Rapid advances and new technologies in the life sciences - such as biotechnologies in health, agricultural and environmental arenas - pose a range of pressing challenges to questions of citizenship. This volume brings together for the first time authors from diverse experiences and analytical traditions, encouraging a conversation between science and technology and development studies around issues of science, citizenship and globalisation. It reflects on the nature of expertise; the framing of knowledge; processes of public engagement; and issues of rights, justice and democracy. A wide variety of pressing issues is explored, such as medical genetics, agricultural biotechnology, occupational health and HIV/AIDS. Drawing upon rich case studies from Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe, Science and Citizens asks: · Do new perspectives on science, expertise and citizenship emerge from comparing cases across different issues and settings? · What difference does globalisation make? · What does this tell us about approaches to risk, regulation and public participation? · How might the notion of ‘cognitive justice‘ help to further debate and practice?
As the need for sustainable development practices around the world continues to grow, it has become imperative for citizens to become actively engaged in the global transition. By evaluating data collected from various global programs, researchers are able to identify strategies and challenges in implementing civic engagement initiatives. Analyzing the Role of Citizen Science in Modern Research focuses on analyzing data on current initiatives and best practices in citizen engagement and education programs across various disciplines. Highlighting emergent research and application techniques within citizen science initiatives, this publication appeals to academicians, researchers, policy makers, government officials, technology developers, advanced-level students and program developers interested in launching or improving citizen science programs across the globe.
We are all concerned by the environmental threats facing us today. Environmental issues are a major area of concern for policy makers, industrialists and public groups of many different kinds. While science seems central to our understanding of such threats, the statements of scientists are increasingly open to challenge in this area. Meanwhile, citizens may find themselves labelled as `ignorant' in environmental matters. In Citizen Science Alan Irwin provides a much needed route through the fraught relationship between science, the public and the environmental threat.
This book examines the increasing popularity of online citizen science projects arising from developments in ICT and rapid improvements in data storage and generation. As these new technologies allow for much higher levels of participation, collaboration and interaction, the author explores what online citizen science projects reveal about the ‘democratisation’ of science and distributed engagement with authentic research. Analysing the wider appeal of these projects as well as their potential for informal science learning and creating communities of practice, this book asks whether ‘citizen’ and ‘researcher’ will ever be on equal footing. Drawn from years of mixed-methods research, this volume sheds light on this under-researched subject area despite its recent growth and enormous potential. It is sure to be of interest to students and scholars of democratised knowledge, citizen science and online learning, as well as those already involved in citizen science.
In Citizen Science in the Digital Age, James Wynn examines the benefits and pitfalls of citizen science--scientific undertakings that make use of public participation and crowd-sourced data collection.
This book concentrates exclusively on the dialogic turn in the governance of science and the environment. The starting point for this book is the dialogic turn in the production and communication of knowledge in which practices claiming to be based on principles of dialogue and participation have spread across diverse social fields. As in other fields of social practice in the dialogic turn, the model of communication underpinning science and environmental governance is dialogue in which scientists and citizens engage in mutual learning on the basis of the different knowledge forms that they b.
The first book-length analysis of citizen participation in the formulation of scientific and technical policy. Twelve essays and case studies examine important examples of citizen activism, place them within the context of larger participatory movements, explore the variety of forms citizen participation may take, and consider new alternatives for public involvement. Special attention is given to public health policy and nuclear power development. Additional contributors are: Jayanta Bandyopadhyay, Barry Checkoway, Daryl Chubin, Diana Dutton, Rachelle Hollander, John P. Hunt, Neil H. Katz, Sheldon Krimsky, Jane Kronick, Dorothy Nelkin, Alan Porter, Frederick A. Rossini, Randy Rydell, and Vandana Shiva.
In recent years, citizen science has emerged as a powerful new concept to enable the general public, students, and volunteers to become involved in scientific research. A prime example is in biodiversity conservation, where data collection and monitoring can be greatly enhanced through citizen participation. This is the first book to provide much needed guidance and case studies from marine and coastal conservation. The novelty and rapid expansion of the field has created a demand for the discussion of key issues and the development of best practices. The book demonstrates the utility and feasibility, as well as limitations, of using marine and coastal citizen science for conservation, and by providing critical considerations (i.e.which questions and systems are best suited for citizen science), presents recommendations for best practices for successful marine and coastal citizen science projects. A range of case studies, for example, on monitoring of seabird populations, invasive species, plastics pollution, and the impacts of climate change, from different parts of the world, is included. Also included are discussions on engaging youth, indigenous communities, and divers and snorkelers as citizen scientists, as well as best practices on communication within citizen science, building trust with stakeholders, and informing marine policy as part of this exciting and empowering way of improving marine and coastal conservation. .
Voluntary distributed computing projects divide large computational tasks into small pieces of data or work that are sent out over the Internet to be processed by individual users, who participate voluntarily in order to provide solutions that would ordinarily require investments of millions of dollars. This approach is contributing to the transformation of computationally heavy scientific research, opening up participation in science to interested lay people and greatly reducing the cost-barriers to computation for financially challenged researchers. Drawing on face-to-face and online ethnographic, survey and interview data with participants in distributed computing projects around the world, this book sheds light on the organizational and social structures of voluntary distributed computing projects, communities and teams, with close attention to questions of motivation in projects that offer little or no traditional forms of reward, either financially or in terms of participants' careers. With its focus on non-market, non-hierarchical cooperation, this book is a case study of networked individuals around the world who are part of a new social production of information. A rich study of the transformative potential inherent in globalization and connectedness, Community, Competition and Citizen Science will appeal to sociologists and political scientists with interests in globalization, networks and science and technology studies, together with scholars and students of media and communication and those working in relevant fields of computing, information systems and scientific collaboration.
Citizen Inquiry: Synthesising Science and Inquiry Learning is the first book of its kind to bring together the concepts of citizen science and inquiry-based learning to illustrate the pedagogical advantages of this approach. It shifts the emphasis of scientific investigations from scientists to the general public, by educating learners of all ages to determine their own research agenda and devise their own investigations underpinned by a model of scientific inquiry. ‘Citizen inquiry’ is an original approach to research education that refers to mass participation of the public in joining inquiry-led scientific investigations. Using a range of practical case studies underpinned by the theory of inquiry-based learning, this book has significant implications for teaching and learning through exploration of how new technologies can be used to engage with scientific research. Key features include: a new perspective on science education and science practice through crowd-sourced research explanation of the benefits of this innovative approach to teaching and learning a steady shift of emphasis from theory to application for readers to understand thoroughly the current state of research in the field and its applications to practice examples of practical applications of this approach and recommendations on how successful citizen inquiry applications can be developed. This edited volume is essential reading for academic researchers and professional educators interested in the potential of online technology in all levels of education, from primary and secondary level through to further education and lifelong learning. It will be ideal reading on any undergraduate or postgraduate course involving research methods in education as well as developments in science education and educational software.
Citizen science, the active participation of the public in scientific research projects, is a rapidly expanding field in open science and open innovation. It provides an integrated model of public knowledge production and engagement with science. As a growing worldwide phenomenon, it is invigorated by evolving new technologies that connect people easily and effectively with the scientific community. Catalysed by citizens’ wishes to be actively involved in scientific processes, as a result of recent societal trends, it also offers contributions to the rise in tertiary education. In addition, citizen science provides a valuable tool for citizens to play a more active role in sustainable development. This book identifies and explains the role of citizen science within innovation in science and society, and as a vibrant and productive science-policy interface. The scope of this volume is global, geared towards identifying solutions and lessons to be applied across science, practice and policy. The chapters consider the role of citizen science in the context of the wider agenda of open science and open innovation, and discuss progress towards responsible research and innovation, two of the most critical aspects of science today.
Do you think you need a degree in science to contribute to important scientific discoveries? Think again. All around the world, from Britain to Australia, in fields ranging from astronomy to zoology, millions of ordinary people take part in the scientific process. Working in conjunction with scientists in pursuit of information, innovation and discovery, these volunteers are following protocols, collecting and reviewing data, and sharing their observations. They are our neighbours, our in-laws, our office colleagues, our friends. The story of the social good that can result from citizen science has largely been untold - until now. Citizen scientists are challenging old notions about who can conduct research, where knowledge can be acquired, and even how solutions to some of our biggest social problems might emerge. Cooper reveals the crucial role that they play in gaining scientific understanding and putting that understanding to use as stewards of our world. Their stories will inspire readers to join other amateur scientists in making their own scientific discoveries.
Citizen science enlists members of the public to make and record useful observations, such as counting birds in their backyards, watching for the first budding leaf in spring, or measuring local snowfall. The large numbers of volunteers who participate in projects such as Project FeederWatch or Project BudBurst collect valuable research data, which, when pooled together, create an enormous body of scientific data on a vast geographic scale. In return, such projects aim to increase participants’ connections to science, place, and nature, while supporting science literacy and environmental stewardship. In Citizen Science, experts from a variety of disciplines—including scientists and education specialists working at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, where many large citizen science programs use birds as proxies for biodiversity—share their experiences of creating and implementing successful citizen science projects, primarily those that use massive data sets gathered by citizen scientists to better understand the impact of environmental change. This first and foundational book for this developing field of inquiry addresses basic aspects of how to conduct citizen science projects, including goal-setting, program design, and evaluation, as well as the nuances of creating a robust digital infrastructure and recruiting a large participant base through communications and marketing. An overview of the types of research approaches and techniques demonstrates how to make use of large data sets arising from citizen science projects. A final section focuses on citizen science’s impacts and its broad connections to understanding the human dimensions and educational aspects of participation. Citizen Science teaches teams of program developers and researchers how to cross the bridge from success at public engagement to using citizen science data to understand patterns and trends or to test hypotheses about how ecological processes respond to change at large geographic scales. Intended as a resource for a broad audience of experts and practitioners in natural sciences, information science, and social sciences, this book can be used to better understand how to improve existing programs, develop new ones, and make better use of the data resources that have accumulated from citizen science efforts. Its focus on harnessing the impact of "crowdsourcing" for scientific and educational endeavors is applicable to a wide range of fields, especially those that touch on the importance of massive collaboration aimed at understanding and conserving what we can of the natural world.
What does it mean to be an expert? In Rethinking Expertise, Harry Collins and Robert Evans offer a radical new perspective on the role of expertise in the practice of science and the public evaluation of technology. Collins and Evans present a Periodic Table of Expertises based on the idea of tacit knowledge—knowledge that we have but cannot explain. They then look at how some expertises are used to judge others, how laypeople judge between experts, and how credentials are used to evaluate them. Throughout, Collins and Evans ask an important question: how can the public make use of science and technology before there is consensus in the scientific community? This book has wide implications for public policy and for those who seek to understand science and benefit from it. “Starts to lay the groundwork for solving a critical problem—how to restore the force of technical scientific information in public controversies, without importing disguised political agendas.”—Nature “A rich and detailed ‘periodic table’ of expertise . . . full of case studies, anecdotes and intriguing experiments.”—Times Higher Education Supplement (UK)
This volume in The Rightful Place of Science series explores citizen science, the movement to reshape the relationship between science and the public. By not only participating in scientific projects but actively helping to decide what research questions are asked and how that research is conducted, ordinary citizens are transforming how science benefits society. Through vivid chapters that describe the history and theory of citizen science, detailed examples of brilliant citizen science projects, and a look at the movement's future, The Rightful Place of Science: Citizen Science is the ideal guide for anyone interested in one of the most important trends in scientific practice.
This volume draws on the ecojustice, citizen science and youth activism literature base in science education and applies the ideas to situated tensions as they are either analyzed theoretically or praxiologically within science education pedagogy. It uses ecojustice to evaluate the holistic connections between cultural and natural systems, environmentalism, sustainability and Earth-friendly marketing trends, and introduces citizen science and youth activism as two of the pedagogical ways ecojustice philosophy can be enacted. It also comprises evidence-based practice with international service, community embedded curriculum, teacher preparation, citizen monitoring and community activism, student-scientist partnerships, socioscientific issues, and new avenues for educational research.
Anita Estell has done it! She has published an easy-to-read handbook that promises to transform our individual and collective understanding of the federal government, how it really works, and most important, our own relevance in its operation. The Power of US is a must-have guide. It provides instruction for those possessing the audacity to seize the opportunities unfolding during one of the most transformational periods in American history. Estell shares insights, experiences, wisdom, and expertise, gained in more than twenty years of working at the federal level, in a way that not only invites and supports constructive engagement but also sheds light on the way forward. Estell provides an extraordinary panorama of information and instruction, melding a multidisciplinary suite of principles that underscore and bring texture to what Estell calls citizen-centricity, or citizen-centric engagement. The Power of US provides a profoundly creative approach relevant to policymakers and advocates. Estell's treatment is a breath of fresh air in civic discourse--which can be stifled by stale approaches and potentially toxic hyperpartisan dynamics. In The Power of US, Estell establishes herself as a revolutionary thinker exhibiting the vision, knowledge, and personal power to move the compass of individual hope in the direction of collective freedom.
Environmental education has often blurred the distinction between ecological science and environmental advocacy. Growing public awareness of environmental problems and desire for action may be contributing to this blurring. There is a need to clarify the distinction between the role of ecological science and the role of social and political values for the environment within environmental education. This book addresses this need by examining the changing perspectives of ecology in education and the changing perspectives of education in environmental education. Guidelines are provided for assessing the science and education perspectives within environmental education, along with suggested frameworks for development of programs and resources that integrate current science, education and action. This book will be of interest to environmental educators, ecologists interested in environmental education, and curriculum and resource developers.