Seagrasses occur in coastal zones throughout the world, in the part of the marine habitat that is most heavily influenced by humans. Decisions about coastal management therefore often involve seagrasses, but a full appreciation of the role of seagrasses in coastal ecosystems has yet to be reached. This book provides an entry point for those wishing to learn about the ecology of this fascinating group of plants, and gives a broad overview of current knowledge, complemented by extensive literature references to guide the reader to more detailed studies.
Seagrasses are unique plants; the only group of flowering plants to recolonise the sea. They occur on every continental margin, except Antarctica, and form ecosystems which have important roles in fisheries, fish nursery grounds, prawn fisheries, habitat diversity and sediment stabilisation. Over the last two decades there has been an explosion of research and information on all aspects of seagrass biology. However the compilation of all this work into one book has not been attempted previously. In this book experts in 26 areas of seagrass biology present their work in chapters which are state-of–the-art and designed to be useful to students and researchers alike. The book not only focuses on what has been discovered but what exciting areas are left to discover. The book is divided into sections on taxonomy, anatomy, reproduction, ecology, physiology, fisheries, management, conservation and landscape ecology. It is destined to become the chosen text on seagrasses for any marine biology course.
Seagrasses are flowering plants from one of four plant families, all in the order Alismatales, which grow in marine, fully-saline environments. Seagrasses are sometimes labeled ecosystem engineers, because they partly create their own habitat: the leaves slow down water-currents increasing sedimentation, and the seagrass roots and rhizomes stabilize the seabed. Their importance for associated species is mainly due to provision of shelter, and for their extraordinarily high rate of primary production. This book presents current research in the study of seagrass, including ecosystem modeling of seagrass beds; P. oceanica population genetics and proteomics; the impact of hurricanes on seagrass thalassia testudinum in the Caribbean Sea; GIS mapping of seagrass meadows; and the rise of Ruppia in seagrass beds.
Seagrasses are becoming widely used as in situ indicators of the relative health and condition of subtropical and tropical estuarine ecosystems. To permit meaningful management of our estuaries, there is clearly a need to develop and refine ways of effectively monitoring and assessing seagrasses. Seagrasses: Monitoring, Ecology, Physiology, and Management includes the peer-reviewed, written results of presentations made at a recent workshop that addressed this very issue. A total of 28 original research and review chapters are organized around four major themes: Ecology and Physiology, Monitoring and Trends, Management, and Restoration. Additional research study results, not completed at the time of the workshop, are also included as they are directly related to the topic of seagrass management ecology. Overall, Seagrasses: Monitoring, Ecology, Physiology, and Management encompasses the latest research in seagrass management ecology to assist in the promotion of a dialogue between the research and environmental management communities. Not only will this work serve as a cornerstone for continued improvement in effectively monitoring the health and condition of near coastal waters, but also as a reference central to the premise that effective and efficient assessment of seagrasses will aid in estuarine ecosystem management.
Seascape Ecology provides a comprehensive look at the state-of-the-science in the application of landscape ecology to the seas and provides guidance for future research priorities. The first book devoted exclusively to this rapidly emerging and increasingly important discipline, it is comprised of contributions from researchers at the forefront of seascape ecology working around the world. It presents the principles, concepts, methodology, and techniques informing seascape ecology and reports on the latest developments in the application of the approach to marine ecology and management. A growing number of marine scientists, geographers, and marine managers are asking questions about the marine environment that are best addressed with a landscape ecology perspective. Seascape Ecology represents the first serious effort to fill the gap in the literature on the subject. Key topics and features of interest include: The origins and history of seascape ecology and various approaches to spatial patterning in the sea The links between seascape patterns and ecological processes, with special attention paid to the roles played by seagrasses and salt marshes and animal movements through seascapes Human influences on seascape ecology—includes models for assessing human-seascape interactions A special epilogue in which three eminent scientists who have been instrumental in shaping the course of landscape ecology offer their insights and perspectives Seascape Ecology is a must-read for researchers and professionals in an array of disciplines, including marine biology, environmental science, geosciences, marine and coastal management, and environmental protection. It is also an excellent supplementary text for university courses in those fields.
The textbook entitled Tropical Ecology of Southeast Asia – The Indonesian Archipelago unfolds in its 5 major chapters with 20 subchapters on more than 500 pages, with more than 300 figures, the basic principles of ecology with examples mainly coming from the Indonesian Archipelago. After an introduction describing the geography, geology and climate of the region, the second chapter is dedicated to marine and freshwater ecosystems. Chapters on the functional ecology of seagrass beds, coral reefs, open ocean and deep sea are followed by information on lotic and lentic freshwater ecosystems. In chapter III ecotones and special ecosystems of the achipelago are in focus. The ecology and ecosystems of shore and tidal flats, mangroves, estuaries and soft bottom shores, caves, small islands, grasslands and savannas are decribed. The forest ecosystems with beach forest, tropical lowland evergreen rainforest, some special forest systems and mountain forests form the contents of chapter IV. The final chapter V is dealing with agroecosystems and human ecology. The main focus in this chapter is ricefield ecology, landuse systems and social ecology, including the advent of man and the development and expansion of man influencing this achipelago. An extended glossary and bibliography is added as well as tables of abbreviations, conversion factors, international system of units and measurements or SI and a geological time table and systematics. The index gives assess to important keywords and relevant information spread thoughout the contents of the book. The textbook will certainly be useful to teachers, lecturers and their students at university and college level. It also gives an overview about insular ecology of the vast Indonesian archipelago to any interested person or working ecologist. * Focuses on the tropical ecology and insular ecosystems and biodiversity of Indonesia, as well as the agroecology of humid tropics * Contains over 300 figures * Provides an extended glossary and bibliography, as well as tables of abbreviations, converstion factors, international system of units and a geological time table * Easy-to-use index gives access to important keywords used throughout the text
This thorough and informative volume presents a set of detailed, globally applicable techniques for seagrass research. The book provides methods for all aspects of seagrass science from basic plant collection to statistical approaches and investigations of plant-animal interaction. The emphasis is on methods that are applicable in both developing and developed countries. The importance of seagrasses in coastal and near shore environments, and ultimately their contribution to the productivity of the world's oceans, has become increasingly recognised over the last 40 years. Seagrasses provide food for sea turtles, nearly 100 fish species, waterfowl and for the marine mammals the manatee and dugong. Seagrasses also support complex food webs by virtue of their physical structure and primary production and are well known for their role as breeding grounds and nurseries for important crustacean, finfish and shell fish populations. Seagrasses are the basis of an important detrital food chain. The plants filter nutrients and contaminants from the water, stabilise sediments and act as dampeners to wave action. Seagrasses rank with coral reefs and mangroves as some of the world's most productive coastal habitat and strong linkages among these habitats make the loss of seagrasses a contributing factor in the degradation of the world's oceans. Contributors from around the world provide up-to-date methods for comparable collection of ecological information from both temperate and tropical seagrass ecosystems.
Mangroves and seagrasses form extensive and highly productive ecosystems that are both biologically diverse and economically valuable. This book, now in its third edition and fully updated throughout, continues to provide a current and comprehensive introduction to all aspects of the biology and ecology of mangroves and seagrasses. Using a global range of examples and case studies, it describes the unique adaptations of these plants to their exacting environments; the rich and diverse communities of organisms that depend on mangrove forests and seagrass meadows (including tree-climbing shrimps, synchronously flashing fireflies, and 'gardening' seacows); the links between mangrove, seagrass, and other habitats; and the evolution, biodiversity, and biogeography of mangroves and seagrasses. The economic value of mangroves and seagrasses is also discussed, including approaches to rational management of these vital resources and techniques for the restoration of degraded habitats. A final chapter, new to this edition, examines the potential effects of global climate change including sea level rise. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, particular emphasis is placed on the organisms that dominate these fascinating aquatic ecosystems although pollution, conservation, and experimental aspects are also considered. This accessible textbook assumes no previous knowledge of mangrove or seagrass ecology and is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional ecologists, conservation practitioners, and resource managers.
This book takes the place of “Biology of Seagrasses: A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region”, co-edited by A.W.D. Larkum, A.J. MaCComb and S.A. Shepherd and published by Elsevier in 1989. The first book has been influential, but it is now 25 years since it was published and seagrass studies have progressed and developed considerably since then. The design of the current book follows in the steps of the first book. There are chapters on taxonomy, floral biology, biogeography and regional studies. The regional studies emphasize the importance of Australia having over half of the world’s 62 species, including some ten species published for Australia since the previous book. There are a number of chapters on ecology and biogeography; fish biology and fisheries and dugong biology are prominent chapters. Physiological aspects again play an important part, including new knowledge on the role of hydrogen sulphide in sediments and on photosynthetic processes. Climate change, pollution and environmental degradation this time gain an even more important part of the book. Decline of seagrasses around Australia are also discussed in detail in several chapters. Since the first book was published two new areas have received special attention: blue carbon and genomic studies. Seagrasses are now known to be a very important player in the formation of blue carbon, i.e. carbon that has a long turnover time in soils and sediments. Alongside salt marshes and mangroves, seagrasses are now recognized as playing a very important role in the formation of blue carbon. And because Australia has such an abundance and variety of seagrasses, their role in blue carbon production and turnover is of great importance. The first whole genomes of seagrasses are now available and Australia has played an important role here. It appears that seagrasses have several different suites of genes as compared with other (land) plants and even in comparison with freshwater hydrophytes. This difference is leading to important molecular biological studies where the new knowledge will be important to the understanding and conservation of seagrass ecosystems in Australia. Thus by reason of its natural abundance of diverse seagrasses and a sophisticated seagrass research community in Australia it is possible to produce a book which will be attractive to marine biologists, coastal scientists and conservationists from many countries around the world.
Seagrasses are a vital and widespread but often overlooked coastal marine habitat. This volume provides a global survey of their distribution and conservation status.
Introduces the exceptionally diverse temperate seagrasses of the southern hemisphere.
Mangrove forests, seagrass beds, and coral reefs are circumtropical ecosystems that are highly productive, and provide many important biological functions and economic services. These ecosystems cover large surface areas in the shallow tropical coastal seascape but have suffered from serious human degradation, especially in the last few decades. Part of their diversity, productivity, and functioning seems to be based on their juxtaposition. Especially in the last decade significant advances have been made on new insights into their ecological connectivity. This authoritative book provides a first-time comprehensive review of the major ecological interactions across tropical marine ecosystems that result from the mutual exchange of nutrients, organic matter, fish, and crustaceans. A group of leading authors from around the world reviews the patterns and underlying mechanisms of important biogeochemical and biological linkages among tropical coastal ecosystems in 15 chapters. Included are chapters that review cutting-edge tools to study and quantify these linkages, the importance of such linkages for fisheries, and how tropical ecosystems should be conserved and managed for sustainable use by future generations. The book uses examples from all over the world and provides an up-to-date review of the latest published literature. This book is a ‘must read’ for professionals working on the conservation, management, and ecology of mangrove, seagrass and coral reef ecosystems.
As a botanist, Robin Wall Kimmerer has been trained to ask questions of nature with the tools of science. As a member of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, she embraces the notion that plants and animals are our oldest teachers. In Braiding Sweetgrass, Kimmerer brings these two lenses of knowledge together to take us on “a journey that is every bit as mythic as it is scientific, as sacred as it is historical, as clever as it is wise” (Elizabeth Gilbert). Drawing on her life as an indigenous scientist, and as a woman, Kimmerer shows how other living beings—asters and goldenrod, strawberries and squash, salamanders, algae, and sweetgrass—offer us gifts and lessons, even if we've forgotten how to hear their voices. In reflections that range from the creation of Turtle Island to the forces that threaten its flourishing today, she circles toward a central argument: that the awakening of ecological consciousness requires the acknowledgment and celebration of our reciprocal relationship with the rest of the living world. For only when we can hear the languages of other beings will we be capable of understanding the generosity of the earth, and learn to give our own gifts in return.
This book provides insights into various aspects of marine faunal communities in India, which are extremely diverse due to the geomorphologic and climatic variations along the Indian coasts. Consisting of 30 chapters by experts in their respective fields, it is divided into two parts: · Part I: Tropical Marine Faunal Communities · Part II: Ecology and Conservation Part I highlights the diversity and distribution of Foraminifera; sponges associated with seagrass; Polychaeta; Opisthobranchia; oysters; copepods; horseshoe and brachyuran crabs; echinoderms; ascidians; fishes; fish parasites; and sea mammals. Topics of Part II include the status and environmental parameters of benthos; the status of coral reefs; the invasion of snowflake coral; the recovery of bleached corals; the socioeconomics and management of dugong; marine biodiversity conservation and management in India; the assessment of the marine fauna of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act; and marine biodiversity protected areas in India. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for marine scientists, as well as for environmental managers and policy makers.
In a perspective of sustainable management, the balance between ecological dynamics, social and economic are now at the heart of ecological modeling and environmental strategies screenwriting. Diversity and marine ecosystems function illustrates biodiversity, habitat diversity, structures and food webs in various oceans of the world and systems: pelagic and benthic ecosystems, coral reefs and seagrass beds, oasis of hydrothermal vents ridges or areas rich upwelling. Appropriate observation methods, long-term monitoring and modeling reveal the complexity of systems, trophic interactions and spatiotemporal dynamics. The ecosystem approach is a prerequisite to assess the state of these systems, their living resources and ecological services involved in local and global environmental changes.
Marine Community Ecology was written to give advanced undergraduate and graduate students a current overview of what is known about the structure and organization of the assemblages of organisms that live on the sea floor. Each of the nineteen chapters is written by leading researchers to give students a look at our understanding of these communities, and what remains to be learned about them. The book is organized into three parts. The first eight chapters explore general processes that generate pattern in benthic communities. These introductory chapters examine how physical and biological forces interacting with historical and genetic constraints operate to structure marine communities. The middle part examines the ecology of specific marine benthic community types, ranging from rocky shores and soft substrate habitats to seagrass beds and coral reefs. These chapters are intended to be the most up-to-date summaries available of our understanding of these communities. The book closes with three chapters examining conservation and management issues of marine communities. These closing chapters emphasize how pervasively benthic marine communities are impacted by humans and outline how we can use our understanding of these systems to manage marine populations and communities and to design marine reserves. Marine Community Ecology is extensively referenced and includes a bibliography of over 5,000 citations. It is suitable as a text for advanced marine ecology courses and seminars, as well as a general reference for students and researchers.
The evolution of observational instruments, simulation techniques, and computing power has given aquatic scientists a new understanding of biological and physical processes that span temporal and spatial scales. This has created a need for a single volume that addresses concepts of scale in a manner that builds bridges between experimentalists and theoreticians in aquatic ecology. Handbook of Scaling Methods in Aquatic Ecology: Measurement, Analysis, Simulation is the first comprehensive compilation of modern scaling methods used in marine and freshwater ecological research. Written by leading researchers, it presents a systematic approach to dealing with space and time in aquatic ecology. This is a compendium that analyzes themes related to the response or behavior of organisms to processes occurring over multiple spatial and temporal scales. This book covers: novel techniques for data collection, focusing on processes over a broad range of scales (from bacteria to ocean basins); newly-developed concepts and data analysis algorithms; and innovative computer models and simulations to mimic complex biological processes. The Handbook serves as a reference volume for investigators seeking insight into new experimental approaches and data analysis, as well as the sensor design required for optimal sampling. Many of the algorithms and models provided are directly applicable to your experimental data. This comprehensive treatment of scaling methods and applications can help foster a unified understanding of subject matter among the modeling, experimental, and field research communities.
Estuaries are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on the planet--critical to the life cycles of fish, other aquatic animals, and the creatures which feed on them. Estuarine Ecology, Second Edition, covers the physical and chemical aspects of estuaries, the biology and ecology of key organisms, the flow of organic matter through estuaries, and human interactions, such as the environmental impact of fisheries on estuaries and the effects of global climate change on these important ecosystems. Authored by a team of world experts from the estuarine science community, this long-awaited, full-color edition includes new chapters covering phytoplankton, seagrasses, coastal marshes, mangroves, benthic algae, Integrated Coastal Zone Management techniques, and the effects of global climate change. It also features an entriely new section on estuarine ecosystem processes, trophic webs, ecosystem metabolism, and the interactions between estuaries and other ecosystems such as wetlands and marshes
Published ecological information on Latin American coasts is scarce, despite the growing need for a comprehensive examination of coastal processes on a global scale. This book brings together details on benthic marine algae, seagrasses, salt marsh, mangrove, and dune plant communities throughout Latin America. Researchers and graduate students in plant ecology, marine biology, and environmental management will benefit from the valuable information in this book. Distribution and community ecology Modern research approaches Coastal management possibilities