Religion mattered to the prehistoricSouthwestern people, just as it matters to their descendents today. Examining the role of religion can help to explain architecture, pottery, agriculture, even commerce. But archaeologists have only recently developed the theoretical and methodological tools with which to study this topic. Religion in the Prehispanic Southwest marks the first book-length study of prehistoric religion in the region. Drawing on a rich array of empirical approaches, the contributors show the importance of understanding beliefs and ritual for a range of time periods and southwestern societies. For professional and avocational archaeologists, for religion scholars and students, Religion in the Prehispanic Southwest represents an important contribution.
The mid-thirteenth century AD marks the beginning of tremendous social change among Ancestral Pueblo peoples of the northern US Southwest that foreshadow the emergence of the modern Pueblo world. Regional depopulations, long-distance migrations, and widespread resettlement into large plaza-oriented villages forever altered community life. Archaeologists have tended to view these historical events as adaptive responses to climatic, environmental, and economic conditions. Recently, however, more attention is being given to the central role of religion during these transformative periods, and to how archaeological remains embody the complex social practices through which Ancestral PuebloÊ understandings of sacred concepts were expressed and transformed. The contributors to this volume employ a wide range of archaeological evidence to examine the origin and development of religious ideologies and the ways they shaped Pueblo societies across the Southwest in the centuries prior to European contact. With its fresh theoretical approach, it contributes to a better understanding of both the Pueblo past and the anthropological study of religion in ancient contexts This volume will be of interest to both regional specialists and to scholars who work with the broader dimensions of religion and ritual in the human experience.Ê
Mesa Verde migrations were an integral part of a transformative period that forever changed the course of Pueblo history. Bringing together multiple lines of evidence, including settlement patterns, pottery exchange networks, and changes in ceremonial and civic architecture, Donna M. Glowacki takes a historical perspective that forefronts the social factors underlying the depopulation of Mesa Verde, showing how “living and leaving” were experienced across the region.
Spontaneous acts of violence born of human emotions like anger or greed are probably universal, but social violenceÑviolence resulting from social relationships within and between groups of peopleÑis a much more complex issue with implications beyond archaeology. Recent research has generated multiple interpretations about the forms, intensity, and underlying causes of social violence in the ancient Southwest. Deborah L. Nichols and Patricia L. Crown have gathered nine contributions from a variety of disciplines to examine social violence in the prehispanic American Southwest. Not only offering specific case studies but also delving into theoretical aspects, this volume looks at archaeological interpretations, multidisciplinary approaches, and the implications of archaeological research for Native peoples and how they are impacted by what archaeologists say about their past. Specific chapters address the impacts of raiding and warfare, the possible origins of ritual violence, the evidence for social violence manifested in human skeletal remains, the implications of witchcraft persecution, and an examination of the reasons behind apparent anthropophagy. There is little question that social violence occurred in the American Southwest. These contributions support the need for further discussion and investigation into its causes and the broader implications for archaeology and anthropology. CONTENTS 1. Introduction Patricia Crown and Deborah Nichols 2. Dismembering the Trope: Imagining Cannibalism in the Ancient Pueblo World Randall H. McGuire and Ruth Van Dyke 3. An Outbreak of Violence and Raiding in the Central Mesa Verde Region in the 12th Century AD Brian R. Billman 4. Chaco Horrificus? Wendy Bustard 5. Inscribed in the Body, Written in Bones: The Consequences of Social Violence at La Plata Debra L. Martin, Nancy Akins, Bradley Crenshaw, and Pamela K. Stone 6. Veneration or Violence: A Study of Variations in Patterns of Human Bone Modification at La Quemada Ventura R. PŽrez, Ben A. Nelson, and Debra L. Martin 7. Witches, Practice, and the Context of Pueblo Cannibalism William H. Walker 8. Explanation vs. Sensation: The Discourse of Cannibalism at AwatÕovi Peter Whiteley 9. Devouring Ourselves George J. Armelagos References Cited About the Contributors Index
Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology introduces the application of quantitative methods in archaeology. It outlines conceptual and statistical principles, illustrates their application, and provides problem sets for practice. Discusses both methodological frameworks and quantitative methods of archaeological analysis Presents statistical material in a clear and straightforward manner ideal for students and professionals in the field Includes illustrative problem sets and practice exercises in each chapter that reinforce practical application of quantitative analysis
This book tackles the topic of religion, a broad subject exciting renewed interest across the social and historical sciences. The volume is tightly focused on the early farming village of Çatalhöyük, which has generated much interest both within and outside of archaeology, especially for its contributions to the understanding of early religion. The volume discusses contemporary themes such as materiality, animism, object vitality, and material dimensions of spirituality while at the same time exploring broad evolutionary changes in the ways in which religion has influenced society. The volume results from a unique collaboration between an archaeological team and a range of specialists in ritual and religion.
The goal of cultural psychology is to explain the ways in which human cultural constructions -- for example, rituals, stereotypes, and meanings -- organize and direct human acting, feeling, and thinking in different social contexts. A rapidly growing, international field of scholarship, cultural psychology is ready for an interdisciplinary, primary resource. Linking psychology, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and history, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the quintessential volume that unites the variable perspectives from these disciplines. Comprised of over fifty contributed chapters, this book provides a necessary, comprehensive overview of contemporary cultural psychology. Bridging psychological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, one will find in this handbook: - A concise history of psychology that includes valuable resources for innovation in psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular - Interdisciplinary chapters including insights into cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, culture and conceptions of the self, and semiotics and cultural connections - Close, conceptual links with contemporary biological sciences, especially developmental biology, and with other social sciences - A section detailing potential methodological innovations for cultural psychology By comparing cultures and the (often differing) human psychological functions occuring within them, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the ideal resource for making sense of complex and varied human phenomena.
Drawing from ethnographic examples found throughout the world, this text covers what anthropologists know or think about religion, how they have studied it, and how they interpret or explain it. A key text for students of upper division courses in the anthropological study of religion.
There has recently been much interest among geographers, historians and political theorists in concepts of centre and periphery. In this book a wide range of studies consider how such concepts can be used to clarify our understanding of pre-capitalist societies.
Salado is an enigma of the past. One of the most spectacular cultures of the ancient Southwest, its brilliant polychrome pottery has been subjected to varied interpretations, from religious cult to artistic horizon. Stephen Lekson now uses data from two Salado sitesÑa large pueblo and a small farmsteadÑto clarify long-standing misconceptions about this culture. By combining analysis of the large whole-vessel collection at Dutch Ruin with the scientific excavation of Villareal II, a picture of Salado emerges that enables Lekson to evaluate previous competing theories and propose that Salado represents a major fourteenth-century migration of Pueblo peoples into the Chihuahuan deserts. Lekson demonstrates that late, short-lived Salado farmsteadsÑdifficult to identify archaeologically in areas with larger Mimbres concentrationsÑcoexisted with larger Salado towns, and he argues that Salado in the Upper Gila region appears as a substantial in-migration of Mogollon Uplands populations into what was a vacant river valley. Throughout the fourteenth century, Salado communities in the Upper Gila were integrated into the larger Salado horizon and were closely connected to Casas Grandes, as indicated by the export of serpentine to the city of PaquimŽ and the occurrence of Casas Grandes pottery at Upper Gila Salado sites. The book includes illustrations of 71 vessels from Dutch Ruin plus a full-color frontispiece. Through analysis of these two sites, Lekson has taken a large step toward clearing up the mystery of Salado. His work will be welcomed by all who study the movements of peoples in the prehispanic Southwest.
The environmental studies of pollution in the Mexico City Air Basin serve as models for urban areas all over the world. This book reviews the ongoing research for the first time and synthesizes a complete study of the effects of air pollution on forests. A thorough discussion of regional geology, climate and hydrology and the sociological factors affecting air pollution in the area sets the stage for a variety of case studies of forests. The editors also address the outlook for the health and sustainability of forests in the midst of widespread urbanization.
This volume contains the majority of the papers presented at the Fifth Annual Meeting of the Semiotic Society of America, held in Lubbock, Texas, October 16-19, 1980. The varied styles topics, methodologies, and intellectual traditions represented here reflect the current state of flux in semiotics--a healthy chaos, in which new ideas vie for survival and experiment is at a premium. Because of this variety, we have kept our editorial in terventions to a minimum. In addition, we have refrained from imposing any topical classification. While we could have used the panel titles as a taxonomic principle, this would not have produced a sufficiently even format. We have therefore uti lized the alphabetical order of authors' surnames as being os tensibly the least "loaded." These Proceedings represent a current view of the "semi otic scene," especially in the U.S.A. They also include some work representative of architectural semiotics from the U.K. We have tried to bring the volume to publication rapidly, since the immediacy of the contents would seem to be the pri mary asset of any such project. We would like to express the Society's collective grati tude to the 1980 Program Committee chaired by Richard Bauman (University of Texas-Austin), the Lubbock Local Arrangements Committee chaired by Nancy P. Hickerson (Texas Tech Universi ty), and our special thanks to Laurel Phipps of the School of Continuing Education at Texas Tech University.
The Rough Guide to the USA is the ultimate guide to all fifty states. Whether you're planning a classic American road-trip, a visit to New England in the Fall, or a west-coast sun and surf holiday, this guide is the perfect companion. Packed with colour maps, itineraries and route suggestions, it will help you discover the best the United States has to offer, from New York's museums and Chicago's skyscrapers to the deserts of the Southwest and vineyards of California. With expert reviews of hotels, restaurants, diners and bars, plus all the information you'll need on city sights and national parks, you'll make the most of your American adventure with The Rough Guide to the USA. Now available in ePub format.
In the centuries before the arrival of Europeans, the Pueblo world underwent nearly continuous reorganization. Populations moved from Chaco Canyon and the great centers of the Mesa Verde region to areas along the Rio Grande, the Little Colorado River, and the Mogollon Rim, where they began constructing larger and differently organized villages, many with more than 500 rooms. Villages also tended to occur in clusters that have been interpreted in a number of different ways. This book describes and interprets this period of southwestern history immediately before and after initial European contact, A.D. 1275-1600Ña span of time during which Pueblo peoples and culture were dramatically transformed. It summarizes one hundred years of research and archaeological data for the Pueblo IV period as it explores the nature of the organization of village clusters and what they meant in behavioral and political terms. Twelve of the chapters individually examine the northern and eastern portions of the Southwest and the groups who settled there during the protohistoric period. The authors develop histories for settlement clusters that offer insights into their unique development and the variety of ways that villages formed these clusters. These analyses show the extent to which spatial clusters of large settlements may have formed regionally organized alliances, and in some cases they reveal a connection between protohistoric villages and indigenous or migratory groups from the preceding period. This volume is distinct from other recent syntheses of Pueblo IV research in that it treats the settlement cluster as the analytic unit. By analyzing how members of clusters of villages interacted with one another, it offers a clearer understanding of the value of this level of analysis and suggests possibilities for future research. In addition to offering new insights on the Pueblo IV world, the volume serves as a compendium of information on more than 400 known villages larger than 50 rooms. It will be of lasting interest not only to archaeologists but also to geographers, land managers, and general readers interested in Pueblo culture.
Ancestors and Elites examines prehispanic ritual behaviors characteristic of the Casas Grandes region of Chihuahua, Mexico. Gordon Rakita analyzes the archaeological data from the site with respect to broader anthropological theories regarding both religious practices and the rise of complex societies. This confluence of empirical fact and general theory allows Rakita to explore in detail the complex, reciprocal relationship between ritual practices and developing social complexity at PaquimZ, one of the best-documented archaeological sites in the region.
Facts101 is your complete guide to Ancient Lives. In this book, you will learn topics such as Acquiring the Record, How Did People Live?, Individuals and Interactions, and Studying the Intangible plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
Summarizes the knowledge of prehistoric regional exchange in the American Southwest and Mesoamerica. Suitable for anthropologists and archaeologists, this volume presents data for comparative analysis of regional systems relative to sociopolitical organization.
"Sixteen scholars on both sides of the border present recent research on the economy, history, religion, and far-reaching influence of Casas Grandes. Macaw feathers, copper, shells, ritual mounds, and ball fields all reveal the secrets of Casas Grandes, a massive town whose trading network extended from the Chihuahua Desert up through the American Southwest"--Provided by publisher.
Salado is an enigma of the past. One of the most spectacular cultures of the ancient Southwest, its brilliant polychrome pottery has been subjected to varied interpretations, from religious cult to artistic horizon. Stephen Lekson now uses data from two Salado sitesÑa large pueblo and a small farmsteadÑto clarify long-standing misconceptions about this culture. By combining analysis of the large whole-vessel collection at Dutch Ruin with the scientific excavation of Villareal II, a picture of Salado emerges that enables Lekson to evaluate previous competing theories and propose that Salado represents a major fourteenth-century migration of Pueblo peoples into the Chihuahuan deserts. Lekson demonstrates that late, short-lived Salado farmsteadsÑdifficult to identify archaeologically in areas with larger Mimbres concentrationsÑcoexisted with larger Salado towns, and he argues that Salado in the Upper Gila region appears as a substantial in-migration of Mogollon Uplands populations into what was a vacant river valley. Throughout the fourteenth century, Salado communities in the Upper Gila were integrated into the larger Salado horizon and were closely connected to Casas Grandes, as indicated by the export of serpentine to the city of PaquimŽ and the occurrence of Casas Grandes pottery at Upper Gila Salado sites. The book includes illustrations of 71 vessels from Dutch Ruin plus a full-color frontispiece. Through analysis of these two sites, Lekson has taken a large step toward clearing up the mystery of Salado. His work will be welcomed by all who study the movements of peoples in the prehispanic Southwest.
International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP) 2010Award Finalists in the Culinary History category. Chocolate. We all love it, but how much do we really knowabout it? In addition to pleasing palates since ancient times,chocolate has played an integral role in culture, society,religion, medicine, and economic development across the Americas,Africa, Asia, and Europe. In 1998, the Chocolate History Group was formed by theUniversity of California, Davis, and Mars, Incorporated to documentthe fascinating story and history of chocolate. This book featuresfifty-seven essays representing research activities andcontributions from more than 100 members of the group. Thesecontributors draw from their backgrounds in such diverse fields asanthropology, archaeology, biochemistry, culinary arts, genderstudies, engineering, history, linguistics, nutrition, andpaleography. The result is an unparalleled, scholarly examinationof chocolate, beginning with ancient pre-Columbian civilizationsand ending with twenty-first-century reports. Here is a sampling of some of the fascinating topics exploredinside the book: Ancient gods and Christian celebrations: chocolate andreligion Chocolate and the Boston smallpox epidemic of 1764 Chocolate pots: reflections of cultures, values, and times Pirates, prizes, and profits: cocoa and early American eastcoast trade Blood, conflict, and faith: chocolate in the southeast andsouthwest borderlands of North America Chocolate in France: evolution of a luxury product Development of concept maps and the chocolate researchportal Not only does this book offer careful documentation, it alsofeatures new and previously unpublished information andinterpretations of chocolate history. Moreover, it offers a wealthof unusual and interesting facts and folklore about one of theworld's favorite foods.

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