Spezielle Förderklassen für besonders begabte Schüler werden zum Teil kontrovers diskutiert, da sich durch Vergleiche mit dem Fähigkeitsniveau der Mitschüler sowohl negative als auch positive Wirkungen auf das schulische Leistungskonzept ergeben können. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht den in diesem Zusammenhang auftretenden Kontrast- und Assimilationseffekt, auch als Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effekt und Basking-In-Reflected- Glory-Effekt bekannt, und liefert neue Erkenntnisse im Bereich der Hochbegabtenförderung. Das Ziel war es zu untersuchen, wie sich soziale Vergleichsprozesse von Schülern in normalen Gymnasialklassen sowie in speziellen gymnasialen Förderklassen auf das akademische Selbstkonzept im Bereich Mathematik auswirken. Aus den gezeigten Ergebnissen ergeben sich praktische Konsequenzen für die Förderung von hochbegabten Schülern. Der Band enthält zudem eine Zusammenfassung des aktuellen Forschungsstandes zu sozialen Vergleichsprozessen und deren Einflüssen auf das Selbstkonzept.
Social Dynamics: Models and Methods focuses on sociological methodology and on the practice of sociological research. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 16 chapters that deal with the basic principles of social dynamics. The first part of this book considers the development of models and methods for causal analysis of the actual time paths of change in attributes of individual and social systems. This part also discusses the applications in which the use of dynamic models and methods seems to have enhanced the capacity to formulate and test sociological arguments. These models and methods are useful for answering questions about the detailed structure of social change processes. The second part explores the formulation of the continuous-time models of change in both quantitative and qualitative outcomes and the development of suitable methods for estimating these models from the kinds of data commonly available to sociologists. The third part describes a stochastic framework for analyzing both qualitative and quantitative outcome of social changes. This part also discusses the sociologists' perspective on the empirical study of social change processes. This text will be of great value to sociologists and sociological researchers.
Oliver B. Büttner untersucht, wie Methoden am Point of Sale sinnvoll eingesetzt werden können, um einkaufsbegleitende kognitive Prozesse von Ladenbesuchern zu analysieren. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf zwei Varianten zur Produktion von Gedankenprotokollen: dem Lauten Denken und der Videogestützten Gedankenrekonstruktion.
The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology provides an accessible and comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-science and a one-stop source for learning and reviewing current best-practices in a quantitative methods across the social, behavioral, and educational sciences.
In dieser Studie wird die Analyse der Arbeitsmarktmobilität mit dem organisationsökologischen Ansatz und der evolutionären Ökonomie verbunden. Erkenntnisleitend ist dabei die Annahme, dass ein wesentlicher Teil der sozialen Positionen in Organisationen eingebettet ist. Wenn die Populationen von Organisationen aber aufgrund von Gründungen und Schließungen einem permanenten dynamischen Austausch unterliegen, ist es für eine strukturalistische Mobilitätsforschung unerlässlich, diese Prozesse sowohl in die theoretische Konzeptualisierung als auch in die empirische Analyse einzubeziehen. Auf der theoretischen Ebene deutet sich damit eine evolutionäre Theorie der Sozialstruktur an. Im empirischen Teil der Arbeit wird der Zusammenhang von Organisationsökologie und Beschäftigtenmobilität unter anderem als dynamischer Mehrebenenprozess untersucht.
Continuity and change have been major concerns of the social and behavioral sciences -- in the study of human development and in the study of processes that unfold in various ways across time. There has been a veritable explosion of techniques for studying change over time which have fundamentally changed how we need to think of and study change. Unfortunately, many of the old precepts and beliefs are still among us. The field of methodology for the study of change is itself ready to change. Recently, there have been many analytic and conceptual developments questioning our cherished beliefs about the study of change. As such, how are individuals to think about issues and correctly analyze change? The chapters in this volume address these issues. Divided into two sections, this book deals with designs that analyze change in multiple subjects, and with change in single subjects and an interacting system. Papers presented in this volume are accessible to scientists who are not methodologists. The character of the papers are more like primers than basic treatises on methodology, written for other methodologists. It is time that people stop thinking in rigid ways about how to study change and be introduced to a range of many possibilities. Change, stability, order and chaos are elusive concepts. The pursuit of the laws of change must be approached in as flexible and creative a fashion as possible. This book should help to lead the way.
Stephen Turner has explored the ongms of social science in this pioneering study of two nineteenth century themes: the search for laws of human social behavior, and the accumulation and analysis of the facts of such behavior through statistical inquiry. The disputes were vigorously argued; they were over questions of method, criteria of explanation, interpretations of probability, understandings of causation as such and of historical causation in particular, and time and again over the ways of using a natural science model. From his careful elucidation of John Stuart Mill's proposals for the methodology of the social sciences on to his original analysis of the methodological claims and practices of Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, Turner has beautifully traced the conflict between statistical sociology and a science offactual description on the one side, and causal laws and a science of nomological explanation on the other. We see the works of Comte and Quetelet, the critical observations of Herschel, Buckle, Venn and Whewell, and the tough scepticism of Pearson, all of these as essential to the works of the classical founders of sociology. With Durkheim's essay on Suicide and Weber's monograph on The Protestant Ethic, Turner provides both philosophical analysis to demonstrate the continuing puzzles over cause and probability and also a perceptive and wry account of just how the puzzles of our late twentieth century are of a piece with theirs. The terms are still familiar: reasons vs.
A rich source of ideas about sociological research methods to assist the researcher in determining what method will provide the most reliable and useful knowledge, how to choose between different methodologies, and what constitutes the most fruitful relationship between sociological theories and research methods.
Why some patients wait longer than others remains an important question. This book is a reference for health services researchers looking for statistical tools with which to study waiting times. The book offers detailed coverage of statistical concepts and methods for the analysis and interpretation of waiting-time data. It provides analysis from health services research perspective, rather than operations management, and contains a collection of examples.
First Published in 1984. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
From the beginning, the systems research movement has shown a high potential for offering a conceptual framework for the understanding of social systems. Much of this potential has been realized, but a major gap remains with regard to operational investigative aids. Developments of the last ten years with a method ological orientation and emphasis seem finally to be filling this gap. The purpose of this book is to describe the most advanced of these developments and to make them available to a wider audience. The emphasis is on developments that are primarily oriented toward interaction with expertise in the social sciences and that thus hold the most promise for social systems investigation. In particu lar, attempts have been made to provide substantiation and illustration of three main points: (1) the common motivation and essential integrability that systems research provides for developments and considerations along a very broad spec trum of interests; (2) the very diverse nature of the types and forms of considera tions that may be meaningfully integrated; and (3) the operational and usable nature that developments in systems methodology represent for research in the social sciences. The book is divided into three parts with a generally increasing degree of specificity. The first part (Chapters 1, 2, and 3) deals with foundational issues associated with modeling and methodology as areas worthy of study in their ix X PREFACE own right.
En este texto se ofrece una visión equilibrada y actualizada que puede responder hoy, a la luz de la investigación científica, a la cuestión acerca de qué es eso que denominamos personalidad. A este respecto, nuestra propuesta es la siguiente: la personalidad engloba todas aquellas características, atributos y procesos psicosociobiológicos, cuya interrelación e integración posibilita identificar a cada persona como individuo único y diferente de los demás. El lector va a encontrar, en el tratamiento de los contenidos abordados en cada capítulo, abundante y actualizada referencia al sustrato de investigación científica en el que se apoyan los argumentos teóricos sobre los que se está debatiendo en cada caso.
An introduction for undergraduates to every stage of sociological research, showing how to deal effectively with typical problems they might encounter. The book is fully updated to include examples from the LA riots and the 1992 presidential elections.
This 1999 collection introduces some of the most interesting new research methods for social historians.

Best Books