This collection of foundational papers on sex differences in the brain traces the development of a much-invoked, fast-growing young field at the intersection of brain and behavior. The reader is introduced to the meaning and nature of sexual dimorphisms, the mechanisms and consequences of steroid hormone action, and the impact of the field on interpretations of sexuality and gender. Building on each other in point-counterpoint fashion, the papers tell a fascinating story of an emerging science working out its core assumptions. Experimental and theoretical papers, woven together by editor's introductions, open a window onto knowledge in the making and a vigorous debate between reductionist and pluralist interpreters. Five major sections include papers on conceptual and methodological background, central nervous system dimorphisms, mechanisms for creating dimorphisms, dimorphisms and cognition, and dimorphisms and identity. Each section builds from basic concepts to early experiments, from experimental models to humans, and from molecules to mind. Papers by such leading scholars as Arthur Arnold, Frank Beach, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Patricia Goldman-Rakic, Doreen Kimura, Simon LeVay, Bruce McEwen, Michael Merzenich, Bertram O'Malley, Geoffrey Raisman, and Dick Swaab, illustrate a rich blend of perspectives, approaches, methods, and findings. Sex and the Brain will show students how a scientific paper can be analyzed from many perspectives, and supply them with critical tools for judging a rapidly emerging science in a contentious area.
The relationship between the human brain and sexuality analyzes the roots and causes of male and female sexual behavior, abilities, pleasures, and skills and discusses the nature of gender
“The vast majority of love and sex occurs in the brain. Your brain decides who is attractive to you, how to get a date, how well you do on the date, what to do with the feelings that develop, how long those feelings last, when to commit, and how well you do as a partner and a parent. Your brain helps you be enthusiastic in the bedroom or drains you of desire and passion. Your brain helps you process and learn from a breakup or makes you vulnerable to depression or obsession.” While plastic surgeons, diet gurus, and the pharmaceutical industry may have convinced you that they hold the secret to a fulfilling sex life, the truth is that you already have the only thing you really need: a brain. As the largest and most sensitive sexual organ in the body, a healthy human brain enhances your sex life and heightens sensation. A troubled brain, however, makes emotional and physical connection with others difficult. So forget the implants, the fad diets, and the pills. Learning about this intriguing and sexy organ is the key to your sexual satisfaction. Based on Dr. Daniel Amen’s latest research in practical neuroscience, Sex on the Brain shares 12 lessons that help you enhance your love and sex lives through understanding and improving brain function. Filled with practical suggestions and information on how sex can save your life, Sex on the Brain reveals: • How sex helps prevent heart disease, improve memory, stave off cancer, and boost your immune system • How the differences between men’s and women’s brains affect our perceptions and interest in sex—and how you can understand these differences to make the most of the opportunities with your partner • Why breakups hurt so much, and what you can do to ease the pain • Surefire techniques to fix common problems—depression, PMS, ADD—that get in the way of good sex • How to make yourself unforgettable to your partner Everyone wants to know how to improve his or her love life, but so few of us understand the integral role that the brain plays in getting us in the mood, keeping us excited about our partner, and helping us achieve greater satisfaction. Sex on the Brain explains everything, showing you how use your brain to create a healthy, happy, and hot sex life. From the Hardcover edition.
Who do we love? Who loves us? And why? Is love really a mystery,or can neuroscience offer some answers to these age-oldquestions? In her third enthralling book about the brain, Judith Horstmantakes us on a lively tour of our most important sex and love organand the whole smorgasbord of our many kinds of love-from thebonding of parent and child to the passion of erotic love, theaffectionate love of companionship, the role of animals in ourlives, and the love of God. Drawing on the latest neuroscience, she explores why and how weare born to love-how we're hardwired to crave the companionship ofothers, and how very badly things can go without love. Among thefindings: parental love makes our brain bigger, sex and orgasm makeit healthier, social isolation makes it miserable-and although thecraving for romantic love can be described as an addiction,friendship may actually be the most important loving relationshipof your life. Based on recent studies and articles culled from the prestigiousScientific American and Scientific American Mindmagazines, The Scientific American Book of Love, Sex, andthe Brain offers a fascinating look at how the brain controlsour loving relationships, most intimate moments, and our deep andbasic need for connection.
The brains of males and females, men and women, are different-that is a fact. What is debated is how different and how important those differences are. Sex differences in the brain are determined by genetics, hormones, and experience, which in humans includes culture, society, and parental and peer expectations. The importance of nonbiological variables to sex differences in humans is paramount, making it difficult if not impossible to parse out those contributions that are truly biological. The study of animals provides us the opportunity to understand the magnitude and scope of biologically based sex differences in the brain and understanding the cellular mechanisms provides us insight into novel sources of brain plasticity. Many sex differences are established during a developmental sensitive window by differences in the hormonal milieu of males versus females. The neonatal testis produces large amounts of testosterone, which gains access to the brain and is further metabolized into active androgens and estrogens, which modify brain development. Major parameters that are influenced by hormones include neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical phenotype, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Variance in these parameters results in sex differences in the size of particular brain regions, the projections between brain regions, and the number and type of synapses within particular brain regions. The cellular mechanisms are both region and endpoint specific and invoke many surprising systems such as prostaglandins, endocannabinoids, and cell death proteins. By understanding when, why, and how sex differences in the brain are established, we may also learn the source of strong gender biases in the relative risk and severity of numerous neurological diseases and disorders of mental health, including but not limited to autism, dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, and maj
The brains of males and females, men and women, are different, that is a fact. What is debated is how different and how important are those differences. Sex differences in the brain are determined by genetics, hormones, and experience, which in humans includes culture, society, and parental and peer expectations. The importance of nonbiological variables to sex differences in humans is paramount, making it difficult if not impossible to parse out those contributions that are truly biological. The study of animals provides us the opportunity to understand the magnitude and scope of biologically based sex differences in the brain, and understanding the cellular mechanisms provides us insight into novel sources of brain plasticity. Many sex differences are established during a developmental sensitive window by differences in the hormonal milieu of males versus females. The neonatal testis produces large amounts of testosterone which gains access to the brain and is further metabolized into active androgens and estrogens which modify brain development. Major parameters that are influenced by hormones include neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical phenotype, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Variance in these parameters results in sex differences in the size of particular brain regions, the projections between brain regions, and the number and type of synapses within particular brain regions. The cellular mechanisms are both region and endpoint specific and invoke many surprising systems such as prostaglandins, endocannabinoids, and cell death proteins. Epigenetic modifications to the genome both establish and maintain sex differences in the brain and behavior. By understanding when, why, and how sex differences in the brain are established, we may also learn the source of strong gender biases in the relative risk and severity of numerous neurological diseases and disorders of mental health. Boys are much more likely to be diagnosed with autism spectrum or attention and hyperactivity disorders, as well as speech and language deficits, compared to girls. By contrast, women are more likely to suffer from affective disorders, such as depression, anxiety, compulsion, and eating disorders and more likely to experience autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. Schizophrenia with an early onset is more common in males but a late-onset version is markedly more frequent in females. Male biased disorders have origins in development while female biased disorders are almost exclusively post-puberty. This remarkable shift in disease risk demands our attention. Novel insights into the biological origins of disease are also gained by comparing and contrasting the same processes in different sexes.
In this fascinating tour of the way our brains control our most basic drives, John Young takes a small part of the human anatomy and explains its role in the regulation of our basic needs and desires, including sex, sleep, thirst, hunger and more. Drawing on the latest research, he conveys even complex ideas in accessible and enjoyable fashion.
Go beyond the headlines and the hype to get the newest findings in the burgeoning field of gender studies. Drawing on disciplines that include evolutionary science, anthropology, animal behavior, neuroscience, psychology, and endocrinology, Deborah Blum explores matters ranging from the link between immunology and sex to male/female gossip styles. The results are intriguing, startling, and often very amusing. For instance, did you know that. . . ? Male testosterone levels drop in happy marriages; scientists speculate that women may use monogamy to control male behavior ? Young female children who are in day-care are apt to be more secure than those kept at home; young male children less so ? Anthropologists classify Western societies as "mildly polygamous"The Los Angeles Times has called Sex on the Brain "superbly crafted science writing, graced by unusual compassion, wit, and intelligence, that forms an important addition to the literature of gender studies."
Draws on the latest neuroscientific findings beyond cultural perceptions to reveal how the brain processes love and interpersonal relationships, addressing such questions as the practicality of monogamy, the relationship between love and hate and whether or not the "seven-year itch" actually exists.
Was Frauen zu Frauen macht Warum gebrauchen Frauen 20 000 Wörter am Tag, während Männer nur 7000 schaffen? Warum erinnern sie sich an Konflikte, von denen Männer meinen, es habe sie nie gegeben - und das, obwohl ihr Gehirn um 9 Prozent kleiner ist? Die Neuropsychiaterin Louann Brizendine präsentiert neueste Erkenntnisse der Gehirnforschung und erklärt in ihrem viel diskutierten Buch, warum Frauen die Welt so gründlich anders sehen als Männer. »Allen Männern zur Lektüre empfohlen, wenn sie gerade nicht an Sex denken.« Weltwoche
Within the basic and clinical biomedical research community, there is increasing recognition that differences between males and females across the lifespan affect an individual's health, his/her development of disease, signs and symptoms of pathophysiology, and response to therapy. This book is intended as a resource for scientists, clinicians, and students of the nervous system and behavior- a trove of practical information about how to study sex differences in the brain as well as a discussion of what is already known on the topic.
Sex and gender in biomedicine are innovative research concepts of theoretical and clinical medicine that enable a better understanding of health and disease, evidence-based knowledge, effective therapies, and better health outcomes for women and men. Gender Medicine stimulates new ways of doing research: that is to consider sex and gender at all levels of research, from basic research into gene polymorphisms to health behaviour. New research questions have been put forward that focus not on differences per se but on the development of differences. In this book, contributions from the field of neuroscience, addiction research, and organ transplantation exemplify concepts, approaches, methods and results in the field.
The knowledge that there are biological differences in the male and female brain has been taken for granted in the scientific community for years, yet it's kept so quiet as to seem like science's dirty little secret. This book boldly and responsibly ventures forth with these findings and their implications.
This text provides an overview of what is known about the neural and hormonal bases of sex differences in behaviour, particularly in cognitive ability, and suggests that the effect of sex hormones on brain organisation occur early in life.
This book provides the first resource dedicated to critically examining gender and sex in study designs, methods, and analysis in health research. In order to produce ethical, accurate, and effective research findings it is vital to integrate both sex (biological characteristics) and gender (socially constructed factors) into any health study. This book draws attention to some of the methodological complexities in this enterprise and offers ways to thoughtfully address these by drawing on empirical examples across a range of topics and disciplines.
Focusing on the novels of Charlotte Bronte, Wilkie Collins, and Thomas Hardy, Malane analyzes how these narratives of love, insanity, and tragedy were in dynamic conversation with the prevailing views about the brain."--Jacket.
The remarkable, intertwined histories of neurology, psychiatry, neurosyphyllis, and hysteria, and the derailing of a coordinated approach to mental illness. In 1882, Jean-Martin Charcot was the premiere physician in Paris, having just established a neurology clinic at the infamous Salpêtrière Hospital, a place that was called a "grand asylum of human misery." Assessing the dismal conditions, he quickly set up to upgrade the facilities, and in doing so, revolutionized the treatment of mental illness. Many of Charcot's patients had neurosyphilis (the advanced form of syphilis), a disease of mad poets, novelists, painters, and musicians, and a driving force behind the overflow of patients in Europe's asylums. A sexually transmitted disease, it is known as "the great imitator" since its symptoms resemble those of almost any biological disease or mental illness. It is also the perfect lens through which to peel back the layers to better understand the brain and the mind. Yet, Charcot's work took a bizarre turn when he brought mesmerism--hypnotism--into his clinic, abandoning his pursuit of the biological basis of illness in favor of the far sexier and theatrical treatment of female "hysterics," whose symptoms mimic those seen in brain disease, but were elusive in origin. This and a general fear of contagion set the stage for Sigmund Freud, whose seductive theory, Freudian analysis, brought sex and hysteria onto the psychiatrist couch, leaving the brain behind. How The Brain Lost Its Mind tells this rich and compelling story, and raises a host of philosophical and practical questions. Are we any closer to understanding the difference between a sick mind and a sick brain? The real issue remains: where should neurology and psychiatry converge to explore not just the brain, but the nature of the human psyche?
How much control do we have over love? Much less than we like to think. All that mystery, all that poetry, all those complex behaviors surrounding human bonding leading to the most life-changing decisions we’ll ever make, are unconsciously driven by a few molecules in our brains. How does love begin? How can two strangers come to the conclusion that it would not only be pleasant to share their lives, but that they must share them? How can a man say he loves his wife, yet still cheat on her? Why do others stay in relationships even after the romance fades? How is it possible to fall in love with the “wrong” person? How do people come to have a “type”? Physical attraction, jealousy, infidelity, mother-infant bonding—all the behaviors that so often leave us befuddled—are now being teased out of the fog of mystery thanks to today’s social neuroscience. Larry Young, one of the world’s leading experts in the field, and journalist Brian Alexander explain how those findings apply to you. Drawing on real human stories and research from labs around the world, The Chemistry Between Us is a bold attempt to create a “grand unified theory” of love. Some of the mind-blowing insights include: Love can get such a grip on us because it is, literally, an addiction. To a woman falling in love, a man is like her baby. Why it’s false to say society makes gender, and how it’s possible to have the body of one gender and the brain of another. Why some people are more likely to cheat than others. Why we sometimes truly can’t resist temptation. Young and Alexander place their revelations into historical, political, and social contexts. In the process, they touch on everything from gay marriage to why single-mother households might not be good for society. The Chemistry Between Us offers powerful insights into love, sex, gender, sexual orientation, and family life that will prove to be enlightening, controversial, and thought provoking.