This practical introduction for first time researchers provides a bridge between how to conduct research and the philosophy of social science, allowing students to relate what they are doing to why. It does not provide a set of rigid recipes for social scientists as many methodology books do, rather it stimulates students to think about the issues involved when deciding upon their research design. By discussing standard approaches to research design and method in various social science disciplines, the authors illustrate why particular designs have traditionally predominated in certain areas of study. But whilst they acknowledge the strengths of these standard approaches, their emphasis is on helping researchers find the most effective solution to their problem by encouraging them, through this familiarity with the principles of various approaches, to innovate where appropriate. This text will prove indispensable for social science students of all levels embarking upon a research project, and for experienced researchers looking for a fresh perspective on their object of study.
This book provides a comprehensive, accessible guide to social science methodology. In so doing, it establishes methodology as distinct from both methods and philosophy. Most existing textbooks deal with methods, or sound ways of collecting and analysing data to generate findings. In contrast, this innovative book shows how an understanding of methodology allows us to design research so that findings can be used to answer interesting research questions and to build and test theories. Most important things in social research (e.g., beliefs, institutions, interests, practices and social classes) cannot be observed directly. This book explains how empirical research can nevertheless be designed to make sound inferences about their nature, effects and significance. The authors examine what counts as good description, explanation and interpretation, and how they can be achieved by striking intelligent trade-offs between competing design virtues. Coverage includes: • why methodology matters; • what philosophical arguments show us about inference; • competing virtues of good research design; • purposes of theory, models and frameworks; • forming researchable concepts and typologies; • explaining and interpreting: inferring causation, meaning and significance; and • combining explanation and interpretation. The book is essential reading for new researchers faced with the practical challenge of designing research. Extensive examples and exercises are provided, based on the authors' long experience of teaching methodology to multi-disciplinary groups. Perri 6 is Professor of Social Policy in the Graduate School in the College of Business, Law and Social Sciences at Nottingham Trent University. Chris Bellamy is Emeritus Professor of Public Administration in the Graduate School, Nottingham Trent University.
Used to train generations of social scientists, this thoroughly updated classic text covers the latest research techniques and designs. Applauded for its comprehensive coverage, the breadth and depth of content is unparalleled. Through a multi-methodology approach, the text guides readers toward the design and conduct of social research from the ground up. Explained with applied examples useful to the social, behavioral, educational, and organizational sciences, the methods described are intended to be relevant to contemporary researchers. The underlying logic and mechanics of experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental research strategies are discussed in detail. Introductory chapters covering topics such as validity and reliability furnish readers with a firm understanding of foundational concepts. Chapters dedicated to sampling, interviewing, questionnaire design, stimulus scaling, observational methods, content analysis, implicit measures, dyadic and group methods, and meta-analysis provide coverage of these essential methodologies. The book is noted for its: -Emphasis on understanding the principles that govern the use of a method to facilitate the researcher’s choice of the best technique for a given situation. - Use of the laboratory experiment as a touchstone to describe and evaluate field experiments, correlational designs, quasi experiments, evaluation studies, and survey designs. -Coverage of the ethics of social research including the power a researcher wields and tips on how to use it responsibly. The new edition features: -A new co-author, Andrew Lac, instrumental in fine tuning the book’s accessible approach and highlighting the most recent developments at the intersection of design and statistics. -More learning tools including more explanation of the basic concepts, more research examples, tables, and figures, and the addition of bold faced terms, chapter conclusions, discussion questions, and a glossary. -Extensive revision of chapter (3) on measurement reliability theory that examines test theory, latent factors, factor analysis, and item response theory. -Expanded coverage of cutting-edge methodologies including mediation and moderation, reliability and validity, missing data, and more physiological approaches such as neuroimaging and fMRIs. -A new web based resource package that features Power Points and discussion and exam questions for each chapter and for students chapter outlines and summaries, key terms, and suggested readings. Intended as a text for graduate or advanced undergraduate courses in research methods (design) in psychology, communication, sociology, education, public health, and marketing, an introductory undergraduate course on research methods is recommended.
This book is designed to introduce doctoral and graduate students to the process of conducting scientific research in the social sciences, business, education, public health, and related disciplines. It is a one-stop, comprehensive, and compact source for foundational concepts in behavioral research, and can serve as a stand-alone text or as a supplement to research readings in any doctoral seminar or research methods class. This book is currently used as a research text at universities on six continents and will shortly be available in nine different languages.
Intended for beginning graduate or advanced undergraduate students, this book provides a comprehensive review of research methods used in psychology and related disciplines. It covers topics that are often omitted in other texts including correlational and qualitative research and integrative literature reviews. Basic principles are reviewed for those who need a refresher. The focus is on conceptual issues – statistics are kept to a minimum. Featuring examples from all fields of psychology, the book addresses laboratory and field research. Chapters are written to be used independently, so instructors can pick and choose those that fit their course needs. Reorganized to parallel the steps of the research process, tips on writing reports are also provided. Each chapter features an outline, key terms, a summary, and questions and exercises that integrate chapter topics and put theory into practice. A glossary and an annotated list of readings are now included. Extensively updated throughout, the new edition features a new co-author, Mary Kite, and: • New chapters on qualitative research and content analysis and another on integrative literature reviews including meta-analysis, critical techniques for today’s research environment. • A new chapter on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis that addresses the use of path analysis and structural equation modeling. • A new chapter on how to write a research report using APA style. • Examples from cross-cultural and multi-cultural research, neuroscience, cognitive, and developmental psychology along with ones from social, industrial, and clinical psychology. • More on Internet research and studies. • Greatly expanded Part 3 on research designs with chapters on true experiments, field research, correlational and single-case designs, content analysis, and survey and qualitative research. • A website with PowerPoint slides for each chapter, a test bank with short answer and multiple choice questions, additional teaching resources, and the tables and figures from the book for Instructor’s and chapter outlines, suggested readings, and links to related web sites for students. Intended as a text for beginning graduate and/or advanced undergraduate courses in research methods or experimental methods or design taught in psychology, human development, family studies, education, or other social and behavioral sciences, a prerequisite of undergraduate statistics and a beginning research methods course is assumed.
Researchers, historians, and philosophers of science have debated the nature of scientific research in education for more than 100 years. Recent enthusiasm for "evidence-based" policy and practice in educationâ€"now codified in the federal law that authorizes the bulk of elementary and secondary education programsâ€"have brought a new sense of urgency to understanding the ways in which the basic tenets of science manifest in the study of teaching, learning, and schooling. Scientific Research in Education describes the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry in education and scientific inquiry in other fields and disciplines and provides a number of examples to illustrate these ideas. Its main argument is that all scientific endeavors share a common set of principles, and that each fieldâ€"including education researchâ€"develops a specialization that accounts for the particulars of what is being studied. The book also provides suggestions for how the federal government can best support high-quality scientific research in education.
Focused on the underlying logic behind social research, Methodological Thinking: Basic Principles of Social Research Design by Donileen R. Loseke encourages readers to understand research methods as a way of thinking. The book provides a concise overview of the basic principles of social research, including the characteristics of research questions, the importance of literature reviews, variations in data generation techniques, and sampling. The Second Edition includes a revised chapter on research foundations, with focus on the philosophy of science and ethics; an emphasis on critical thinking; additional attention to evaluating research; and a new selection of briefer, multidisciplinary journal articles designed to be accessible to a wide variety of readers.
An innovative and accessible guide to doing social research in the digital age In just the past several years, we have witnessed the birth and rapid spread of social media, mobile phones, and numerous other digital marvels. In addition to changing how we live, these tools enable us to collect and process data about human behavior on a scale never before imaginable, offering entirely new approaches to core questions about social behavior. Bit by Bit is the key to unlocking these powerful methods—a landmark book that will fundamentally change how the next generation of social scientists and data scientists explores the world around us. Bit by Bit is the essential guide to mastering the key principles of doing social research in this fast-evolving digital age. In this comprehensive yet accessible book, Matthew Salganik explains how the digital revolution is transforming how social scientists observe behavior, ask questions, run experiments, and engage in mass collaborations. He provides a wealth of real-world examples throughout and also lays out a principles-based approach to handling ethical challenges. Bit by Bit is an invaluable resource for social scientists who want to harness the research potential of big data and a must-read for data scientists interested in applying the lessons of social science to tomorrow’s technologies. Illustrates important ideas with examples of outstanding research Combines ideas from social science and data science in an accessible style and without jargon Goes beyond the analysis of “found” data to discuss the collection of “designed” data such as surveys, experiments, and mass collaboration Features an entire chapter on ethics Includes extensive suggestions for further reading and activities for the classroom or self-study
This book explains the principles and theory of statistical modelling in an intelligible way for the non-mathematical social scientist looking to apply statistical modelling techniques in research. The book also serves as an introduction for those wishing to develop more detailed knowledge and skills in statistical modelling. Rather than present a limited number of statistical models in great depth, the aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the statistical models currently adopted in social research, in order that the researcher can make appropriate choices and select the most suitable model for the research question to be addressed. To facilitate application, the book also offers practical guidance and instruction in fitting models using SPSS and Stata, the most popular statistical computer software which is available to most social researchers. Instruction in using MLwiN is also given. Models covered in the book include; multiple regression, binary, multinomial and ordered logistic regression, log-linear models, multilevel models, latent variable models (factor analysis), path analysis and simultaneous equation models and models for longitudinal data and event histories. An accompanying website hosts the datasets and further exercises in order that the reader may practice developing statistical models. An ideal tool for postgraduate social science students, research students and practicing social researchers in universities, market research, government social research and the voluntary sector.
Now in its fourth edition, this popular book provides clear, step-by-step guidance for new and experienced interviewers to develop, shape, and reflect on interviewing as a qualitative research process. Using concrete examples of interviewing techniques to illustrate the issues under discussion, this classic text helps readers to understand the complexities of interviewing and its connections to broader issues of qualitative research. The text includes principles and methods that can be adapted to a range of interviewing approaches. Appropriate for individual and classroom use, the new edition has been expanded to include: clarification of important phenomenological assumptions that underlie the interviewing approach presented in the book; new sections on Long-Distance Interviewing and its implications for the relationship between interviewers and their participants; a new section on the pros and cons of Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software; The Ethics of Doing Good Work, is a new chapter which discusses the interplay between ethical issues in interviewing and how interviewers carry out their work as researchers.
This best-selling introduction to research methods provides students and researchers with unrivalled coverage of both quantitative and qualitative methods, making it invaluable for anyone embarking on social research. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, Social Research Methods is packed full of engaging examples and practical tips to equip students with the tools and knowledge needed for them to complete their own research projects. In addition to providing practical advice, Bryman deftly explores thenature of social research and the wider issues impinging on it. This book is supported by an Online Resource Centre, which includes:For Students* A researcher's toolkit to take students step by step through the research process* Multiple choice questions to help students test their knowledge and understanding* A guide to using Excel in data analysis to help develop analytical skillsFor Lecturers* A test bank of questions which can be customized to meet teaching needs* PowerPoint slides for each chapter* New seminar outlines including suggested activities and tasks * New exam and course work questions to set in class
Some in the social sciences argue that the same logic applies to both qualitative and quantitative methods. In A Tale of Two Cultures, Gary Goertz and James Mahoney demonstrate that these two paradigms constitute different cultures, each internally coherent yet marked by contrasting norms, practices, and toolkits. They identify and discuss major differences between these two traditions that touch nearly every aspect of social science research, including design, goals, causal effects and models, concepts and measurement, data analysis, and case selection. Although focused on the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, Goertz and Mahoney also seek to promote toleration, exchange, and learning by enabling scholars to think beyond their own culture and see an alternative scientific worldview. This book is written in an easily accessible style and features a host of real-world examples to illustrate methodological points.
While heated arguments between practitioners of qualitative and quantitative research have begun to test the very integrity of the social sciences, Gary King, Robert Keohane, and Sidney Verba have produced a farsighted and timely book that promises to sharpen and strengthen a wide range of research performed in this field. These leading scholars, each representing diverse academic traditions, have developed a unified approach to valid descriptive and causal inference in qualitative research, where numerical measurement is either impossible or undesirable. Their book demonstrates that the same logic of inference underlies both good quantitative and good qualitative research designs, and their approach applies equally to each. Providing precepts intended to stimulate and discipline thought, the authors explore issues related to framing research questions, measuring the accuracy of data and uncertainty of empirical inferences, discovering causal effects, and generally improving qualitative research. Among the specific topics they address are interpretation and inference, comparative case studies, constructing causal theories, dependent and explanatory variables, the limits of random selection, selection bias, and errors in measurement. Mathematical notation is occasionally used to clarify concepts, but no prior knowledge of mathematics or statistics is assumed. The unified logic of inference that this book explicates will be enormously useful to qualitative researchers of all traditions and substantive fields.
Case Study Research: Principles and Practices provides a general understanding of the case study method as well as specific tools for its successful implementation. These tools are applicable in a variety of fields including anthropology, business and management, communications, economics, education, medicine, political science, psychology, social work, and sociology. Topics include: a survey of case study approaches; a methodologically tractable definition of 'case study'; strategies for case selection, including random sampling and other algorithmic approaches; quantitative and qualitative modes of case study analysis; and problems of internal and external validity. The second edition of this core textbook is designed to be accessible to readers who are new to the subject and is thoroughly revised and updated, incorporating recent research, numerous up-to-date studies and comprehensive lecture slides.
The Reviewer’s Guide is designed for reviewers of research manuscripts and proposals in the social and behavioral sciences, and beyond. Its uniquely structured chapters address traditional and emerging quantitative methods of data analysis.
The first comprehensive guide to natural experiments, providing an ideal introduction for scholars and students.
This book provides the first systematic guide to designing multi-method research, considering a wide range of statistical and qualitative tools.
`With this book David de Vaus has written one of the best general research methods textbooks around. The use of different types of research design as the point of departure is a different and very helpful approach to take, especially since many textbooks confuse issues of method and design. The author outlines with great clarity a wide variety of issues, including testing theories, causation, data analysis, and the main considerations involved in using the different research designs covered. Both students and their instructors will find this an extremely valuable, well-written book' - Alan Bryman, University of Loughborough
Seven Rules for Social Research teaches social scientists how to get the most out of their technical skills and tools, providing a resource that fully describes the strategies and concepts no researcher or student of human behavior can do without. Glenn Firebaugh provides indispensable practical guidance for anyone doing research in the social and health sciences today, whether they are undergraduate or graduate students embarking on their first major research projects or seasoned professionals seeking to incorporate new methods into their research. The rules are the basis for discussions of a broad range of issues, from choosing a research question to inferring causal relationships, and are illustrated with applications and case studies from sociology, economics, political science, and related fields. Though geared toward quantitative methods, the rules also work for qualitative research. Seven Rules for Social Research is ideal for students and researchers who want to take their technical skills to new levels of precision and insight, and for instructors who want a textbook for a second methods course. The Seven Rules There should be the possibility of surprise in social research Look for differences that make a difference, and report them. Build reality checks into your research. Replicate where possible. Compare like with like. Use panel data to study individual change and repeated cross-section data to study social change. Let method be the servant, not the master.