This book provides a rigorous introduction to the techniques and results of real analysis, metric spaces and multivariate differentiation, suitable for undergraduate courses. Starting from the very foundations of analysis, it offers a complete first course in real analysis, including topics rarely found in such detail in an undergraduate textbook such as the construction of non-analytic smooth functions, applications of the Euler-Maclaurin formula to estimates, and fractal geometry. Drawing on the author’s extensive teaching and research experience, the exposition is guided by carefully chosen examples and counter-examples, with the emphasis placed on the key ideas underlying the theory. Much of the content is informed by its applicability: Fourier analysis is developed to the point where it can be rigorously applied to partial differential equations or computation, and the theory of metric spaces includes applications to ordinary differential equations and fractals. Essential Real Analysis will appeal to students in pure and applied mathematics, as well as scientists looking to acquire a firm footing in mathematical analysis. Numerous exercises of varying difficulty, including some suitable for group work or class discussion, make this book suitable for self-study as well as lecture courses.
Real Analysis is a comprehensive introduction to this core subject and is ideal for self-study or as a course textbook for first and second-year undergraduates. Combining an informal style with precision mathematics, the book covers all the key topics with fully worked examples and exercises with solutions. All the concepts and techniques are deployed in examples in the final chapter to provide the student with a thorough understanding of this challenging subject. This book offers a fresh approach to a core subject and manages to provide a gentle and clear introduction without sacrificing rigour or accuracy.
This introduction to the ideas and methods of linear functional analysis shows how familiar and useful concepts from finite-dimensional linear algebra can be extended or generalized to infinite-dimensional spaces. Aimed at advanced undergraduates in mathematics and physics, the book assumes a standard background of linear algebra, real analysis (including the theory of metric spaces), and Lebesgue integration, although an introductory chapter summarizes the requisite material. A highlight of the second edition is a new chapter on the Hahn-Banach theorem and its applications to the theory of duality.
This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.
Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing worth knowing can be taught. Oscar Wilde, “The Critic as Artist,” 1890. Analysis is a profound subject; it is neither easy to understand nor summarize. However, Real Analysis can be discovered by solving problems. This book aims to give independent students the opportunity to discover Real Analysis by themselves through problem solving. ThedepthandcomplexityofthetheoryofAnalysiscanbeappreciatedbytakingaglimpseatits developmental history. Although Analysis was conceived in the 17th century during the Scienti?c Revolution, it has taken nearly two hundred years to establish its theoretical basis. Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, Fermat, Newton and Leibniz were among those who contributed to its genesis. Deep conceptual changes in Analysis were brought about in the 19th century by Cauchy and Weierstrass. Furthermore, modern concepts such as open and closed sets were introduced in the 1900s. Today nearly every undergraduate mathematics program requires at least one semester of Real Analysis. Often, students consider this course to be the most challenging or even intimidating of all their mathematics major requirements. The primary goal of this book is to alleviate those concerns by systematically solving the problems related to the core concepts of most analysis courses. In doing so, we hope that learning analysis becomes less taxing and thereby more satisfying.
This is a basic introduction to modern algebra, providing a solid understanding of the axiomatic treatment of groups and then rings, aiming to promote a feeling for the evolutionary and historical development of the subject. It includes problems and fully worked solutions, enabling readers to master the subject rather than simply observing it.
This book contains a history of real and complex analysis in the nineteenth century, from the work of Lagrange and Fourier to the origins of set theory and the modern foundations of analysis. It studies the works of many contributors including Gauss, Cauchy, Riemann, and Weierstrass. This book is unique owing to the treatment of real and complex analysis as overlapping, inter-related subjects, in keeping with how they were seen at the time. It is suitable as a course in the history of mathematics for students who have studied an introductory course in analysis, and will enrich any course in undergraduate real or complex analysis.
This very well written and accessible book emphasizes the reasons for studying measure theory, which is the foundation of much of probability. By focusing on measure, many illustrative examples and applications, including a thorough discussion of standard probability distributions and densities, are opened. The book also includes many problems and their fully worked solutions.
The abstract concepts of metric spaces are often perceived as difficult. This book offers a unique approach to the subject which gives readers the advantage of a new perspective on ideas familiar from the analysis of a real line. Rather than passing quickly from the definition of a metric to the more abstract concepts of convergence and continuity, the author takes the concrete notion of distance as far as possible, illustrating the text with examples and naturally arising questions. Attention to detail at this stage is designed to prepare the reader to understand the more abstract ideas with relative ease.
Complex analysis can be a difficult subject and many introductory texts are just too ambitious for today’s students. This book takes a lower starting point than is traditional and concentrates on explaining the key ideas through worked examples and informal explanations, rather than through "dry" theory.
This thoroughly modern introduction to undergraduate topology brings the most exciting and useful aspects of modern topology to the reader. Containing all the key results of basic topology, this book concentrates on uniting the most interesting aspects of the subject with aspects that are most useful to research. It is suitable for self-study, and will leave the reader both motivated and well prepared for further study.
Was plane geometry your favourite math course in high school? Did you like proving theorems? Are you sick of memorising integrals? If so, real analysis could be your cup of tea. In contrast to calculus and elementary algebra, it involves neither formula manipulation nor applications to other fields of science. None. It is Pure Mathematics, and it is sure to appeal to the budding pure mathematician. In this new introduction to undergraduate real analysis the author takes a different approach from past studies of the subject, by stressing the importance of pictures in mathematics and hard problems. The exposition is informal and relaxed, with many helpful asides, examples and occasional comments from mathematicians like Dieudonne, Littlewood and Osserman. The author has taught the subject many times over the last 35 years at Berkeley and this book is based on the honours version of this course. The book contains an excellent selection of more than 500 exercises.
There are a great deal of books on introductory analysis in print today, many written by mathematicians of the first rank. The publication of another such book therefore warrants a defense. I have taught analysis for many years and have used a variety of texts during this time. These books were of excellent quality mathematically but did not satisfy the needs of the students I was teaching. They were written for mathematicians but not for those who were first aspiring to attain that status. The desire to fill this gap gave rise to the writing of this book. This book is intended to serve as a text for an introductory course in analysis. Its readers will most likely be mathematics, science, or engineering majors undertaking the last quarter of their undergraduate education. The aim of a first course in analysis is to provide the student with a sound foundation for analysis, to familiarize him with the kind of careful thinking used in advanced mathematics, and to provide him with tools for further work in it. The typical student we are dealing with has completed a three-semester calculus course and possibly an introductory course in differential equations. He may even have been exposed to a semester or two of modern algebra. All this time his training has most likely been intuitive with heuristics taking the place of proof. This may have been appropriate for that stage of his development.
From the author of the highly-acclaimed "A First Course in Real Analysis" comes a volume designed specifically for a short one-semester course in real analysis. Many students of mathematics and the physical and computer sciences need a text that presents the most important material in a brief and elementary fashion. The author meets this need with such elementary topics as the real number system, the theory at the basis of elementary calculus, the topology of metric spaces and infinite series. There are proofs of the basic theorems on limits at a pace that is deliberate and detailed, backed by illustrative examples throughout and no less than 45 figures.
Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students, working from concrete examples towards abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. The book explains the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations, and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms, which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices, leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. The authors are well known algebraists with considerable experience of teaching introductory courses on linear algebra to students at St Andrews. This book is based on one previously published by Chapman and Hall, but it has been extensively updated to include further explanatory text and fully worked solutions to the exercises that all 1st year students should be able to answer.
Intended as an undergraduate text on real analysis, this book includes all the standard material such as sequences, infinite series, continuity, differentiation, and integration, together with worked examples and exercises. By unifying and simplifying all the various notions of limit, the author has successfully presented a novel approach to the subject matter, which has not previously appeared in book form. The author defines the term limit once only, and all of the subsequent limiting processes are seen to be special cases of this one definition. Accordingly, the subject matter attains a unity and coherence that is not to be found in the traditional approach. Students will be able to fully appreciate and understand the common source of the topics they are studying while also realising that they are "variations on a theme", rather than essentially different topics, and therefore, will gain a better understanding of the subject.
This is an elementary text, aimed at first-year undergraduates, which has been designed to bridge the gap between school and university mathematics and to emphasise the importance of proofs - both how to follow a proof and how to construct a proof. The book lays the foundation for most of the key subjects studied in an undergraduate degree program, and provides numerous exercises and a bibliography with suggestions for further and background reading.
This book provides a self-contained and rigorous introduction to calculus of functions of one variable, in a presentation which emphasizes the structural development of calculus. Throughout, the authors highlight the fact that calculus provides a firm foundation to concepts and results that are generally encountered in high school and accepted on faith; for example, the classical result that the ratio of circumference to diameter is the same for all circles. A number of topics are treated here in considerable detail that may be inadequately covered in calculus courses and glossed over in real analysis courses.
" ... many eminent scholars, endowed with great geometric talent, make a point of never disclosing the simple and direct ideas that guided them, subordinating their elegant results to abstract general theories which often have no application outside the particular case in question. Geometry was becoming a study of algebraic, differential or partial differential equations, thus losing all the charm that comes from its being an art." H. Lebesgue, Ler;ons sur les Constructions Geometriques, Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1949. This book is based on lecture courses given to final-year students at the Uni versity of Nottingham and to M.Sc. students at the University of the West Indies in an attempt to reverse the process of expurgation of the geometry component from the mathematics curricula of universities. This erosion is in sharp contrast to the situation in research mathematics, where the ideas and methods of geometry enjoy ever-increasing influence and importance. In the other direction, more modern ideas have made a forceful and beneficial impact on the geometry of the ancients in many areas. Thus trigonometry has vastly clarified our concept of angle, calculus has revolutionised the study of plane curves, and group theory has become the language of symmetry.