This book provides undergraduates with a step-by-step guide to successfully carrying out an independent research project or dissertation. The book addresses each stage of the project by answering the questions that a student is likely to ask as the work progresses from choosing the subject area and planning the data collection through to producing illustrations and writing the final report. Most undergraduates in geography and related disciplines are required to undertake individual projects as part of their degree course; this book is a source of constructive, practical advice. This new third edition continues the tradition of friendly, well-informed but informal support, and continues to focus on answering the specific questions that students typically ask at each stage of the project. The new edition brings the text completely up to date by taking into account changes within the discipline and changes in the ways that students work. New digital media, social networking, mobile technology, e-journals, anti-plagiarism software, ethics approval rules and risk assessments are among the issues that this new edition takes into account. The new edition also broadens the book’s appeal by extending its coverage of the wide range of different approaches to geographical research, with expanded coverage of qualitative research, Geographic Information Systems, and new approaches to research design in both physical and human geographies
Conducting Research in Conservation is the first textbook on social science research methods written specifically for use in the expanding and increasingly multidisciplinary field of environmental conservation. The first section on planning a research project includes chapters on the need for social science research in conservation, defining a research topic, methodology, and sampling. Section two focuses on practical issues in carrying out fieldwork with local communities, from fieldwork preparation and data collection to the relationships between the researcher and the study community. Section three provides an in-depth focus on a range of social science methods including standard qualitative and quantitative methods such as participant observation, interviewing and questionnaires, and more advanced methods, such as ethnobiological methods for documenting local environmental knowledge and change, and participatory methods such as the ‘PRA’ toolbox. Section four then demonstrates how to analyze social science data qualitatively and quantitatively; and the final section outlines the writing-up process and what should happen after the end of the formal research project. This book is a comprehensive and accessible guide to social science research methods for students of conservation related subjects and practitioners trained in the natural sciences. It features practical worldwide examples of conservation-related research in different ecosystems such as forests; grasslands; marine and riverine systems; and farmland. Boxes provide definitions of key terms, practical tips, and brief narratives from students and practitioners describe the practical issues that they have faced in the field.
Sub-Saharan Africa is urbanizing rapidly, but most countries lack appropriate tools to manage their urban growth. This creates both risks and opportunities for prospective land holders, resulting in a tangle of insecure land rights and claims under multiple tenure systems. Recently, innovative land tools have been proposed and implemented to formalize land tenure. It is envisaged that tenure security for land holders will increase and in turn contribute to poverty reduction. This study evaluates such tools in three peri-urban areas in Lusaka (Zambia), Oshakati (Namibia) and Gaborone (Botswana), with a focus on the perspective of the land holders. The author concludes that the tools are to some extent pro-poor, and makes recommendations for further improvements. These innovative land tools are also considered a necessary addition to conventional and administration tools. This study makes valuable reading for academics, policy makers and practitioners within the land administration domain and related disciplines.
"This book provides an overview of why geography is important in the investigation of health, the importance of the main components of a GIS, how important neighborhood context is when using a GIS, and the general differences found between urban and rural health environments"--Provided by publisher.
A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.
Computer-mediated participation is at the crossroads. In the early heady days of the digital revolution, access to "high" technologies such as GIS promised the empowerment of marginalized communities by providing data and information that was previously hidden away from public view. To a great extent, this goal has been achieved at least in the U.S. and Western Europe – data about a range of government initiatives and raw data about different aspects of spatial planning such as land use, community facilities, property ownership are available a mouse-click away. Now, that we, the public, have access to information, are we able to make better plans for the future of our cities and regions? Are we more inclusive in our planning efforts? Are we able to foster collaborative governance structures mediated by digital technologies? In the book, these issues will be discussed using a three-part structure. The first part of the book will be theoretical – it will review the literature in the field, establish a framework to organize the literature and to link three different subject areas (participation and community development, GIS and other related technologies, and planning processes). The second part of the book will be a series of success stories, case studies that review actual situations where participatory planning using GIS has enabled community wellbeing and empowerment. These case studies will vary in scale and focus on different planning issues (planning broadly defined). The final part of the book will step back to review alternative scenarios for the future, exploring where we are headed, as the technologies we are using to plan rapidly change.
"Albrecht's slim volume is an important contribution to users and teachers of geographic information systems. It is a distillation of the core functions available in contemporary workstation GIS systems, functions likely to become common on Web mapping systems like Google Earth and MS Virtual Earth. Well written and up-to-date, this book is an excellent complement to the voluminous documentation provided by software and solutions vendors." —CHOICE Key Concepts and Techniques in GIS is a concise overview of the fundamental ideas that inform Geographic Information Science. It provides detailed descriptions of the concepts and techniques that anyone using GIS software must fully understand to analyze spatial data.
Originally presented as author's thesis: Doctor of Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, 2007.
This book develops, for the first time, a qualitative model for the representation of spatial knowledge based only on locative relations between the objects involved. The core of this book is devoted to the study of qualitative inference methods that take into account the rich structure of space. These methods can be applied to quite a number of areas characterized by uncertain or incomplete knowledge, as for example geographic information systems, robot control, computer-aided architectural design, and natural language information systems.
Starting with an updated description of Allen's calculus, the book proceeds with a description of the main qualitative calculi which have been developed over the last two decades. It describes the connection of complexity issues to geometric properties. Models of the formalisms are described using the algebraic notion of weak representations of the associated algebras. The book also includes a presentation of fuzzy extensions of qualitative calculi, and a description of the study of complexity in terms of clones of operations.
Geographic Information Systems are an essential tool for analyzing and representing quantitative spatial data. Qualitative GIS explains the recent integration of qualitative research with Geographical Information Systems. Making reference to representation, analysis, and theory throughout, the text shows how to frame questions, collect data, analyze results, and represent findings in a truly integrated way. An important addition to the mixed methods literature, Qualitative GIS will be the standard reference for upper-level students and researchers using qualitative methods and Geographic Information Systems.
We live in a changing world with multiple and evolving threats to national security, including terrorism, asymmetrical warfare (conflicts between agents with different military powers or tactics), and social unrest. Visually depicting and assessing these threats using imagery and other geographically-referenced information is the mission of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). As the nature of the threat evolves, so do the tools, knowledge, and skills needed to respond. The challenge for NGA is to maintain a workforce that can deal with evolving threats to national security, ongoing scientific and technological advances, and changing skills and expectations of workers. Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence assesses the supply of expertise in 10 geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) fields, including 5 traditional areas (geodesy and geophysics, photogrammetry, remote sensing, cartographic science, and geographic information systems and geospatial analysis) and 5 emerging areas that could improve geospatial intelligence (GEOINT fusion, crowdsourcing, human geography, visual analytics, and forecasting). The report also identifies gaps in expertise relative to NGA's needs and suggests ways to ensure an adequate supply of geospatial intelligence expertise over the next 20 years.
This book focuses on a new source of geographic information: user generated content accessible over the Internet through mobile and Web applications. The exploitation, integration and application of crowdsourced geographic information allows scientists to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple scales and for diversified objectives.
What is Qualitative Interviewing? is an accessible and comprehensive 'what is' and 'how to' methods book. It is distinctive in emphasising the importance of good practice in understanding and undertaking qualitative interviews within the framework of a clear philosophical position. Rosalind Edwards and Janet Holland provide clear and succinct explanations of a range of philosophies and theories of how to know about the social world, and a thorough discussion of how to go about researching it using interviews. A series of short chapters explain and illustrate a range of interview types and practices. Drawing on their own and colleagues' experiences Holland and Edwards provide real research examples as informative illustrations of qualitative interviewing in practice, and the use of a range of creative interview tools. They discuss the use of new technologies as well as tackling enduring issues around asking and listening and power dynamics in research. Written in a clear and accessible style the book concludes with a useful annotated bibliography of key texts and journals in the field. What is Qualitative Interviewing? provides a vital resource for both new and experienced social science researchers across a range of disciplines.
The Third Edition of this bestselling textbook has been fully revised and updated to include the latest developments in the field and still retains its accessible format to appeal to a broad range of students. Now divided into five clear sections the book investigates the unique, complex and difficult problems that are posed by geographic information and together they build into a holistic understanding of the key principles of GIS. This is the most current, authoritative and comprehensive treatment of the field, that goes from fundamental principles to the big picture of: GIS and the New World Order security, health and well-being digital differentiation in GIS consumption the core organizing role of GIS in Geography the greening of GIS grand challenges of GIScience science and explanation Key features: Four-colour throughout Associated website with free online resources Teacher’s manual available for lecturers A complete learning resource, with accompanying instructor links, free online lab resources and personal syllabi Includes learning objectives and review boxes throughout each chapter New in this edition: Completely revised with a new five part structure: Foundations; Principles; Techniques; Analysis; Management and Policy All new personality boxes of current GIS practitioners New chapters on Distributed GIS, Map Production, Geovisualization, Modeling, and Managing GIS