This new book provides a unified, in-depth, readable introduction to the multipredictor regression methods most widely used in biostatistics: linear models for continuous outcomes, logistic models for binary outcomes, the Cox model for right-censored survival times, repeated-measures models for longitudinal and hierarchical outcomes, and generalized linear models for counts and other outcomes. Treating these topics together takes advantage of all they have in common. The authors point out the many-shared elements in the methods they present for selecting, estimating, checking, and interpreting each of these models. They also show that these regression methods deal with confounding, mediation, and interaction of causal effects in essentially the same way. The examples, analyzed using Stata, are drawn from the biomedical context but generalize to other areas of application. While a first course in statistics is assumed, a chapter reviewing basic statistical methods is included. Some advanced topics are covered but the presentation remains intuitive. A brief introduction to regression analysis of complex surveys and notes for further reading are provided.
The second edition of this standard text guides biomedical researchers in the selection and use of advanced statistical methods and the presentation of results to clinical colleagues. It assumes no knowledge of mathematics beyond high school level and is accessible to anyone with an introductory background in statistics. The Stata statistical software package is again used to perform the analyses, this time employing the much improved version 10 with its intuitive point and click as well as character-based commands. Topics covered include linear, logistic and Poisson regression, survival analysis, fixed-effects analysis of variance, and repeated-measure analysis of variance. Restricted cubic splines are used to model non-linear relationships. Each method is introduced in its simplest form and then extended to cover more complex situations. An appendix will help the reader select the most appropriate statistical methods for their data. The text makes extensive use of real data sets available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/dupontwd/wddtext/.
Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics A modern perspective on mixed models The availability of powerful computing methods in recent decades has thrust linear and nonlinear mixed models into the mainstream of statistical application. This volume offers a modern perspective on generalized, linear, and mixed models, presenting a unified and accessible treatment of the newest statistical methods for analyzing correlated, nonnormally distributed data. As a follow-up to Searle's classic, Linear Models, and Variance Components by Searle, Casella, and McCulloch, this new work progresses from the basic one-way classification to generalized linear mixed models. A variety of statistical methods are explained and illustrated, with an emphasis on maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood. An invaluable resource for applied statisticians and industrial practitioners, as well as students interested in the latest results, Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models features: * A review of the basics of linear models and linear mixed models * Descriptions of models for nonnormal data, including generalized linear and nonlinear models * Analysis and illustration of techniques for a variety of real data sets * Information on the accommodation of longitudinal data using these models * Coverage of the prediction of realized values of random effects * A discussion of the impact of computing issues on mixed models
A textbook on the use of advanced statistical methods in healthcare sciences Primer of Applied Regression & Analysis of Variance is a textbook especially created for medical, public health, and social and environmental science students who need applied (not theoretical) training in the use of statistical methods. The book has been acclaimed for its user-friendly style that makes complicated material understandable to readers who do not have an extensive math background. The text is packed with learning aids that include chapter-ending summaries and end-of-chapter problems that quickly assess mastery of the material. Examples from biological and health sciences are included to clarify and illustrate key points. The techniques discussed apply to a wide range of disciplines, including social and behavioral science as well as health and life sciences. Typical courses that would use this text include those that cover multiple linear regression and ANOVA. Four completely new chapters Completely updated software information and examples
An essential textbook for any student or researcher in biology needing to design experiments, sample programs or analyse the resulting data. The text begins with a revision of estimation and hypothesis testing methods, covering both classical and Bayesian philosophies, before advancing to the analysis of linear and generalized linear models. Topics covered include linear and logistic regression, simple and complex ANOVA models (for factorial, nested, block, split-plot and repeated measures and covariance designs), and log-linear models. Multivariate techniques, including classification and ordination, are then introduced. Special emphasis is placed on checking assumptions, exploratory data analysis and presentation of results. The main analyses are illustrated with many examples from published papers and there is an extensive reference list to both the statistical and biological literature. The book is supported by a website that provides all data sets, questions for each chapter and links to software.
Dynamical Biostatistical Models presents statistical models and methods for the analysis of longitudinal data. The book focuses on models for analyzing repeated measures of quantitative and qualitative variables and events history, including survival and multistate models. Most of the advanced methods, such as multistate and joint models, can be applied using SAS or R software. The book describes advanced regression models that include the time dimension, such as mixed-effect models, survival models, multistate models, and joint models for repeated measures and time-to-event data. It also explores the possibility of unifying these models through a stochastic process point of view and introduces the dynamic approach to causal inference. Drawing on much of their own extensive research, the authors use three main examples throughout the text to illustrate epidemiological questions and methodological issues. Readers will see how each method is applied to real data and how to interpret the results.
Biostatistics for Practitioners: An Interpretative Guide for Medicine and Biology deals with several aspects of statistics that are indispensable for researchers and students across the biomedical sciences. The book features a step-by-step approach, focusing on standard statistical tests, as well as discussions of the most common errors. The book is based on the author’s 40+ years of teaching statistics to medical fellows and biomedical researchers across a wide range of fields. Discusses how to use the standard statistical tests in the biomedical field, as well as how to make statistical inferences (t test, ANOVA, regression etc.) Includes non-standards tests, including equivalence or non-inferiority testing, extreme value statistics, cross-over tests, and simple time series procedures such as the runs test and Cusums Introduces procedures such as multiple regression, Poisson regression, meta-analysis and resampling statistics, and provides references for further studies
This book guides researchers in performing and presenting high-quality analyses of all kinds of non-randomized studies, including analyses of observational studies, claims database analyses, assessment of registry data, survey data, pharmaco-economic data, and many more applications. The text is sufficiently detailed to provide not only general guidance, but to help the researcher through all of the standard issues that arise in such analyses. Just enough theory is included to allow the reader to understand the pros and cons of alternative approaches and when to use each method. The numerous contributors to this book illustrate, via real-world numerical examples and SAS code, appropriate implementations of alternative methods. The end result is that researchers will learn how to present high-quality and transparent analyses that will lead to fair and objective decisions from observational data. This book is part of the SAS Press program.
Longitudinal data analysis for biomedical and behavioral sciences This innovative book sets forth and describes methods for the analysis of longitudinaldata, emphasizing applications to problems in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. Reflecting the growing importance and use of longitudinal data across many areas of research, the text is designed to help users of statistics better analyze and understand this type of data. Much of the material from the book grew out of a course taught by Dr. Hedeker on longitudinal data analysis. The material is, therefore, thoroughly classroom tested and includes a number of features designed to help readers better understand and apply the material. Statistical procedures featured within the text include: * Repeated measures analysis of variance * Multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures * Random-effects regression models (RRM) * Covariance-pattern models * Generalized-estimating equations (GEE) models * Generalizations of RRM and GEE for categorical outcomes Practical in their approach, the authors emphasize the applications of the methods, using real-world examples for illustration. Some syntax examples are provided, although the authors do not generally focus on software in this book. Several datasets and computer syntax examples are posted on this title's companion Web site. The authors intend to keep the syntax examples current as new versions of the software programs emerge. This text is designed for both undergraduate and graduate courses in longitudinal data analysis. Instructors can take advantage of overheads and additional course materials available online for adopters. Applied statisticians in biomedicine and the social sciences can also use the book as a convenient reference.
Statistics for the Health Sciences is a highly readable and accessible textbook on understanding statistics for the health sciences, both conceptually and via the SPSS programme. The authors give clear explanations of the concepts underlying statistical analyses and descriptions of how these analyses are applied in health science research without complex maths formulae. The textbook takes students from the basics of research design, hypothesis testing and descriptive statistical techniques through to more advanced inferential statistical tests that health science students are likely to encounter. The strengths and weaknesses of different techniques are critically appraised throughout, and the authors emphasise how they may be used both in research and to inform best practice care in health settings. Exercises and tips throughout the book allow students to practice using SPSS. The companion website provides further practical experience of conducting statistical analyses. Features include: • multiple choice questions for both student and lecturer use • full Powerpoint slides for lecturers • practical exercises using SPSS • additional practical exercises using SAS and R This is an essential textbook for students studying beginner and intermediate level statistics across the health sciences.
Statistics in Medicine, Third Edition makes medical statistics easy to understand by students, practicing physicians, and researchers. The book begins with databases from clinical medicine and uses such data to give multiple worked-out illustrations of every method. The text opens with how to plan studies from conception to publication and what to do with your data, and follows with step-by-step instructions for biostatistical methods from the simplest levels (averages, bar charts) progressively to the more sophisticated methods now being seen in medical articles (multiple regression, noninferiority testing). Examples are given from almost every medical specialty and from dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, and health care management. A preliminary guide is given to tailor sections of the text to various lengths of biostatistical courses. User-friendly format includes medical examples, step-by-step methods, and check-yourself exercises appealing to readers with little or no statistical background, across medical and biomedical disciplines Facilitates stand-alone methods rather than a required sequence of reading and references to prior text Covers trial randomization, treatment ethics in medical research, imputation of missing data, evidence-based medical decisions, how to interpret medical articles, noninferiority testing, meta-analysis, screening number needed to treat, and epidemiology Fills the gap left in all other medical statistics books between the reader’s knowledge of how to go about research and the book’s coverage of how to analyze results of that research New in this Edition: New chapters on planning research, managing data and analysis, Bayesian statistics, measuring association and agreement, and questionnaires and surveys New sections on what tests and descriptive statistics to choose, false discovery rate, interim analysis, bootstrapping, Bland-Altman plots, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), and Deming regression Expanded coverage on probability, statistical methods and tests relatively new to medical research, ROC curves, experimental design, and survival analysis 35 Databases in Excel format used in the book and can be downloaded and transferred into whatever format is needed along with PowerPoint slides of figures, tables, and graphs from the book included on the companion site, http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companion.jsp?ISBN=9780123848642 Medical subject index offers additional search capabilities
This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first and higher orders are used for conditional models in addition to conditional probabilities as a function of covariates. Similarly, joint models are developed using both marginal-conditional probabilities as well as joint probabilities as a function of covariates. In addition to generalized linear models for bivariate outcomes, it highlights extended semi-parametric models for continuous failure time data and their applications in order to include models for a broader range of outcome variables that researchers encounter in various fields. The book further discusses the problem of analysing repeated measures data for failure time in the competing risk framework, which is now taking on an increasingly important role in the field of survival analysis, reliability and actuarial science. Details on how to perform the analyses are included in each chapter and supplemented with newly developed R packages and functions along with SAS codes and macro/IML. It is a valuable resource for researchers, graduate students and other users of statistical techniques for analysing repeated measures data.
Bernard Rosner's FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOSTATISTICS is a practical introduction to the methods, techniques, and computation of statistics with human subjects. It prepares students for their future courses and careers by introducing the statistical methods most often used in medical literature. Rosner minimizes the amount of mathematical formulation (algebra-based) while still giving complete explanations of all the important concepts. As in previous editions, a major strength of this book is that every new concept is developed systematically through completely worked out examples from current medical research problems. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Ott and Longnecker's AN INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS, Seventh Edition, provides a broad overview of statistical methods for advanced undergraduate and graduate students from a variety of disciplines who have little or no prior course work in statistics. The authors teach students to solve problems encountered in research projects, to make decisions based on data in general settings both within and beyond the university setting, and to become critical readers of statistical analyses in research papers and news reports. The first eleven chapters present material typically covered in an introductory statistics course, as well as case studies and examples that are often encountered in undergraduate capstone courses. The remaining chapters cover regression modeling and design of experiments. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
This classic text takes an applied and computer-oriented approach to its topical coverage. The book is intended for one or two semester courses in biostatistics at the undergraduate or graduate level offered by departments of biostatistics, statistics, mathematics, nursing and other allied health disciplines, and is also used in some departments of forestry and animal husbandry. Nearly all the examples and exercises make use of real data from actual research projects and reports from health sciences literature. Where appropriate, Minitab, SPSS and SAS commands and printouts are included as part of the examples and solutions to exercises.
The emergence of high-speed computing has facilitated the development of many exciting statistical and mathematical methods in the last 25 years, broadening the landscape of available tools in statistical investigations of complex data. Biostatistics: A Computing Approach focuses on visualization and computational approaches associated with both modern and classical techniques. Furthermore, it promotes computing as a tool for performing both analyses and simulations that can facilitate such understanding. As a practical matter, programs in R and SAS are presented throughout the text. In addition to these programs, appendices describing the basic use of SAS and R are provided. Teaching by example, this book emphasizes the importance of simulation and numerical exploration in a modern-day statistical investigation. A few statistical methods that can be implemented with simple calculations are also worked into the text to build insight about how the methods really work. Suitable for students who have an interest in the application of statistical methods but do not necessarily intend to become statisticians, this book has been developed from Introduction to Biostatistics II, which the author taught for more than a decade at the University of Pittsburgh.
Now in its Fourth Edition, An Introduction to Medical Statistics continues to be a 'must-have' textbook for anyone who needs a clear logical guide to the subject. Written in an easy-to-understand style and packed with real life examples, the text clearly explains the statistical principles used in the medical literature. Taking readers through the common statistical methods seen in published research and guidelines, the text focuses on how to interpret and analyse statistics for clinical practice. Using extracts from real studies, the author illustrates how data can be employed correctly and incorrectly in medical research helping readers to evaluate the statistics they encounter and appropriately implement findings in clinical practice. End of chapter exercises, case studies and multiple choice questions help readers to apply their learning and develop their own interpretative skills. This thoroughly revised edition includes new chapters on meta-analysis, missing data, and survival analysis.
The Biostatistics course is often found in the schools of public Health, medical schools, and, occasionally, in statistics and biology departments. The population of students in these courses is a diverse one, with varying preparedness. The book assumes the reader has at least two years of high school algebra, but no previous exposure to statistics is required. Written for individuals who might be fearful of mathematics, this book minimizes the technical difficulties and emphasizes the importance of statistics in scientific investigation. An understanding of underlying design and analysis is stressed. The limitations of the research, design and analytical techniques are discussed, allowing the reader to accurately interpret results. Real data, both processed and raw, are used extensively in examples and exercises. Statistical computing packages - MINITAB, SAS and Stata - are integrated. The use of the computer and software allows a sharper focus on the concepts, letting the computer do the necessary number-crunching. * Emphasizes underlying statistical concepts more than competing texts * Focuses on experimental design and analysis, at an elementary level * Includes an introduction to linear correlation and regression * Statistics are central: probability is downplayed * Presents life tables and survival analysis * Appendix with solutions to many exercises * Special instructor's manual with solution to all exercises
"Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of Intuitive Biostatistics retains and refines the core perspectives of the previous edition: a focus on how to interpret statistical results rather than on how to analyze data, minimal use of equations, and a detailed review of assumptions and common mistakes. Intuitive Biostatistics, Completely Revised Second Edition, provides a clear introduction to statistics for undergraduate and graduate students and also serves as a statistics refresher for working scientists. New to this edition: Chapter 1 shows how our intuitions lead us to misinterpret data, thus explaining the need for statistical rigor. Chapter 11 explains the lognormal distribution, an essential topic omitted from many other statistics books. Chapter 21 contrasts testing for equivalence with testing for differences. Chapters 22, 23, and 40 explore the pervasive problem of multiple comparisons. Chapters 24 and 25 review testing for normality and outliers. Chapter 35 shows how statistical hypothesis testing can be understood as comparing the fits of alternative models. Chapters 37 and 38 provide a brief introduction to multiple, logistic, and proportional hazards regression. Chapter 46 reviews one example in great depth, reviewing numerous statistical concepts and identifying common mistakes. Chapter 47 includes 49 multi-part problems, with answers fully discussed in Chapter 48. New "Q and A" sections throughout the book review key concepts"--Provided by publisher.
With each new release of Stata, a comprehensive resource is needed to highlight the improvements as well as discuss the fundamentals of the software. Fulfilling this need, A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using Stata, Fourth Edition has been fully updated to provide an introduction to Stata version 9. This edition covers many new features of Stata, including a new command for mixed models and a new matrix language. Each chapter describes the analysis appropriate for a particular application, focusing on the medical, social, and behavioral fields. The authors begin each chapter with descriptions of the data and the statistical techniques to be used. The methods covered include descriptives, simple tests, variance analysis, multiple linear regression, logistic regression, generalized linear models, survival analysis, random effects models, and cluster analysis. The core of the book centers on how to use Stata to perform analyses and how to interpret the results. The chapters conclude with several exercises based on data sets from different disciplines. A concise guide to the latest version of Stata, A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using Stata, Fourth Edition illustrates the benefits of using Stata to perform various statistical analyses for both data analysis courses and self-study.