Al-Kindi was the first philosopher of the Islamic world. He lived in Iraq and studied in Baghdad, where he became attached to the caliphal court. In due course he would become an important figure at court: a tutor to the caliph's son, and a central figure in the translation movement of the ninth century, which rendered much of Greek philosophy, science, and medicine into Arabic. Al-Kindi's wide-ranging intellectual interests included not only philosophy but also music, astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. Through deep engagement with Greek tradition al-Kindi developed original theories on key issues in the philosophy of religion, metaphysics, physical science, and ethics. He is especially known for his arguments against the world's eternity, and his innovative use of Greek ideas to explore the idea of God's unity and transcendence. Despite al-Kindi's historical and philosophical importance no book has presented a complete, in-depth look at his thought until now. In this accessible introduction to al-Kindi's works, Peter Adamson surveys what is known of his life and examines his method and his attitude towards the Greek tradition, as well as his subtle relationship with the Muslim intellectual culture of his day. Above all the book focuses on explaining and evaluating the ideas found in al-Kindi's wide-ranging philosophical corpus, including works devoted to science and mathematics. Throughout, Adamson writes in language that is both serious and engaging, academic and approachable. This book will be of interest to experts in the field, but it requires no knowledge of Greek or Arabic, and is also aimed at non-experts who are simply interested in one of the greatest of Islamic philosophers.
Myth has an integral role in the human quest for knowledge and truth. Myth's dual nature is both internal (imagination interlaced with reason) and external (having a social role), and thus it constitutes a transition between the personal and the collective. A thorough analysis of this fundamental phenomenon in Myth and the Existential Quest makes this book an outstanding work of Continental philosophy.
Cosmic Substance or Noumenon of Matter is the origin and root of intelligent operations in (and of) Nature. Cosmic Substance and Cosmic Ideation are inseparable and interdependent. Their Androgyne Power is the Infinite, Shoreless Ocean of Life, expanding and contracting regularly. It is Absolute Consciousness! Cosmic Ideation is expressed by innumerable centres of Intellectual Force (Mahat) which, on the objective plane of being, become Fohat — thus differentiating the One into Many under cyclic law. By merging Her Seven Pitris with their Solar counterparts, Abstract Nature creates the miracle of Man. Life, Energy, and Force, are Eternal and Unchangeable, yet interchangeable when manifested. They are the Noumenon of Matter and Womb of the World.
In chapter 1 of On the Heavens Aristotle defines body, and then notoriously ruptures dynamics by introducing a fifth element, beyond Plato's four, to explain the rotation of the heavens, which, like nearly all Greeks, Aristotle took to be real, not apparent. Even a member of his school, Xenarchus, we are told, rejected his fifth element. The Neoplatonist Simplicius seeks to harmonise Plato and Aristotle. Plato, he says, thought that the heavens were composed of all four elements but with the purest kind of fire, namely light, predominating. That Plato would not mind this being called a fifth element is shown by his associating with the heavens the fifth of the five convex regular solids recognised by geometry. Simplicius follows Aristotle's view that one of the lower elements, fire, also rotates, as shown by the behaviour of comets. But such motion, though natural for the fifth elements, is super-natural for fire. Simplicius reveals that the Aristotelian Alexander of Aphrodisias recognised the need to supplement Aristotle and account for the annual approach and retreat of planets by means of Ptolemy's epicycles or eccentrics. Aristotle's philosopher-god is turned by Simplicius, following his teacher Ammonius, into a creator-god, like Plato's. But the creation is beginningless, as shown by the argument that, if you try to imagine a time when it began, you cannot answer the question, 'Why not sooner?' In explaining the creation, Simplicius follows the Neoplatonist expansion of Aristotle's four 'causes' to six. The final result gives us a cosmology very considerably removed from Aristotle's.
Die Schrift 'De aeternitate mundi' des Johannes Philoponos (circa 490 - circa 575), entstanden nach 529, ist die wichtigste und umfangreichste christliche Stellungnahme der Antike, die den Glauben an die Erschaffung der Welt 'aus Nichts' und deren zeitlichen Anfang verteidigt und begründet. Es handelt sich um eine Widerlegung der 18 Argumente des Neuplatonikers Proclus (gestorben 485) für die Ewigkeit der Welt. Mittels wissenschaftlicher Methodik emanzipiert sich christliches Denken in den Debatten der heidnischen Philosophenschule Alexandriens von den Autoritäten Plato und Aristoteles. Die methodische Präzision ist bis dahin unerreicht, die Gesichtspunkte sind häufig neu, als philosophiegeschichtliche Fundgrube ist der Text unerschöpflich. Die Diskussionen um die Ewigkeit der Welt in der arabischen Philosophie und im lateinischen Mittelalter fußen in der Sache weitestgehend auf dieser Schrift. Damit liegt nach dem Kommentar zum biblischen Schöpfungsbericht ('De opificio mundi') nun ein zweites epochales Werk des Johannes Philoponos zum ersten Mal ins Deutsche übersetzt vor. Die ersten beiden Bände, die die Argumente 1-5 enthalten, eröffnen die sechsbändige, sukkzesiv erscheinende Ausgabe.
„Der Staat“ ist ein Werk des griechischen Philosophen Platon, in dem über die Gerechtigkeit und ihre mögliche Verwirklichung in einem idealen Staat diskutiert wird. An dem fiktiven, literarisch gestalteten Dialog beteiligen sich sieben Personen, darunter Platons Brüder Glaukon und Adeimantos und der Redner Thrasymachos. Platons Lehrer Sokrates ist die Hauptfigur. Weitere Anwesende hören lediglich zu.
This collection of 17 essays gives an overview about Proclus’ philosophical method, his doctrine of the soul and his metaphysics. While it contains new insights into Proclus’ thought, it can serve too as introductory text into Proclean philosophy.
Die Philosophie der Griechen in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung ist ein unveranderter, hochwertiger Nachdruck der Originalausgabe aus dem Jahr 1868. Hansebooks ist Herausgeber von Literatur zu unterschiedlichen Themengebieten wie Forschung und Wissenschaft, Reisen und Expeditionen, Kochen und Ernahrung, Medizin und weiteren Genres.Der Schwerpunkt des Verlages liegt auf dem Erhalt historischer Literatur.Viele Werke historischer Schriftsteller und Wissenschaftler sind heute nur noch als Antiquitaten erhaltlich. Hansebooks verlegt diese Bucher neu und tragt damit zum Erhalt selten gewordener Literatur und historischem Wissen auch fur die Zukunft bei."

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