A unique contribution to the understanding of social science, showing the implications of quantum physics for the nature of human society.
There is an underlying assumption in the social sciences that consciousness and social life are ultimately classical physical/material phenomena. In this ground-breaking book, Alexander Wendt challenges this assumption by proposing that consciousness is, in fact, a macroscopic quantum mechanical phenomenon. In the first half of the book, Wendt justifies the insertion of quantum theory into social scientific debates, introduces social scientists to quantum theory and the philosophical controversy about its interpretation, and then defends the quantum consciousness hypothesis against the orthodox, classical approach to the mind-body problem. In the second half, he develops the implications of this metaphysical perspective for the nature of language and the agent-structure problem in social ontology. Wendt's argument is a revolutionary development which raises fundamental questions about the nature of social life and the work of those who study it.
Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.
Much of our understanding of human thinking is based on probabilistic models. This innovative book by Jerome R. Busemeyer and Peter D. Bruza argues that, actually, the underlying mathematical structures from quantum theory provide a much better account of human thinking than traditional models. They introduce the foundations for modeling probabilistic-dynamic systems using two aspects of quantum theory. The first, 'contextuality', is a way to understand interference effects found with inferences and decisions under conditions of uncertainty. The second, 'quantum entanglement', allows cognitive phenomena to be modeled in non-reductionist ways. Employing these principles drawn from quantum theory allows us to view human cognition and decision in a totally new light. Introducing the basic principles in an easy-to-follow way, this book does not assume a physics background or a quantum brain and comes complete with a tutorial and fully worked-out applications in important areas of cognition and decision.
Shown here is how basic concepts of physics can be used to improve models in finance, economics, psychology and biology. Readers are introduced to how physical theory can inform non-physical phenomena in the social sciences, thereby improving decision making and modeling capabilities in research-based and professional settings. Consisting of three parts, the first part deals with the application of quantum operator methods to financial transactions and population dynamics. Part two develops physical concepts, working from classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics and leading to an introduction of quantum information and its application to decision making. The final part treats classical and quantum probability theory in some detail and deals, at a more advanced level, with the impact of quantum probabilities on common knowledge and common beliefs between agents in systems. Quantum Methods in Social Science is a high level textbook for advanced undergraduate or graduate students of economics, finance and business, while also being of interest to those with a background in physics. Request Inspection Copy Contents:Quantum Counting: The Number Operator in a Social Science Context:IntroductionClassical Interlude: Modelling Population DynamicsA Quantum Description of SystemsQuantum CountingQuantum TransactionsQuantum MigrationMore Elaborate SystemsConclusionsReferences — Part IThe Quantum-Like Paradigm with Simple Applications:Taking a Step BackModeling Information with an Operational FormalismDecision Making and Quantum ProbabilityReferences — Part IIThe Quantum-Like Paradigm with Advanced Applications:Basics of Classical ProbabilityQuantum ProbabilityCommon KnowledgeQuantum(-Like) Formalization of Common KnowledgeExamplesAppendixReferences — Part III Readership: Advanced undergraduate or graduate students of economics, finance and business, while also being of interest to those with a background in physics.
Drawing upon philosophy and social theory, Social Theory of International Politics develops a theory of the international system as a social construction. Alexander Wendt clarifies the central claims of the constructivist approach, presenting a structural and idealist worldview which contrasts with the individualism and materialism which underpins much mainstream international relations theory. He builds a cultural theory of international politics, which takes whether states view each other as enemies, rivals or friends as a fundamental determinant. Wendt characterises these roles as 'cultures of anarchy', described as Hobbesian, Lockean and Kantian respectively. These cultures are shared ideas which help shape state interests and capabilities, and generate tendencies in the international system. The book describes four factors which can drive structural change from one culture to another - interdependence, common fate, homogenization, and self-restraint - and examines the effects of capitalism and democracy in the emergence of a Kantian culture in the West.
The Transparent Becoming of World undertakes a penetrating inquiry into the quotidian world we take for granted and the brain that silently hoists our bubbles of world-thrownness. After critiquing the traditional views of direct realism, indirect realism and idealism, the continual becoming of world is explained by a novel integration of process dynamics, as formulated by Whitehead, Heidegger and Bohm, with the burgeoning field of quantum neurophilosophy. A rich ontological duality newly opened by quantum brain theory is exploited: the “between-two” of dual quantum modes. Existence as world-thrownness is between-two in waking and dreaming alike. This highly original interdisciplinary book may be of interest to philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, consciousness researchers, indeed anyone attracted to the enigma of their own lived existence. (Series A)
Inquires into the role of the unexpected in world politics by examining the protean power effects of agile innovation and improvisation.
This book, explores the conceptual foundations of Einstein's theory of relativity: the fascinating, yet tangled, web of philosophical, mathematical, and physical ideas that is the source of the theory's enduring philosophical interest. Originally published in 1983. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
The book offers a fresh look on man, cultures, and societies built on the current advances in the fields of quantum mechanics, quantum philosophy, and quantum consciousness. The authors have developed an inspiring theoretical framework transcending the boundaries of particular disciplines in social sciences and the humanities. Quantum anthropology is a perspective, studying man, culture, and humanity while taking into account the quantum nature of our reality. This framework redefines current anthropological theory in a new light, and provides an interdisciplinary overlap reaching to psychology, sociology, and consciousness studies. Contents 1. Introduction: Why Quantum Anthropology? 2. Empirical and Nonempirical Reality 3. Appearance, Frames, Intra-Acting Agencies, and Observer Effect 4. Emergence of Man and Culture 5. Fields, Groups, Cultures, and Social Complexity 6. Man as Embodiment 7. Collective Consciousness and Collective Unconscious in Anthropology 8. Life Trajectories of Man, Cultures and Societies 9. Death and Final Collapses of Cultures and Societies 10. Language, Collapse of Wave Function, and Deconstruction 11. Myth and Entanglement 12. Ritual, Observer Effect, and Collective Consciousness 13. Conclusions and Future Directions
Every Thing Must Go argues that the only kind of metaphysics that can contribute to objective knowledge is one based specifically on contemporary science as it really is, and not on philosophers' a priori intuitions, common sense, or simplifications of science. In addition to showing how recent metaphysics has drifted away from connection with all other serious scholarly inquiry as a result of not heeding this restriction, they demonstrate how to build a metaphysicscompatible with current fundamental physics ('ontic structural realism'), which, when combined with their metaphysics of the special sciences ('rainforest realism'), can be used to unify physics with the other sciences without reducing these sciences to physics itself. Taking science metaphysically seriously,Ladyman and Ross argue, means that metaphysicians must abandon the picture of the world as composed of self-subsistent individual objects, and the paradigm of causation as the collision of such objects.Everything Must Go also assesses the role of information theory and complex systems theory in attempts to explain the relationship between the special sciences and physics, treading a middle road between the grand synthesis of thermodynamics and information, and eliminativism about information. The consequences of the author's metaphysical theory for central issues in the philosophy of science are explored, including the implications for the realism vs. empiricism debate, the role ofcausation in scientific explanations, the nature of causation and laws, the status of abstract and virtual objects, and the objective reality of natural kinds.
he way we understand the world we live in is changing. Our traditional understanding is being challenged by developments in physics, including quantum mechanics, and our inability to explain certain complex phenomena such as consciousness. In this book, scholars from a variety of backgrounds discuss how our understanding of our world is expanding to include such phenomena.
A truly Galilean-class volume, this book introduces a new method in theory formation, completing the tools of epistemology. It covers a broad spectrum of theoretical and mathematical physics by researchers from over 20 nations from four continents. Like Vigier himself, the Vigier symposia are noted for addressing avant-garde, cutting-edge topics in contemporary physics. Among the six proceedings honoring J.-P. Vigier, this is perhaps the most exciting one as several important breakthroughs are introduced for the first time. The most interesting breakthrough in view of the recent NIST experimental violations of QED is a continuation of the pioneering work by Vigier on tight bound states in hydrogen. The new experimental protocol described not only promises empirical proof of large-scale extra dimensions in conjunction with avenues for testing string theory, but also implies the birth of the field of unified field mechanics, ushering in a new age of discovery. Work on quantum computing redefines the qubit in a manner that the uncertainty principle may be routinely violated. Other breakthroughs occur in the utility of quaternion algebra in extending our understanding of the nature of the fermionic singularity or point particle. There are several other discoveries of equal magnitude, making this volume a must-have acquisition for the library of any serious forward-looking researchers.
This new book unites in one volume some of the most prominent critiques of Alexander Wendt's constructivist theory of international relations and includes the first comprehensive reply by Wendt. Partly reprints of benchmark articles, partly new original critiques, the critical chapters are informed by a wide array of contending theories ranging from realism to poststructuralism. The collected leading theorists critique Wendt’s seminal book Social Theory of International Politics and his subsequent revisions. They take issue with the full panoply of Wendt’s approach, such as his alleged positivism, his critique of the realist school, the conceptualism of identity, and his teleological theory of history. Wendt’s reply is not limited to rebuttal only. For the first time, he develops his recent idea of quantum social science, as well as its implications for theorising international relations. This unique volume will be a necessary companion to Wendt’s book for students and researchers seeking a better understanding of his work, and also offers one of the most up-to-date collections on constructivist theorizing.
Why does oil rise and fall? Why are there dramatic currency devaluations out of the blue? What events presage a stock market boom or bust? These and many other global macro questions are studied from the lens of history. There are many lessons for those willing to look. The book is not a textbook with definitions and terms. The book is a serious attempt to explain why the markets behave as they do. The book covers financial markets' history from 1970-2015 and links it with political, economic, and military events in an attempt to draw cause and effect. The book is a must for the serious student of the markets.
New Systems Theories of World Politics uses systems theoretical approaches to analyze the structure and dynamics of the international system. Drawing from different systems theoretical traditions, it argues that the system of world politics can be analyzed in a comprehensive fashion by continuing the pioneering work of theorists like Karl Deutsch.
This book is an original application of rhetoric and moral-emotions theory to the sociology of social movements. It promotes a new interdisciplinary vision of what social movements are, why they exist, and how they succeed in attaining momentum over time. Deepening the affective dimension of cultural sociology, this work draws upon the social psychology of human emotion and interpersonal communication. Specifically, the book revolves around the topic of anger as a unique moral emotion that can be made to play crucial motivational and generative functions in protest. The chapters develop a new theory of the emotional power of protest rhetoric, including how abolitionist performances of heterodoxic racial and gender status imaginaries contributed to the escalation of the ‘sectional conflict’ over American slavery.
Where are we? Who are we? Do our beliefs, hopes and dreams mean anything out there in the void? Can human purpose and meaning ever fit into a scientific worldview? Acclaimed award-winning author Sean Carroll brings his extraordinary intellect to bear on the realms of knowledge, the laws of nature and the most profound questions about life, death and our place in it all. In a dazzlingly unique presentation, Carroll takes us through the scientific revolution’s avalanche of discoveries, from Darwin and Einstein to the origins of life, consciousness and the universe itself. Delving into the way the world works at the quantum, cosmic and human levels, he reveals how human values relate to scientific reality. An extraordinary synthesis of cosmos-sprawling science and profound thought, The Big Picture is Carroll’s quest to explain our world. Destined to sit alongside the works of our greatest thinkers, from Stephen Hawking and Carl Sagan to Daniel Dennett and E. O. Wilson, this book shows that while our lives may be forever dwarfed by the immensity of the universe, they can be redeemed by our capacity to comprehend it and give it meaning.
"In the second half of the book, Searle applies his theory of social reality to the problem of political power, explaining the role of language in the formation of our political reality. The institutional structures that organize, empower, and regulate our lives - money, property, marriage, government - consist in the assignment and collective acceptance of certain statuses to objects and people. Whether it is the president of the United States, a twenty-dollar bill, or private property, these entities perform functions as determined by their status in our institutional reality. Searle focuses on the political powers that exist within these systems of status functions and the way in which language constitutes them."--BOOK JACKET.