Seagrasses occur in coastal zones throughout the world, in the part of the marine habitat that is most heavily influenced by humans. Decisions about coastal management therefore often involve seagrasses, but a full appreciation of the role of seagrasses in coastal ecosystems has yet to be reached. This book provides an entry point for those wishing to learn about the ecology of this fascinating group of plants, and gives a broad overview of current knowledge, complemented by extensive literature references to guide the reader to more detailed studies.
Seagrasses are unique plants; the only group of flowering plants to recolonise the sea. They occur on every continental margin, except Antarctica, and form ecosystems which have important roles in fisheries, fish nursery grounds, prawn fisheries, habitat diversity and sediment stabilisation. Over the last two decades there has been an explosion of research and information on all aspects of seagrass biology. However the compilation of all this work into one book has not been attempted previously. In this book experts in 26 areas of seagrass biology present their work in chapters which are state-of–the-art and designed to be useful to students and researchers alike. The book not only focuses on what has been discovered but what exciting areas are left to discover. The book is divided into sections on taxonomy, anatomy, reproduction, ecology, physiology, fisheries, management, conservation and landscape ecology. It is destined to become the chosen text on seagrasses for any marine biology course.
Seagrasses are flowering plants from one of four plant families, all in the order Alismatales, which grow in marine, fully-saline environments. Seagrasses are sometimes labeled ecosystem engineers, because they partly create their own habitat: the leaves slow down water-currents increasing sedimentation, and the seagrass roots and rhizomes stabilize the seabed. Their importance for associated species is mainly due to provision of shelter, and for their extraordinarily high rate of primary production. This book presents current research in the study of seagrass, including ecosystem modeling of seagrass beds; P. oceanica population genetics and proteomics; the impact of hurricanes on seagrass thalassia testudinum in the Caribbean Sea; GIS mapping of seagrass meadows; and the rise of Ruppia in seagrass beds.
Based on research in Bolinao, this book assesses the importance of small-scale disturbance by burrowing shrimps. It covers the distribution of burrowing shrimp disturbance, the behavior of the snapping shrimp Alpheus macellarius in situ and as observed from tank experiments, and the effects of short-term burial and leaf clipping on the growth patterns of the dominant seagrass Thalassia hemprichii. The book examines the role of bioturbation by burrowing shrimps in seagrass meadows, foraging strategies of A. macellarius and its mutualistic symbiosis with Cryptocentrus spp., shrimp disturbance and T. hemprichii, and small-scale disturbance and large-scale dynamics.
Marine Ecology: Processes, Systems, and Impacts offers a carefully balanced and stimulating survey of marine ecology, introducing the key processes and systems from which the marine environment is formed, and the issues and challenges which surround its future conservation.
Located between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and between the Asian and Australian continents, the seas of the Indonesian Archipelago have a significant role in global weather patterns and oceanic circulation. The dynamic interplay between geological, physical, chemical, and biological processes, past and present, has given rise to one of the most diverse marine regions on the planet. Using maps and numerous illustrations, This text describes the complex coastal and marine ecosystems of the region in detail. Discussion of development, resource use and ecologically sustainable management plans is also incorporated.
This book provides insights into various aspects of marine faunal communities in India, which are extremely diverse due to the geomorphologic and climatic variations along the Indian coasts. Consisting of 30 chapters by experts in their respective fields, it is divided into two parts: · Part I: Tropical Marine Faunal Communities · Part II: Ecology and Conservation Part I highlights the diversity and distribution of Foraminifera; sponges associated with seagrass; Polychaeta; Opisthobranchia; oysters; copepods; horseshoe and brachyuran crabs; echinoderms; ascidians; fishes; fish parasites; and sea mammals. Topics of Part II include the status and environmental parameters of benthos; the status of coral reefs; the invasion of snowflake coral; the recovery of bleached corals; the socioeconomics and management of dugong; marine biodiversity conservation and management in India; the assessment of the marine fauna of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act; and marine biodiversity protected areas in India. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for marine scientists, as well as for environmental managers and policy makers.
Seagrasses are becoming widely used as in situ indicators of the relative health and condition of subtropical and tropical estuarine ecosystems. To permit meaningful management of our estuaries, there is clearly a need to develop and refine ways of effectively monitoring and assessing seagrasses. Seagrasses: Monitoring, Ecology, Physiology, and Management includes the peer-reviewed, written results of presentations made at a recent workshop that addressed this very issue. A total of 28 original research and review chapters are organized around four major themes: Ecology and Physiology, Monitoring and Trends, Management, and Restoration. Additional research study results, not completed at the time of the workshop, are also included as they are directly related to the topic of seagrass management ecology. Overall, Seagrasses: Monitoring, Ecology, Physiology, and Management encompasses the latest research in seagrass management ecology to assist in the promotion of a dialogue between the research and environmental management communities. Not only will this work serve as a cornerstone for continued improvement in effectively monitoring the health and condition of near coastal waters, but also as a reference central to the premise that effective and efficient assessment of seagrasses will aid in estuarine ecosystem management.
This book contains the proceedings of a symposium held at the College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 16-20 June 1986. The seed for this symposium arose from a group of physiologists , soU scientists and biochemists that met in Leningrad, USSR in July 1975 at the 12th Botanical Conference in a Session organized by Professor B.B. Vartepetian. This group and others later conspired to contribute to a book entitled Plant Life in Anaerobic Environments (eds. D. D. Hook and R. M. M. Crawford, Ann Arbor Science, 1978). Several contributors to the book suggested in 1983 that a broad-scoped symposium on wetlands would be useful (a) in facilitating communication among the diverse research groups involved in wetlands research (b) in bringing researchers and managers together and (c) in presenting a com prehensive and balanced coverage on the status of ecology ami management of wetlands from a global perspective. With this encouragement, the senior editor organized a Plan ning Committee that encompassed expertise from many disciplines of wetland scientists and managers. This Committee, with input from their colleagues around the world, organized a symposium that addressed almost every aspect of wetland ecology and management.
This book takes the place of “Biology of Seagrasses: A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region”, co-edited by A.W.D. Larkum, A.J. MaCComb and S.A. Shepherd and published by Elsevier in 1989. The first book has been influential, but it is now 25 years since it was published and seagrass studies have progressed and developed considerably since then. The design of the current book follows in the steps of the first book. There are chapters on taxonomy, floral biology, biogeography and regional studies. The regional studies emphasize the importance of Australia having over half of the world’s 62 species, including some ten species published for Australia since the previous book. There are a number of chapters on ecology and biogeography; fish biology and fisheries and dugong biology are prominent chapters. Physiological aspects again play an important part, including new knowledge on the role of hydrogen sulphide in sediments and on photosynthetic processes. Climate change, pollution and environmental degradation this time gain an even more important part of the book. Decline of seagrasses around Australia are also discussed in detail in several chapters. Since the first book was published two new areas have received special attention: blue carbon and genomic studies. Seagrasses are now known to be a very important player in the formation of blue carbon, i.e. carbon that has a long turnover time in soils and sediments. Alongside salt marshes and mangroves, seagrasses are now recognized as playing a very important role in the formation of blue carbon. And because Australia has such an abundance and variety of seagrasses, their role in blue carbon production and turnover is of great importance. The first whole genomes of seagrasses are now available and Australia has played an important role here. It appears that seagrasses have several different suites of genes as compared with other (land) plants and even in comparison with freshwater hydrophytes. This difference is leading to important molecular biological studies where the new knowledge will be important to the understanding and conservation of seagrass ecosystems in Australia. Thus by reason of its natural abundance of diverse seagrasses and a sophisticated seagrass research community in Australia it is possible to produce a book which will be attractive to marine biologists, coastal scientists and conservationists from many countries around the world.
The earth where we live is the only planet of our solar system that holds a mass of water we know as the ocean, covering 70.8% of the earth's surface with a mean depth of 3,800 m. When using the term ocean, we mean not only the water and what it contains, but also the bottom that supports the water mass above and the atmosphere on the sea surface. Modern oceanography thus deals with the water, the bottom of the ocean, and the air thereon. In addition, varied interactions take place between the ocean and the land so that such interface areas are also extended domains of oceanography. In ancient times our ancestors took an interest in nearshore seas, making them an object of constant study. Deep seas, on the other hand, largely remained an area beyond their reach. Modern academic research on deep seas is said to have been started by the first round-the-world voyage of Her Majesty's R/V Challenger I from 1872 to 1876. It has been only 120 years since the British ship leftPortsmouth on this voyage, so oceanography can thus be considered still a young science on its way to full maturity.
Examines the ecological issues of marine ecosytems in unprecedented scope and depth. With contributions from an impressive group of Australian and New Zealand authors.
This book began life as a series of lectures given to second andthird year undergraduates at Oxford University. Theselectures were designed to give students insights as to how marineecosystems functioned, how they were being affected by natural andhuman interventions, and how we might be able to conserve them andmanage them sustainably for the good of people, both recreationallyand economically. This book presents 10 chapters, beginningwith principles of oceanography important to ecology, throughdiscussions of the magnitude of marine biodiversity and the factorsinfluencing it, the functioning of marine ecosystems at withintrophic levels such as primary production, competition anddispersal, to different trophic level interactions such asherbivory, predation and parasitism. The final three chapterslook at the more applied aspects of marine ecology, discussionfisheries, human impacts, and management and conservation. Other textbooks covering similar topics tend to treat the topicsfrom the point of view of separate ecosystems, with chapters onreefs, rocks and deep sea. This book however is topic drivenas described above, and each chapter makes full use of examplesfrom all appropriate marine ecosystems. The book is illustratedthroughout with many full colour diagrams and high qualityphotographs. The book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students atcolleges and universities, and it is hoped that the many examplesfrom all over the world will provide global relevance andinterest. Both authors have long experience of research and teaching inmarine ecology. Martin Speight’s first degree was inmarine zoology at UCNW Bangor, and he has taught marine ecology andconservation at Oxford for 25 years. His research studentsstudy tropical marine ecology from the Caribbean through EastAfrica to the Far East. Peter Henderson is a Senior ResearchAssociate at the University of Oxford, and is Director of PiscesConservation in the UK. He has worked on marine andfreshwater fisheries, as well as ecological and economic impactsand exploitation of the sea in North and South America as well asEurope.
Indexes journal articles in ecology and environmental science. Nearly 700 journals are indexed in full or in part, and the database indexes literature published from 1982 to the present. Coverage includes habitats, food chains, erosion, land reclamation, resource and ecosystems management, modeling, climate, water resources, soil, and pollution.
As the coastal human population increases in the United States, there will likely be increasing environmental and socioeconomic pressures on our coastal and estuarine environments. Monitoring the condition of all our nation's coastal and estuarine ecosystems over the long term is more than any one program can accomplish on its own. Therefore, it is crucial that monitoring programs at all levels (local, state, and federal) cooperate in the collection, sharing, and use of environmental data. This volume is the proceedings of the Coastal Monitoring Through Partnerships symposium that was held in Pensacola, Florida in April of 2001, and was organized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), and the Council of State Governments (CSG). It contains papers that describe various multi-disciplinary coastal and estuarine environmental monitoring programs, designed and implemented by using regional and national partnerships with federal and state agencies, academia, Native American tribes, and nongovernmental organizations. In addition, it includes papers on modeling and data management; monitoring and assessment of benthic communities; development of biological indicators and interlaboratory sediment comparisons; microbiological modeling and indicators; and monitoring and assessment of phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation. There are many components involved in determining the overall impacts of anthropogenic stressors on coastal and estuarine waters. It will take strong partnerships like those described in this volume to ensure that we have healthy and sustainable coastal and estuarine environments, now and in the future.