This Brief presents preliminary findings from research in three prisons in Maharashtra, India on experiences of prison inmates there living with HIV. The study explores health care services in these prisons, and problems experienced by inmates in India living with HIV, as well as their staff and caregivers. Through this preliminary study, the researchers shed light on the experiences of inmates in Indian prisons, with an aim of presenting questions for future research. The author provides an overview of the global conditions of prison inmates living with HIV, as an international comparative context for examining the cases in India. Major problems highlighted in the cases include: living conditions, high risk behavior during incarceration, delivery of medical services and adherence to ethical guidelines. Results of the study reveal that overcrowding and inadequate nutrition were major concerns for inmates living with HIV; there were no support systems available inside the prisons to address the stress related issues of the inmates; and, the prison hospital did not have provisions to cater to the treatment needs of inmates living with AIDS. The study also found that confidentiality regarding the HIV positive status could not be maintained inside the prison. This Brief presents a window into the experience of inmates in India, and presents questions for future research to understand and improve living conditions and medical service delivery within the prison system. This work will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly interested in incarceration or health issues, public health and related areas such as public policy, international studies, and demography studies in India.
This Brief studies the important role that tattoos play in prison culture, and examines its unique manifestation among minority inmates. This work aims to provide a better understanding of prison group culture, particularly among social marginal groups, through the lens of Russian immigrants in Israeli prisons. Russian immigrants currently represent approximately 25% of the total Israeli prison population, and this book examines how tattoos show an important form of rebellion amongst this group. As tattoos are forbidden in some forms of Islam and Judaism, and the Israeli prison service confiscates over 200 homemade tattoo devices per year, this is a significant phenomenon both before and during incarceration. This work examines how despite the transition to Israel, the main social codes of Russian prisoners are still dominant and help segregate this group from the larger prison population. It provides a lens to understand Russian criminal activity in Israel, and in a larger context, the modes of social cohesion and criminal activity of organized crime groups operating in prison systems. This work will be of interest to researchers studying the organized crime and the criminal justice system, Russian organized crime in particular, as well as related studies of immigration, demography, and social cohesion.
This book examines how prisons meet challenges of religious diversity, in an era of increasing multiculturalism and globalization. Social scientists studying corrections have noted the important role that religious or spiritual practice can have on rehabilitation, particularly for inmates with coping with stress, mental health and substance abuse issues. In the past, the historical figure of the prison chaplain operated primarily in a Christian context, following primarily a Christian model. Increasingly, prison populations (inmates as well as employees) display diversity in their ethnic, cultural, religious and geographic backgrounds. As public institutions, prisons are compelled to uphold the human rights of their inmates, including religious freedom. Prisons face challenges in approaching religious plurality and secularism, and maintaining prisoners' legal rights to religious freedom. The contributions to this work present case studies that examine how prisons throughout Europe have approached challenges of religious diversity. Featuring contributions from the UK, France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Belgium and Spain, this interdisciplinary volume includes contributions from social and political scientists, religion scholars and philosophers examining the role of religion and religious diversity in prison rehabilitation. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Social and Political Science, Human Rights, Public Policy, and Religious Studies.
Histories of Transnational Crime provides a broad, historical framework for understanding the developments in research of transnational crime over the centuries. This volume provides examples of transnational crime, and places them in a broad historical context, which has so far been missing from this field of study. The contributions to this comprehensive volume explore the causes and historical precursors of six main types of transnational crime: -piracy -human smuggling -arms trafficking -drug trafficking -art and antique trafficking -corporate crime. The historical contributions demonstrate that transnational crime is not a novel phenomenon of recent globalization and that, beyond organized crime groups, powerful individuals, governments and business corporations have been heavily involved. Through a systematic historical and contextual analysis of these types of transnational crime, the contributions to this volume provide a fundamental understanding of why and how various forms of transnational crime are still present in the contemporary world. In the past two decades, the study of transnational crime has developed from a subset of the study of organized crime to its own recognized field of study, covering distinct societal threats and requiring a particular approach.
This book brings together research on police integrity on regions worldwide. The results for each country indicate whether police officers know the official rules, how seriously they view police misconduct, what they think the appropriate and expected discipline for misconduct should be, and how willing they are to report it. Police misconduct refers to everything from corruption and use excessive force, to perjury, falsification of evidence, and failure to react. Police Integrity and police misconduct are topics of great concern worldwide. Police integrity is envisioned as the inclination to resist temptations to abuse the rights and privileges of police occupation. Using their extensive experience studying police integrity in the United States, the editors have created an applicable framework for measuring police integrity in other countries. The results of their research are brought together in this timely volume, including contributions from both established democracies and countries in transition, which each present unique challenges for improving police integrity. Each chapter follows the same format and contains a theoretical analysis of the relevant legal, historical, political, social, and economic conditions in the country, followed by the analyses of empirical results and policy recommendations. In the last chapter, editors Kutnjak Ivković and Haberfeld take a comparative look across the countries by engaging in the in-depth comparative analysis. This work will be of interest to researchers and policy-makers studying policing both in the United States and internationally, presenting a theoretical framework that can be applied to other regions for further research.
This comprehensive reference work presents an in-depth analysis of juvenile justice systems across the world. The second edition of this Handbook has been updated with 13 new chapters, now covering a total of 34 countries, across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East from an international and comparative perspective. The International Handbook of Juvenile Justice is the result of research conducted by a group of outstanding scholars working in the field of juvenile justice. It reflects a collective concern about trends in juvenile justice over the past two decades, trends that have begun to blur the difference between criminal and juvenile justice. Also new to the second edition, each chapter is formatted to increase the comparative aspect of the book, highlighting: · The legal status of juveniles · Age of majority · The country’s stance toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child · Trends in juvenile crime over the period 2004-2014 · Causes of juvenile crime · Policing and juveniles · Courts and juveniles · Custodial rules for juveniles (detention, prison, mixing juveniles with adults) · Alternative sanctions for juveniles: home confinement, restorative justice, restitution, etc. · Differences in treatment of boys and girls This seminal work highlights similarities and differences between the various systems, and will be an important reference for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly interested in juvenile delinquency and youth crime, as well as related disciplines like sociology, social work, and public policy.
Systematic reviews aim to minimize any possible bias in drawing conclusions by stating explicit criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies, by conducting extensive and wide-ranging searches for possibly eligible studies, and by making all stages of the review explicit and transparent so that the methods can be checked and replicated. Over a decade ago, a concerted effort was made by members of the criminology community, including the Editors and contributors of this volume, to bring the practice of systematic reviews to the study of Criminology, providing replicable, evidence-based data to answer key questions about the study of crime causation, detection, and prevention. Now, the pioneers in this effort present a comprehensive stock-taking of what has been learned in the past decade of systematic reviews in criminology. Much has been discovered about the effectiveness of (for example) boot camps, “hot spots” policing, closed-circuit television surveillance, neighborhood watch, anti-bullying programs in schools, early parenting programs, drug treatment programs, and other key topics. This ambitious volume aims to bring together and assess all major systematic reviews of the effectiveness of criminological interventions, to draw broad conclusions about what works in policing, corrections, developmental prevention, situational prevention, drug abuse treatments, sentencing and deterrence, and communities. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as in related fields such as public health and forensic science, with important implications for policy-makers and practitioners. Decisively showing that the “nothing works” era is over, this volume takes stock of what we know, and still need to know, to prevent crime. Focusing on different areas of prevention, individual chapters provide a state-of–the art analysis of the extent evaluation evidence. Together, they comprise an essential guide to improving both public safety and the lives of those most at risk of criminal involvement. I plan to keep this book close at hand and to use if often! Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati This impressive volume, edited by Weisburd, Farrington and Gill, provides a comprehensive picture of what we’ve learned from systematic reviews about “what works” in addressing crime – and goes on to identify the “next step” issues that demand attention if the field is to move forward. At a time when there is a broad commitment to bringing science to the front lines of practice, this book should be on the reading list of both policymakers and scholars. Laurie O. Robinson, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Criminology, Law Society, George Mason University and former Assistant Attorney General of the U.S. Department of Justice
Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime, Second Edition, describes and analyzes a rapidly expanding global problem: criminal acts committed by motorcycle gangs. Thomas Barker, one of the world’s top experts on outlaw biker gangs, offers fascinating details about the Bandidos, the Vagos, the Mongols, and other "one percenters" (criminal biker gangs, as opposed to the vast majority of motorcycle enthusiasts). He combines this data with a strengthened conceptual framework that makes sense of this complicated picture. U.S.-based motorcycle gangs like the Hells Angels have proliferated, especially in Canada and Europe, to the point where these gangs have more members in other countries than in the United States. Increasingly more often in recent years their crimes are not limited to rumbles or drug use—these gangs challenge the dominance of organized crime, leading to violent conflicts between the rivals. Germany, Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, and Canada are particularly hard-hit by this rising violence. One of Barker’s unique contributions is his Criminal Organization Continuum, building on the groundbreaking network approach to organized crime proposed by Klaus von Lampe. Introduced in the first edition, Barker elaborates his continuum tool and makes it more multi-dimensional to help refine the definition of adult criminal gangs. The product of years of research, this book lays the groundwork for further study by offering students, police, and researchers the most thorough account available of outlaw motorcycle gangs.
This Brief explores the role of social crime prevention as a crime reduction strategy in the developing world. "Social crime prevention" focuses on the social and economic factors that may contribute to violence and criminal behavior in a community. Particularly in the developing world, an understanding of the socioeconomic and political context holds long-term potential for crime reduction (rather than crime displacement); however, the strategies are complex and the results may be slow. Generally, police and law enforcement are relied upon to present quick results, where social crime prevention strategies can be viewed as being "soft on crime" or too slow. This Brief discusses the tension between the traditional role of police and proactive social crime prevention strategies in an international context, through a variety of case studies. It also provides recommendations for balancing or reshaping this role. This work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers interested in crime prevention, particularly in the developing world, criminal theory, police studies and related disciplines such as demography, sociology and political science.
​​​ This book examines hybrid tribunals created in Sierra Leone, Kosovo, Cambodia, East Timor, and Lebanon, in terms of their origins (the political and social forces that led to their creation), the legal regimes that they used, their various institutional structures, and the challenges that they faced during their operations. Through this study, the author looks at both their successes and their shortcomings, and presents recommendations for the formation of future hybrid tribunals. Hybrid tribunals are a form of the international justice where the judicial responsibility is shared between the international community and the local state where they function. These tribunals represent an important bridge between traditional international courts like the International Criminal Court (ICC), the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and various local justice systems. Because hybrid tribunals are developed in response to large-scale atrocities, these courts are properly considered part of the international criminal justice system. This feature gives hybrid tribunals the accountability and legitimacy often lost in local justice systems; however, by including regional courtroom procedures and personnel, they are integrated into the local justice system in a way that allows a society to deal with its criminals on its own terms, at least in part. This unique volume combines historical and legal analyses of these hybrid tribunals, placing them within a larger historical, political, and legal context. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminal Justice, International Studies, International Law, and related fields.
This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).
Laws Relating to Sex, Pregnancy, and Infancy examines case law and legislation in regards to reproduction, pregnancy, and infancy. Cusack explores the winding pathways of legal precedence and action on the social conditions of pregnancy and childbirth, and draws from criminal and court procedures and behavioral science to determine if the law is acting in the best interest of those vulnerable populations. Cusack surveys interpersonal, familial, and societal problems presented throughout history and currently facing contemporary generations, questioning whether the criminal justice system can evolve to support the growing needs of its citizens most in need of legal assistance.
​Female offenders are often perceived as victims who commit crimes as a self-defense mechanism or as criminal deviants whose actions strayed from typical ‘womanly’ behavior. Such cultural norms for violence exist in our gendered society and there has been scholarly debate about how male and female offenders are perceived and how this perception leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This debate is primarily based upon theories associated with stereotypes and social norms and how these prescriptive norms can influence both public and criminal justice response. Scholars in psychology, sociology, and criminology have found that female offenders are perceived differently than male offenders and this ultimately leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This interdisciplinary book provides an evidence based approach of how female offenders are perceived in society and how this translates to differential treatment within the criminal justice system and explores the ramifications of such differences. Quite often perceptions of female offenders are at odds with research findings. This book will provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the research that is valuable to laypersons, researchers, practitioners, advocates, treatment providers, lawyers, judges, and anyone interested in equality in the criminal justice system. ​
Your cover letter is what decides if a company looks at your resume, contacts you for an interview, or gets you placed in the rejection pile. Knowing that, it is important to create a well-written, eye-catching letter that sells your achievements and job skills to impress the recruiter. However, many people are unable to effectively translate their thoughts into words when faced with the task. That is where The Complete Guide to Writing Effective Resume Cover Letters comes in. With this book you will be able to craft a letter that will undoubtedly land you the interview. In this new book, you will learn how to address your letter, how to grab the reader s attention immediately, how to format your letter, how to choose the font, how to be professional but persuasive, how to choose the type of paper, and how to target your letter. You will also learn about writing the different kinds of letters, including those in response to a classified advertisement, those in response to a blind advertisement, those sent to employment agencies, cold letters, and broadcast letters; writing style guidelines; what to include in your letter; writing for an online audience; cover letter styles; and common mistakes recruiters abhor. Additionally, you will find examples of effective and ineffective letters, proven tips for making your letter stand out, sample phrases to use, and letters for new graduates, for professionals, and for those changing careers. Also included are samples specific to job industries, including administration and clerical; accounting; banking and finance, government; health care and social services; hospitality and food service; human resources; law enforcement and legal; manufacturing; sales, marketing, and customer service; skilled trades; technology; and science and engineering. The companion CD-ROM is packed with samples and worksheets to help you brainstorm and create a successful cover letter. By following the step-by-step instructions outlined in The Complete Guide to Writing Effective Resume Cover Letters you will ensure that your letter will impress the recruiter and that you will be contacted for an interview. In the end you will create a tool that will be of enormous importance to you in your job search. The companion CD-ROM is included with the print version of this book; however is not available for download with the electronic version. It may be obtained separately by contacting Atlantic Publishing Group at [email protected] Atlantic Publishing is a small, independent publishing company based in Ocala, Florida. Founded over twenty years ago in the company presidentâe(tm)s garage, Atlantic Publishing has grown to become a renowned resource for non-fiction books. Today, over 450 titles are in print covering subjects such as small business, healthy living, management, finance, careers, and real estate. Atlantic Publishing prides itself on producing award winning, high-quality manuals that give readers up-to-date, pertinent information, real-world examples, and case studies with expert advice. Every book has resources, contact information, and web sites of the products or companies discussed.
Concentration analysis provides, in settings without a priori available compactness, a manageable structural description for the functional sequences intended to approximate solutions of partial differential equations. Since the introduction of concentration compactness in the 1980s, concentration analysis today is formalized on the functional-analytic level as well as in terms of wavelets, extends to a wide range of spaces, involves much larger class of invariances than the original Euclidean rescalings and has a broad scope of applications to PDE. This book represents current research in concentration and blow-up phenomena from various perspectives, with a variety of applications to elliptic and evolution PDEs, as well as a systematic functional-analytic background for concentration phenomena, presented by profile decompositions based on wavelet theory and cocompact imbeddings.
Traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) capture scalar data such as temperature, vibration, pressure, or humidity. Motivated by the success of WSNs and also with the emergence of new technology in the form of low-cost image sensors, researchers have proposed combining image and audio sensors with WSNs to form wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). This introduces practical and research challenges, because multimedia sensors, particularly image sensors, generate huge amounts of data to be processed and distributed within the network, while sensor nodes have restricted battery power and hardware resources. This book describes how reconfigurable hardware technologies such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) offer cost-effective, flexible platforms for implementing WMSNs, with a main focus on developing efficient algorithms and architectures for information reduction, including event detection, event compression, and multicamera processing for hardware implementations. The authors include a comprehensive review of wireless multimedia sensor networks, a complete specification of a very low-complexity, low-memory FPGA WMSN node processor, and several case studies that illustrate information reduction algorithms for visual event compression, detection, and fusion. The book will be of interest to academic researchers, R&D engineers, and computer science and engineering graduate students engaged with signal and video processing, computer vision, embedded systems, and sensor networks.
This book covers recent mathematical, numerical, and statistical approaches for multistatic imaging of targets with waves at single or multiple frequencies. The waves can be acoustic, elastic or electromagnetic. They are generated by point sources on a transmitter array and measured on a receiver array. An important problem in multistatic imaging is to quantify and understand the trade-offs between data size, computational complexity, signal-to-noise ratio, and resolution. Another fundamental problem is to have a shape representation well suited to solving target imaging problems from multistatic data. In this book the trade-off between resolution and stability when the data are noisy is addressed. Efficient imaging algorithms are provided and their resolution and stability with respect to noise in the measurements analyzed. It also shows that high-order polarization tensors provide an accurate representation of the target. Moreover, a dictionary-matching technique based on new invariants for the generalized polarization tensors is introduced. Matlab codes for the main algorithms described in this book are provided. Numerical illustrations using these codes in order to highlight the performance and show the limitations of numerical approaches for multistatic imaging are presented.

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