The last thorough revision of Rutley's Elements of Mineralogy appeared as the 23rd Edition in 1936. In subsequent editions, an effort to keep abreast with the great progress in the science was made by small (and often awkward) modifications and, especially, by the addition of an independent chapter on the atomic structure of minerals. For this present edition, the complete re-setting of the book has made possible not only the integration of the added chapter on atomic structure into its proper place in the accounts of the chemical and physical properties of minerals, but also extensive rewriting and rearrangement of the material in the first part of the book. To this part, also, has been added a short chapter on the classification of minerals. In the second part, the Descrip tion of Minerals, numerous, if not so extensive, modifications and modernisations have been introduced. A couple of dozen new figures have been added, mostly in the early part of the book. More specifically, the major changes in this new edition are the following. The electronic structure of atoms supplies the guide lines for the whole account of mineral-chemistry; additional items concern the electrochemical series, of interest in the occurrence and metallurgical treatment of ores, and chemical analysis. On the physical side, the dependence of physical properties of minerals on their atomic structure is emphasized and, in addition, a brief account of radioactivity and isotopic age-determination is given.
Rutley's elements of mineralogy has been around for a long time, certainly throughout my own lifetime; and if my great grandfather had read geology, it would have been prescribed reading for him too! It has been rewritten and revised frequently since fir~t conceived by Frank Rutley in the late 19th century. Major revisions occurred in 1902, and then in 1914, when H. H. Read first took over the authorship, and thereafter in 1936 and in 1965 when the last major changes occurred. It was with some trepidation that I agreed to attempt this revision. I had been asked to do it by Janet Watson in 1979, but various commitments delayed my start on it until 1984. This 27th edition encompasses a number of changes. Chapters 1-5 have the same headings as before, but considerable changes have been made in all of them, particularly 1, 3, 4 and 5. Comments sought prior to the revision revealed considerable disagreement about the role of blowpipe analyses in the book. I have only once had blowpipe analyses demon strated to me, and have never used them; but there is no doubt that they are employed in many countries, and many of the tests (flame colour, bead, etc. ) are still useful as rapid indicators of which element is present in a mineral. I have therefore kept blowpipe analysis information in Rutley, but have relegated it to an appendix.
Smithells is the only single volume work which provides data on all key apsects of metallic materials. Smithells has been in continuous publication for over 50 years. This 8th Edition represents a major revision. Four new chapters have been added for this edition. these focus on; * Non conventional and emerging materials - metallic foams, amorphous metals (including bulk metallic glasses), structural intermetallic compounds and micr/nano-scale materials. * Techniques for the modelling and simulation of metallic materials. * Supporting technologies for the processing of metals and alloys. * An Extensive bibliography of selected sources of further metallurgical information, including books, journals, conference series, professional societies, metallurgical databases and specialist search tools. * One of the best known and most trusted sources of reference since its first publication more than 50 years ago * The only single volume containing all the data needed by researchers and professional metallurgists * Fully updated to the latest revisions of international standards
Microscopy is a servant of all the sciences, and the microscopic examina tion of minerals is an important technique which should be mastered by all students of geology early in their careers. Advanced modern text books on both optics and mineralogy are available, and our intention is not that this new textbook should replace these but that it should serve as an introductory text or a first stepping-stone to the study of optical mineralogy. The present text has been written with full awareness that it will probably be used as a laboratory handbook, serving as a quick reference to the properties of minerals, but nevertheless care has been taken to present a systematic explanation of the use of the microscope as well as theoretical aspects of optical mineralogy. The book is therefore suitable for the novice either studying as an individual or participating in classwork. Both transmitted-light microscopy and reflected-light microscopy are dealt with, the former involving examination of transparent minerals in thin section and the latter involving examination of opaque minerals in polished section. Reflected-light microscopy is increasing in importance in undergraduate courses on ore mineralisation, but the main reason for combining the two aspects of microscopy is that it is no longer acceptable to neglect opaque minerals in the systematic petrographic study of rocks. Dual purpose microscopes incorporating transmitted- and reflected-light modes are readily available, and these are ideal for the study of polished thin sections.
The second edition of Emerging Technologies in Food Processing presents essential, authoritative, and complete literature and research data from the past ten years. It is a complete resource offering the latest technological innovations in food processing today, and includes vital information in research and development for the food processing industry. It covers the latest advances in non-thermal processing including high pressure, pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency, high intensity pulsed light, ultrasound, irradiation, and addresses the newest hurdles in technology where extensive research has been carried out. Provides an extensive list of research sources to further research development Presents current and thorough research results and critical reviews Includes the most recent technologies used for shelf life extension, bioprocessing simulation and optimization
Metals Reference Book presents a convenient summary of data concerning to metallurgy. It discusses the guidance for dealing with laboratory accidents. It addresses the radioactive isotopes and radiation sources. Some of the topics covered in the book are the x-ray crystallography; excitation of x-rays; rotating crystal methods; powder methods; the wide angle method; the Laue method; the intensity of x-ray reflections; derivation of accurate unit cell dimensions in crystals; and the schoenflies system of point- and space-group notation. The Hermann-Mauguin system of point- and space-group notation is fully covered. The structures of metals, metalloids, and there compounds is discussed in detail. The text describes in depth the metallurgically important minerals. The metallic systems of unlimited mutual solubility are presented completely. A chapter is devoted to the respiratory syncytial virus. Another section focuses on the physical properties of molten salts. The book can provide useful information to mineralogists, chemists, students, and researchers.
During the last five years transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has added numerous important new data to mineralogy and has considerably changed its outlook. This is partly due to the fact that metallurgists and crystal physicists having solved most of the structural and crystallographic problems in metals have begun to show a widening interest in the much more complicated structures of minerals, and partly to recent progress in experimental techniques, mainly the availability of ion-thinning devices. While electron microscopists have become increasingly interested in minerals (judging from special symposia at recent meetings such as Fifth European Congress on Electron microscopy, Man chester 1972; Eight International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Canberra 1974) mineralogists have realized advantages of the new technique and applied it with increasing frequency. In an effort to coordinate the growing quantity of research, electron microscopy sessions have been included in meetings of mineralogists (e. g. Geological Society of America, Minneapolis, 1972, American Crystallographic Association, Berkeley, 1974). The tremendous response for the TEM symposium which H. -R. Wenk and G. Thomas organized at the Berkeley Conference of the American Crystallographic Association formed the basis for this book. It appeared useful at this stage to summarize the achievements of electron microscopy, scattered in many different journals in several different fields and present them to mineralogists. A group of participants as the Berkeley symposium formed an Editorial Committee and outlined the content of this book.
Most people have heard of pyrite, the brassy yellow mineral commonly known as fool's gold. But despite being the most common sulfide on the earth's surface, pyrite's bright crystals have attracted a noteworthy amount of attention from many different cultures, and its nearly identical visual appearance to gold has led to tales of fraud, trickery, and claims of alchemy. 'Pyrite' occupies a unique place in human history: it became an integral part of mining lore in America during the 19th century, and it has a presence in ancient Sumerian texts, Greek philosophy, and medieval poetry, becoming a symbol for anything overvalued. In 'Pyrite', geochemist and author David Rickard blends basic science and historical narrative to describe the many unique ways pyrite makes appearances in our world. He follows pyrite back through the medieval alchemists to the ancient Arab, Chinese, Indian, and Classical worlds, showing why the mineral was central to the development of these various ancient cultures. 'Pyrite' can be tracked to the beginnings of humankind, and Rickard reveals how it contributed to the origins of our art and storytelling and even to our biologic development as humans.0But pyrite has unique scientific properties as well: the book distills how oxidation makes fool's gold look like a precious metal, and shows how pyrite can choke out oxygen from water, creating large "dead zones" in our oceans. Rickard analyzes pyrite's role in manufacturing sulfuric acid, a compound used for everything from cleaning drains to fertilizing crops. Its influence extends from human evolution and the formation of societies, through science and industry, to our understanding of ancient, modern, and future earth environments. Energetic and accessible, Pyrite is the first book to show readers the history and science of one of the world's most fascinating minerals.
The decision of Springer-Verlag to publish this book in English came as a pleasant surprise. The fact is that I started writing the first version of the book back in 1978. I wished to attract attention to potentialities inherent in selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) which, for various reasons, were not being put to use. By that time, I had at my disposal certain structural data on natural and synthetic minerals obtained using SAED and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and this stimulated my writing this book. There were several aspects concerning these data that I wished to emphasize. First, it was mostly new and understudied minerals that possess the peculiar structural features studied by SAED and HREM. This could interest mineralogists, crystallo chemists, and crystallographers. Second, the results obtained indi cated that, under certain conditions, SAED could be an effective, and sometimes the only possible, method for structure analysis of minerals. This inference was of primary importance, since fine dispersion and poor crystallinity of numerous natural and synthe tic minerals makes their structure study by conventional diffrac tion methods hardly possible. Third, it was demonstrated that in many cases X-ray powder diffraction analysis of dispersed miner als ought to be combined with SAED and local energy dispersion analysis. This was important, since researchers in structural min eralogy quite often ignored, and still ignore even the simplest in formation which is readily available from geometrical analysis of SAED patterns obtained from microcrystals.
Remarks by JVS. Volumes 1 and 2 of Feldspar Minerals were published in 1974, but Volume 3 was not completed because I was forced to devote 3 years to the resolution of unforeseen problems in the construction of an ion probe. By 1977, the incomplete draft for Volume 3 had become obsolete because of the enormous advances in knowledge of feldspars, particularly those in lunar rocks and meteorites, and in both deep-seated and ancient terrestrial rocks. Furthermore, it soon became obvious that a completely new version of Feldspar Minerals was needed because of the important new results on the physical and chemical properties. I had kept up with the interesting but tedious chore of weekly reading of the incoming literature and maintenance of the files. By 1980, the intense day-to day pressure had gone from my research programs on lunar rocks and on the development of the ion microprobe as a quantitative geochemical instrument, and I began preparation of a second edition of Feldspar Minerals.
The preparation of a volume on this topic was undertaken with some hesitancy on my part because the ramifications of the mineralogy of apatite involve both bio logical and physical sciences in very elaborate ways. This hesitancy may have arisen in part from the realization that considerable skill would be required in order to extract the meaning from the thousands of papers that have appeared within the past twenty years; the task of attempting to extract and assemble the usable information seemed gigantic. Greatly adding to the difficulty was the fact that a considerable portion of these journal articles contain nothing of value and further confuse a most complex topic. Nevertheless, it was thought that some of my formal education in the bio logical sciences, which has been greatly extended and augmented during the past fifteen years, might be integrated with my more extensive education and experience in chemistry, crystallography, mineralogy, geology and physics in order to pro duce something that would relate to the mineral apatite and its extremely diverse occurences in nature. At the same time it seemed essential to point out some of the many important aspects in which this knowledge bears on geology, agriculture, chemical engineering, medicine and dentistry.
Gemmological Instruments deals with the developments in diamond grading equipment and gem testing instruments since the publication of the first edition in 1978. These developments include improvements in the versatility and styling of existing instruments such as the reflectivity meter, the composite spectroscope, and the refractometer. It also addresses the criticisms in the first edition and provides a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of different gem testing equipment. This book is organized into 16 chapters that describe groundbreaking instruments like the thermal conductivity diamond testers and home-constructed items that while innovative have not yet been commercialized. There are also chapters dealing with microphotography and identification of synthetics and stimulants. This book also provides a listing of gemstone constants and characteristic inclusions in natural and synthetic gemstones. This book will be of interest to people interested in equipment for gem testing and diamond grading.
Crystal structure analysis from powder diffraction data has attracted considerable and ever growing interest in the last decades. X-ray powder diffraction is best known for phase analysis (Hanawalt files) dating back to the 30s. In the late 60s the inherent potential of powder diffraction for crystallographic problems was realized and scientists developed methods for using powder diffraction data at first only for the refinement of crystal structures. With the development of ever growing computer power profile fitting and pattern decomposition allowed to extract individual intensities from overlapping diffraction peaks opening the way to many other applications, especially to ab initio structure determination. Powder diffraction today is used in X-ray and neutron diffraction, where it is a powerful method in neutron diffraction for the determination of magnetic structures. In the last decade the interest has dramatically improved. There is hardly any field of crystallography where the Rietveld, or full pattern method has not been tried with quantitative phase analysis the most important recent application.
The molecular mechanisms underlying the fact that a crystal can take a variety of external forms is something we have come to understand only in the last few decades. This is due to recent developments in theoretical and experimental investigations of crystal growth mechanisms. Morphology of Crystals is divided into three separately available volumes. Part A contains chapters on roughening transition; equilibrium form; step pattern theory; modern PBC; and surface microtopography. This part provides essentially theoretical treatments of the problem, particularly the solid-liquid interface. Part B contains chapters on ultra-fine particles; minerals; transition from polyhedral to dendrite; theory of dendrite; and snow crystals. All chapters are written by world leaders in their respective areas, and some can be seen as representing the essence of a life's work. This is the first English-language work which covers all aspects of the morphology of crystals - a topic which has attracted top scientific minds for centuries. As such, it is indispensable for anyone seeking an answer to a question relating to this fascinating problem: mineralogists, petrologists, crystallographers, materials scientists, workers in solid-state physics and chemistry, etc. In Parts A: Fundamentals and B: Fine Particles, Minerals and Snow equilibrium and kinetic properties of crystals are generally approached from an `atomistic' point of view. In contrast, Part C: The Geometry of Crystal Growth follows the alternative and complementary `geometrical' description, where bulk phases are considered as continuous media and their interfaces as mathematical surfaces with orientation-dependent properties. Equations of motion for a crystal surface are expressed in terms of vector and tensor operators working on surface free energy and growth rate, both expressed as functions of surface orientation and driving force, or `affinity' for growth. This approach emphasizes the interrelation between equilibrium and kinetic behavior. Part 1 establishes the theoretical framework. Part 2 gives a construction toolbox for explicit (analytic) functions. An extra chapter is devoted to experimental techniques for measuring such functions: a new approach to sphere growth experiments. The emphasis throughout is on principles and new concepts. Audience: Advanced readers familiar with traditional aspects of crystal growth theory. Can be used as the basis for an advanced course, provided supplementation is provided in the areas of atomistic models of the advancing surface, diffusion fields, etc.
The second edition, containing 28,500 terms, incorporates the technological developments and environmental regulations that have changed the minerals industry so dramatically. It is the culmination of a 5-year effort incorporating not only standard mining-related terms but also terms in peripheral areas, such as the environment, marine mining, leaching, pollution, automation, health and safety. Many of these terms now have a legal definition based on law or regulation.
Changing Course is a practical introduction to new and necessary methods of running businesses so that the realities of business and the marketplace support the realities of the environment and the needs of human development.Gathering the expertise of more than 50 leaders of multinational corporations and backed by an array of case studies showing existing best practices, Changing Course provides an extensive analysis of how the business community can adapt and contribute to the crucial goal of sustainable development - which combines the objectives of environmental protection and economic growth. All of its recommendations are linked by the belief that only by allowing market forces to operate freely and integrating the "polluter pays" principle into environmental and economic policy can sustainable development be achieved.Changing Course focuses first on the often adversarial relationship between business and government in chapters that discuss full-cost pricing and market signals, energy, capital markets, trade, and managing change. It shows how environmental costs, which are often invisible, can best be factored into production, investment, and trade. And it calls for a rational long-term energy strategy that balances the energy needs for economic development with a policy shift toward the payment of pollution costs and energy efficiency - changes that demand new thinking and increased flexibility by policy makers in both the public and the private sectors.Changing Course then explores business to business relationships, beginning with the sensitive topic of corporate reporting in environmental areas and discussion of how an environmentally conscious firm is managed. Chapters look at optimal products and processes, product stewardship in retail and trading companies, at new practices for such renewable resource industries as forestry and agriculture, and at the need for new long-term partnerships to boost economic development and environmental standards in the developing world.Changing Course concludes with a detailed look at the implications of sustainable development for business in the developing world, where, as former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi pointed out, poverty itself is a great polluter.Stephan Schmidheiny is a Swiss industrialist, Chairman of the Business Council for Sustainable Development, and the Principal Advisor for Business and Industry to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (ECO'92).