This is a study of masculinity as a metaphor and especially of the muscular male body as a moral symbol. It explores the Nazi's preoccupation with the male body as an icon of political power, and the ideology and theories which propelled it.
The supremacy of the global fascist superman never became a reality but was certainly an intention. This work explores the use of the image of the male body in European, American and Asian fascism of varying degrees and various interpretations, and the differences and similarities involved.
The art of the human body is arguably the most important and wide-ranging legacy bequeathed to us by Classical antiquity. Not only has it directed the course of western image-making, it has shaped our collective cultural imaginary - as ideal, antitype, and point of departure. This book is the first concerted attempt to grapple with that legacy: it explores the complex relationship between Graeco-Roman images of the body and subsequent western engagements with them, from the Byzantine icon to Venice Beach (and back again). Instead of approaching his material chronologically, Michael Squire faces up to its inherent modernity. Writing in a lively and accessible style, and supplementing his text with a rich array of pictures, he shows how Graeco-Roman images inhabit our world as if they were our own. The Art of the Body offers a series of comparative and thematic accounts, demonstrating the range of cultural ideas and anxieties that were explored through the figure of the body both in antiquity and in the various cultural landscapes that came afterwards. If we only strip down our aesthetic investment in the corpus of Graeco-Roman imagery, Squire argues, this material can shed light on both ancient and modern thinking. The result is a stimulating process of mutual illumination - and an exhilarating new approach to Classical art history.
This volume contains essays which examine in an original provocative and critical perspective the fundamental myths, symbols and historical memories that have played an active role in shaping the development of Israeli society.
This is the first text to examine women and sport in Italy during the period 1861-1945. To qualify and quantify the impact of fascism on Italian Women's sport, the author first of all examines the pre-fascist period in terms of female physical culture. The text then describes how during the fascist era, women moved strictly within a framework designed by medicine and eugenics, religious and traditional education. The country aspired to emancipation, as promised by the fascist revolution but emancipation was hard to advance under the fascist regime because of male hegemonic trends in the country. This book shows how the engagement of women in some sporting activity did promote and support some gender emancipation. The conclusion of the book demonstrates how, in the post-war period, women found it hard to advance further on, for a number of reasons.
The late Victorian and Edwardian officer class viewed hunting and big game hunting in particular, as a sound preparation for imperial warfare. For the imperial officer in the making, the ‘blooding’ hunting ritual was a visible ‘hallmark’ of stirling martial masculinity. Sir Henry Newbolt, the period poet of subaltern self-sacrifice, typically considered hunting as essential for the creation of a ‘masculine sporting spirit’ necessary for the consolidation and extension of the empire. Hunting was seen as a manifestation of Darwinian masculinity that maintained a pre-ordained hierarchical order of superordinate and subordinate breeds. Militarism, Hunting, Imperialism examines these ideas under the following five sections: martial imperialism: the self-sacrificial subaltern ‘blooding’ the middle class martial male the imperial officer, hunting and war martial masculinity proclaimed and consolidated martial masculinity adapted and adjusted. This book was published as a special issue of the International Journal of the History of Sport.
Sport and physical education represent important components of German national life, from school and community participation, to elite, international level sport. This unique and comprehensive collection brings together material from leading German scholars to examine the role of sport and PE in Germany from a range of historical and contemporary perspectives. Key topics include: * sport and PE in pre-war, post war and re-unified Germany * sport and PE in schools * coach education * elite sport and sport science * women and sport * sport and recreation facilities. This book offers an illuminating insight into how sport and PE have helped to shape Germany. It represents fascinating reading for anyone with an interest in the history and sociology of sport, and those working in German studies.
In 1986, John Byrne was recruited from Marvel Comics to reinvent Superman for a brand-new audience. Along with inker Dick Giordano, Byrne reimagined the look of Superman, Lois Lane, Krypton and Lex Luthor. The relationships between Superman and Lois, Superman and Batman, and Superman and Luthor were reexamined and tweaked for modern readers. Old villains such as Bizarro returned and new ones, such as Magpie, were introduced. It was the dawn of a new age for the Man of Steel that endures today. See how it all began in this collection of the first six stories. Includes a foreword by Ray Bradbury. This volume collects MAN OF STEEL #1-6.
Healthy spirit in a healthy body was the foundational slogan of the physical culture campaign. By the beginning of the 1930s, sports had become one of the most frequently pictured subjects of art. Images of beautiful sportswomen and muscular athletes were widely used by the Soviet mass media. Sportsmen were found on every « collective portrait of Soviet people; they appeared on almost every significant officially commissioned work, be it a large-scale oil painting for the Soviet exhibition pavilion or decoration in a theater, club, place of culture, or metro station. They were featured on posters, covers of Soviet magazines, on television news, and even in movies. Soviet textile and porcelain designers widely used sport motifs. In fact, the amount of the sport-related visual material suggests that the images of sports constituted a genre on its own in official Stalinist art. The primary focus of this research is the representation of the sporting body, and the social and ideological forces to which the athlete's body was exposed. This is also an attempt to position the body of the Soviet athlete in the context of Soviet mythology and reconnect it with the greater context of body representation in pre-Bolshevik and late Stalinist traditions.
Welches Bild vom Menschen steht uns vor augen, wenn wir Sportlerinnen und Sportler sehen? Welches Bild haben die Sportlerinnen und Sportler von sich selbst? Welche Vorstellungen und Ideen von Bewegung, Spiel und Sport spiegeln sich darin wieder? Haben sich diese Bilder im Lauf der Zeit verändert? Wie unterscheiden sie sich in verschiedenen Ländern und Kulturen? Solche sportanthropologischen Fragen nach dem oder den Menschenbildern im Sport lassen sich nur in interdisziplinärer ind interkultureller Perspektive befriedigend beantworten.Der vorliegende Band fasst die Ergebnisse einer Fachtagung zum Thema zusammen, auf der namhafte Expertinnen und Experten aus aller Welt und aus verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen Fächern Stellung bezogen. Wer über den Tellerrand des aktuellen sportlichen Geschehens hinaus schauen möchten, für den sind diese grundlegenden Reflexionen über den sporttreibenden Menschen unverzichtbar.
The notorious concentration camp system was a central pillar of the Third Reich, supporting the Nazi war against political, racial and social outsiders whilst also intimidating the population at large. Established during the first months of the Nazi dictatorship in 1933, several million men, women and children of many nationalities had been incarcerated in the camps by the end of the Second World War. At least two million lost their lives. This comprehensive volume offers the first overview of the recent scholarship that has changed the way the camps are studied over the last two decades. Written by an international team of experts, the book covers such topics as the earliest camps; social life, work and personnel in the camps; the public face of the camps; issues of gender and commemoration; and the relationship between concentration camps and the Final Solution. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to the current historiography of the camps, highlighting the key conclusions that have been made, commenting on continuing areas of debate, and suggesting possible directions for future research.
Between adolescence and adulthood is a new stage of life: emerging adulthood. Those in their twenties and early thirties find themselves in transition. This "provisional adulthood" is a time of identity exploration and instability in which one's vocation, purpose, relationships and spirituality are all being renegotiated. Many emerging adults lose sight of God and experience significant confusion and brokenness. Others unexpectedly reconnect with the Christian faith and seek deeper discipleship, yet lack helpful mentoring and direction. Veteran disciplemakers Rick Dunn and Jana Sundene offer concrete guidance for those who shepherd and care for emerging adults. Some traditional models of disciplemaking focus on a set curriculum to be transferred from the discipler to the disciplee. Dunn and Sundene instead emphasize relational rhythms of discernment, intentionality and reflection to meet emerging adults where they are at and then to walk with them further into the Christlife. Whether you're an older adult ministering to the next generation or a younger adult with a heart for your peers, this book is an accessible, hopeful guide for effective ministry to emerging adults.
The Positive Mental Moxie of Myth for Personal Growth Joseph Campbell defined a myth as "a life-shaping image, a metaphor that creates a hero out of those who heed it." Author Dr. Gene Landrum takes Campbell's definition one step further by offering a variety of motivational techniques that will propel you to heroic success. Dr. Landrum describes the "superman syndrome" as a series of common behaviors that permit an otherwise average person to rise above the norm. He points out that some of the world's most renowned visionaries-Catherine the Great, Walt Disney, and Ian Fleming-did not conform to tradition because they modeled their behavior on heroic ideals and mythical mentors. Learn how to transform your life from ordinary to extraordinary by focusing on several key ideas: Chasing money is entropic and the path to the poorhouse Happiness is a side effect of being-never trying Romance only comes to those not trying to find romance Anxiety is a by-product of unrealistic expectations Breakdown leads to breakthrough Being stupid is the pathway to being smart Do you have the Superman Syndrome? Test yourself to find out!
Psychologists get inside the human (and superhuman) mind, in these insightful essays about Batman, Wonder Woman, and many more of our favorite characters. Why do superheroes choose to be superheroes? Where does Spider-Man’s altruism come from, and what does it mean? Why is there so much prejudice against the X-Men, and how could they have responded to it, other than the way they did? Why are super-villains so aggressive? The Psychology of Superheroes answers these questions in a wide range of essays on topics from Aquaman to Arkham Asylum—exploring the inner workings our heroes usually only share with their therapists.
Trial-blazer and mentor, Professor J.A. Mangan is a distinguished scholar in the fields of sports history whose work has inspired a generation of historians and social scientists across the globe. His seminal book on athleticism and imperialism commanded attention and applause from a broad range of historians and social scientists across the globe. His seminal work on athleticism and imperialism commanded attention and applause from a broad range of historians. It opened new horizons of inquiry providing the field with a richly perceptive study of hegemony and patronage, of cultural assimilation and adaptation, and of the ways that power elites used sport for socialization, acculturation and social control. His later works continued to pose critical, sometimes controversial questions, providing new and provocative insights into the complex social issues involved in the development and diffusion of sporting activity. The geographical horizons of his work now span the globe. This volume is a fitting tribute to the scholarship and lasting accomplishments of a pioneer who has mentored - and continues to mentor - numerous young scholars internationally, simultaneously developing and maintaining high quality channels through which to disseminate sport history research. In appraising his scholarship the contributors to this collection demonstrate their debt to his vision and achievements. This volume was previously published as a special issue of The International Journal of the History of Sport
Winner of the University of San Diego Outstanding Leadership Book Award 2012! Shortlisted for the British Psychological Society Book Award 2011! Shortlisted for the CMI (Chartered Management Institute) Management Book of the Year Award 2011–2012! According to John Adair, the most important word in the leader's vocabulary is "we" and the least important word is "I". But if this is true, it raises one important question: why do psychological analyses of leadership always focus on the leader as an individual – as the great "I"? One answer is that theorists and practitioners have never properly understood the psychology of "we-ness". This book fills this gap by presenting a new psychology of leadership that is the result of two decades of research inspired by social identity and self-categorization theories. The book argues that to succeed, leaders need to create, champion, and embed a group identity in order to cultivate an understanding of 'us' of which they themselves are representative. It also shows how, by doing this, they can make a material difference to the groups, organizations, and societies that they lead. Written in an accessible and engaging style, the book examines a range of central theoretical and practical issues, including the nature of group identity, the basis of authority and legitimacy, the dynamics of justice and fairness, the determinants of followership and charisma, and the practice and politics of leadership. The book will appeal to academics, practitioners and students in social and organizational psychology, sociology, political science and anyone interested in leadership, influence and power.
As the central event of modern times, the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 remains a major focus of historical investigation and controversy. Unavoidably, the conception of the historical problems and the evidence presented are shaped by the historian's view on both the desirability and the inevitability of the Bolshevik Revolution. The years 1890-1917 are particularly important as the crucible in which revolutionary forces developed. In the nineties, Finance Minister Sergei Witte laid the groundwork for a modern economy. While he achieved many of his economic goals, the stresses and strains of forced draft industrialization contributed to the revival of the revolutionary movement; political instability was their immediate effect. By the turn of the century the peasants were in open revolt, an alienated and militant urban proletariat was emerging, and a cohesive liberal opposition was beginning to develop. All these groups demanded fundamental reforms including full political rights for all citizens. By 1905 they had gathered sufficient strength to force the government to issue a constitution and a legislature called the Duma. Neither side, however, was satisfied. The Imperial government tried to take back what it had granted under duress and the opposition parties attempted to discredit the system as "sham constitutionalism. " Only a small center was willing to work with the government and the government was not always willing to work with them.
We may live in astonishing times, but they are not incomprehensible when you know how to read the signs. Everybody says we're entering the Age of Aquarius, but when does it start, and how will we know what it looks and feels like? Ray Grasse deciphers the signs and correspondences of our nearing Aquarian future, using the tools of astrology, synchronicity, and mythology. He draws richly from contemporary religion, art, politics, science, even current movies, to show how the cultural signs of Aquarius and our likely future are already apparent and changing our world. The Aquarian Age will be marked by its intensely mental quality, when information will be the driving force of society and the biggest challenges we face will be those of the mind. Decentralization will be the order of business, either the empowered individual will reign supreme, or the collective interests of globalized society will predominate. It could be both. We are all participants in the global drama and all aspects of our inner and outer lives are bound up with the new Aquarian themes. ‘Signs of the Times' is the authoritative travel guide for the trip into our future – don't leave the present without it.