power, and reliability concerns in GPUs. Part IV: Performance Analysis illustrates mathematical and analytical techniques to predict different performance metrics in GPUs. Part V: Algorithms presents how to design efficient algorithms and analyze their complexity for GPUs. Part VI: Applications and Related Topics provides use cases and examples of how GPUs are used across many sectors. Discusses how to maximize power and obtain peak reliability when designing, building, and using GPUs Covers system software (OS, compilers), programming environments, languages, and paradigms proposed to help and support GPU programmers Explains how to use mathematical and analytical techniques to predict different performance metrics in GPUs Illustrates the design of efficient GPU algorithms in areas such as bioinformatics, complex systems, social networks, and cryptography Provides applications and use case scenarios in several different verticals, including medicine, social sciences, image processing, and telecommunications
Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Sixth Edition has been considered essential reading by instructors, students and practitioners of computer design for over 20 years. The sixth edition of this classic textbook is fully revised with the latest developments in processor and system architecture. It now features examples from the RISC-V (RISC Five) instruction set architecture, a modern RISC instruction set developed and designed to be a free and openly adoptable standard. It also includes a new chapter on domain-specific architectures and an updated chapter on warehouse-scale computing that features the first public information on Google's newest WSC. True to its original mission of demystifying computer architecture, this edition continues the longstanding tradition of focusing on areas where the most exciting computing innovation is happening, while always keeping an emphasis on good engineering design. Includes a new chapter on domain-specific architectures, explaining how they are the only path forward for improved performance and energy efficiency given the end of Moore’s Law and Dennard scaling Features the first publication of several DSAs from industry Features extensive updates to the chapter on warehouse-scale computing, with the first public information on the newest Google WSC Offers updates to other chapters including new material dealing with the use of stacked DRAM; data on the performance of new NVIDIA Pascal GPU vs. new AVX-512 Intel Skylake CPU; and extensive additions to content covering multicore architecture and organization Includes "Putting It All Together" sections near the end of every chapter, providing real-world technology examples that demonstrate the principles covered in each chapter Includes review appendices in the printed text and additional reference appendices available online Includes updated and improved case studies and exercises
Teaching fundamental design concepts and the challenges of emerging technology, this textbook prepares students for a career designing the computer systems of the future. In-depth coverage of complexity, power, reliability and performance, coupled with treatment of parallelism at all levels, including ILP and TLP, provides the state-of-the-art training that students need. The whole gamut of parallel architecture design options is explained, from core microarchitecture to chip multiprocessors to large-scale multiprocessor systems. All the chapters are self-contained, yet concise enough that the material can be taught in a single semester, making it perfect for use in senior undergraduate and graduate computer architecture courses. The book is also teeming with practical examples to aid the learning process, showing concrete applications of definitions. With simple models and codes used throughout, all material is made open to a broad range of computer engineering/science students with only a basic knowledge of hardware and software.
This book presents an overview of the issues related to the test, diagnosis and fault-tolerance of Network on Chip-based systems. It is the first book dedicated to the quality aspects of NoC-based systems and will serve as an invaluable reference to the problems, challenges, solutions, and trade-offs related to designing and implementing state-of-the-art, on-chip communication architectures.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Reconfigurable Computing, ARC 2006, held in Delft, The Netherlands, in March 2006. The 22 revised full papers and 35 revised short papers presented were thoroughly reviewed and selected from 95 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on applications, power, image processing, organization and architecture, networks and communication, security, and tools.
Network Routing: Algorithms, Protocols, and Architectures, Second Edition, explores network routing and how it can be broadly categorized into Internet routing, PSTN routing, and telecommunication transport network routing. The book systematically considers these routing paradigms, as well as their interoperability, discussing how algorithms, protocols, analysis, and operational deployment impact these approaches and addressing both macro-state and micro-state in routing. Readers will learn about the evolution of network routing, the role of IP and E.164 addressing and traffic engineering in routing, the impact on router and switching architectures and their design, deployment of network routing protocols, and lessons learned from implementation and operational experience. Numerous real-world examples bring the material alive. Extensive coverage of routing in the Internet, from protocols (such as OSPF, BGP), to traffic engineering, to security issues A detailed coverage of various router and switch architectures, IP lookup and packet classification methods A comprehensive treatment of circuit-switched routing and optical network routing New topics such as software-defined networks, data center networks, multicast routing Bridges the gap between theory and practice in routing, including the fine points of implementation and operational experience Accessible to a wide audience due to its vendor-neutral approach
Modern electronics testing has a legacy of more than 40 years. The introduction of new technologies, especially nanometer technologies with 90nm or smaller geometry, has allowed the semiconductor industry to keep pace with the increased performance-capacity demands from consumers. As a result, semiconductor test costs have been growing steadily and typically amount to 40% of today's overall product cost. This book is a comprehensive guide to new VLSI Testing and Design-for-Testability techniques that will allow students, researchers, DFT practitioners, and VLSI designers to master quickly System-on-Chip Test architectures, for test debug and diagnosis of digital, memory, and analog/mixed-signal designs. Emphasizes VLSI Test principles and Design for Testability architectures, with numerous illustrations/examples. Most up-to-date coverage available, including Fault Tolerance, Low-Power Testing, Defect and Error Tolerance, Network-on-Chip (NOC) Testing, Software-Based Self-Testing, FPGA Testing, MEMS Testing, and System-In-Package (SIP) Testing, which are not yet available in any testing book. Covers the entire spectrum of VLSI testing and DFT architectures, from digital and analog, to memory circuits, and fault diagnosis and self-repair from digital to memory circuits. Discusses future nanotechnology test trends and challenges facing the nanometer design era; promising nanotechnology test techniques, including Quantum-Dots, Cellular Automata, Carbon-Nanotubes, and Hybrid Semiconductor/Nanowire/Molecular Computing. Practical problems at the end of each chapter for students.
This book is an all-in-one source of information for programming the Second-Generation Intel Xeon Phi product family also called Knights Landing. The authors provide detailed and timely Knights Landingspecific details, programming advice, and real-world examples. The authors distill their years of Xeon Phi programming experience coupled with insights from many expert customers — Intel Field Engineers, Application Engineers, and Technical Consulting Engineers — to create this authoritative book on the essentials of programming for Intel Xeon Phi products. Intel® Xeon PhiTM Processor High-Performance Programming is useful even before you ever program a system with an Intel Xeon Phi processor. To help ensure that your applications run at maximum efficiency, the authors emphasize key techniques for programming any modern parallel computing system whether based on Intel Xeon processors, Intel Xeon Phi processors, or other high-performance microprocessors. Applying these techniques will generally increase your program performance on any system and prepare you better for Intel Xeon Phi processors. A practical guide to the essentials for programming Intel Xeon Phi processors Definitive coverage of the Knights Landing architecture Presents best practices for portable, high-performance computing and a familiar and proven threads and vectors programming model Includes real world code examples that highlight usages of the unique aspects of this new highly parallel and high-performance computational product Covers use of MCDRAM, AVX-512, Intel® Omni-Path fabric, many-cores (up to 72), and many threads (4 per core) Covers software developer tools, libraries and programming models Covers using Knights Landing as a processor and a coprocessor
Efficient design of embedded processors plays a critical role in embedded systems design. Processor description languages and their associated specification, exploration and rapid prototyping methodologies are used to find the best possible design for a given set of applications under various design constraints, such as area, power and performance. This book is the first, comprehensive survey of modern architecture description languages and will be an invaluable reference for embedded system architects, designers, developers, and validation engineers. Readers will see that the use of particular architecture description languages will lead to productivity gains in designing particular (application-specific) types of embedded processors. * Comprehensive coverage of all modern architecture description languages... use the right ADL to design your processor to fit your application; * Most up-to-date information available about each architecture description language from the developers...save time chasing down reliable documentation; * Describes how each architecture desccription language enables key design automation tasks, such as simulation, synthesis and testing...fit the ADL to your design cycle;
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Applied Reconfigurable Computing, ARC 2015, held in Bochum, Germany, in April 2015. The 23 full papers and 20 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 85 submissions. They are organized in topical headings named: architecture and modeling; tools and compilers; systems and applications; network-on-a-chip; cryptography applications; extended abstracts of posters. In addition, the book contains invited papers on funded R&D - running and completed projects and Horizon 2020 funded projects.
Network recovery is of immense and growing interest to every telecom company, Internet service provider, and medium to large enterprise that requires a high degree of network availability to carry more and more sensitive traffic (Internet, Virtual Private Network, voice traffic, etc.). Providing a working knowledge of the various network protection and restoration techniques and how they can be practically deployed is the main purpose of this book.
Over the past decade, system-on-chip (SoC) designs have evolved to address the ever increasing complexity of applications, fueled by the era of digital convergence. Improvements in process technology have effectively shrunk board-level components so they can be integrated on a single chip. New on-chip communication architectures have been designed to support all inter-component communication in a SoC design. These communication architecture fabrics have a critical impact on the power consumption, performance, cost and design cycle time of modern SoC designs. As application complexity strains the communication backbone of SoC designs, academic and industrial R&D efforts and dollars are increasingly focused on communication architecture design. On-Chip Communication Architecures is a comprehensive reference on concepts, research and trends in on-chip communication architecture design. It will provide readers with a comprehensive survey, not available elsewhere, of all current standards for on-chip communication architectures. A definitive guide to on-chip communication architectures, explaining key concepts, surveying research efforts and predicting future trends Detailed analysis of all popular standards for on-chip communication architectures Comprehensive survey of all research on communication architectures, covering a wide range of topics relevant to this area, spanning the past several years, and up to date with the most current research efforts Future trends that with have a significant impact on research and design of communication architectures over the next several years
Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays Trees Hypercubes provides an introduction to the expanding field of parallel algorithms and architectures. This book focuses on parallel computation involving the most popular network architectures, namely, arrays, trees, hypercubes, and some closely related networks. Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the simplest architectures of arrays and trees. This text then presents the structures and relationships between the dominant network architectures, as well as the most efficient parallel algorithms for a wide variety of problems. Other chapters focus on fundamental results and techniques and on rigorous analysis of algorithmic performance. This book discusses as well a hybrid of network architecture based on arrays and trees called the mesh of trees. The final chapter deals with the most important properties of hypercubes. This book is a valuable resource for readers with a general technical background.