Modern airborne and spaceborne imaging radars, known as synthetic aperture radars (SARs), are capable of producing high-quality pictures of the earth's surface while avoiding some of the shortcomings of certain other forms of remote imaging systems. Primarily, radar overcomes the nighttime limitations of optical cameras, and the cloud- cover limitations of both optical and infrared imagers. In addition, because imaging radars use a form of coherent illumination, they can be used in certain special modes such as interferometry, to produce some unique derivative image products that incoherent systems cannot. One such product is a highly accurate digital terrain elevation map (DTEM). The most recent (ca. 1980) version of imaging radar, known as spotlight-mode SAR, can produce imagery with spatial resolution that begins to approach that of remote optical imagers. For all of these reasons, synthetic aperture radar imaging is rapidly becoming a key technology in the world of modern remote sensing. Much of the basic `workings' of synthetic aperture radars is rooted in the concepts of signal processing. Starting with that premise, this book explores in depth the fundamental principles upon which the spotlight mode of SAR imaging is constructed, using almost exclusively the language, concepts, and major building blocks of signal processing. Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach is intended for a variety of audiences. Engineers and scientists working in the field of remote sensing but who do not have experience with SAR imaging will find an easy entrance into what can seem at times a very complicated subject. Experienced radar engineers will find that the book describes several modern areas of SAR processing that they might not have explored previously, e.g. interferometric SAR for change detection and terrain elevation mapping, or modern non-parametric approaches to SAR autofocus. Senior undergraduates (primarily in electrical engineering) who have had courses in digital signal and image processing, but who have had no exposure to SAR could find the book useful in a one-semester course as a reference.
This book comprehensively describes high-resolution microwave imaging and super-resolution information processing technologies and discusses new theories, methods and achievements in the high-resolution microwave imaging fields. Its chapters, which include abundant research results and examples, systematically summarize the authors’ main research findings in recent years. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates in the fields of electronics systems, signal information processing and data analysis, microwave remote sensing and microwave imaging radar, as well as space technology, especially in the microwave remote sensing and airborne or space-borne microwave imaging radar fields.
Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: A System Simulation Approach demonstrates the use of image simulation for SAR. It covers the various applications of SAR (including feature extraction, target classification, and change detection), provides a complete understanding of SAR principles, and illustrates the complete chain of a SAR operation. The book places special emphasis on a ground-based SAR, but also explains space and air-borne systems. It contains chapters on signal speckle, radar-signal models, sensor-trajectory models, SAR-image focusing, platform-motion compensation, and microwave-scattering from random media. While discussing SAR image focusing and motion compensation, it presents processing algorithms and applications that feature extraction, target classification, and change detection. It also provides samples of simulation on various scenarios, and includes simulation flowcharts and results that are detailed throughout the book. Introducing SAR imaging from a systems point of view, the author: Considers the recent development of MIMO SAR technology Includes selected GPU implementation Provides a numerical analysis of system parameters (including platforms, sensor, and image focusing, and their influence) Explores wave-target interactions, signal transmission and reception, image formation, motion compensation Covers all platform motion compensation and error analysis, and their impact on final image radiometric and geometric quality Describes a ground-based SFMCW system Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: A System Simulation Approach is dedicated to the use, study, and development of SAR systems. The book focuses on image formation or focusing, treats platform motion and image focusing, and is suitable for students, radar engineers, and microwave remote sensing researchers.
From Astronomy to X-ray optics, this encyclopedia contains more than 230 entries which examine technological advances and perspectives from distinguished professionals around the globe. It covers topics such as digital image enhancement, biological modelling, biomedical spectroscopy and ocean optics for coverage of applications in this field.
Based on the experiences of the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Pisa and the Radar and Surveillance System (RaSS) national laboratory of the National Interuniversity Consortium of Telecommunication (CNIT), Radar Imaging for Maritime Observation presents the most recent results in radar imaging for maritime observation. The book explores both the areas of sea surface remote sensing and maritime surveillance providing key theoretical concepts of SAR and ISAR imaging and more advanced and ad-hoc techniques for applications in maritime scenarios. The book is organized in two sections. The first section discusses the fundamentals of standard SAR/ISAR processing and novel imaging techniques, such as Bistatic, Passive, and, 3D Interferometric ISAR. The second section focuses on the applications and results obtained by processing real data from maritime observations like SAR image processing for oil spill, detection in SAR images and fractal analysis. Useful to both beginners and experts in maritime observation, this book provides several examples of (mainly space-borne) radar imaging of maritime targets. Nevertheless, the same principles and techniques apply to the case of manned or unmanned carriers and to ground and air moving targets.
High-Resolution and Robust Signal Processing describes key methodological and theoretical advances achieved in this domain over the last twenty years, placing emphasis on modern developments and recent research pursuits. Applications-grounded, this sophisticated resource links theoretical background with high-resolution methods used in wireless communications, brain signal analysis, and space-time radar signal processing. Chapter extras include theorem proofs, derivations, and computational shortcuts, as well as open problems, numerical measurement, and performance examples, and simulation results Sixteen illustrious field leaders invest High-Resolution and Robust Signal Processing with: in-depth reviews of parametric high-resolution estimation and detection techniques; robust array processing solutions for adaptive beam forming and high-resolution direction finding; Parafac techniques for high-resolution array processing and specific areas of application; high-resolution nonparametric methods and implementation tactics for spectral analysis; multidimensional high-resolution data models and discussion of R-D unitary ESPRIT with colored noise; multidimensional high-resolution parameter estimation techniques applicable to channel sounding; estimation procedures for high-resolution space-time radar signal processing using 2-D or 1-D/1-D models; and models and methods for EEG/MEG space-time dipole source estimation and sensory array design.
The chapters in this volume were presented at the July 2005NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Sensing with Security App- cations. The conference was held at the beautiful Il Ciocco resort near Lucca, in the glorious Tuscany region of northern Italy. Once again we gathered at this idyllic spot to explore and extend the reciprocity between mathematics and engineering. The dynamic interaction - tween world-renowned scientists from the usually disparate communities of pure mathematicians and applied scientists which occurred at our six previous ASI’s continued at this meeting. The fusion of basic ideas in mathematics, biology, and chemistry with ongoing improvements in hardware and computation o?ers the promise of much more sophisticated and accurate sensing capabilities than c- rently exist. Coupled with the dramatic rise in the need for surveillance in innumerable aspects of our daily lives, brought about by hostile acts deemed unimaginable only a few short years ago, the time was right for scientists in the diverse areas of sensing and security to join together in a concerted e?ort to combat the new brands of terrorism. This ASI was one important initial step. To encompass the diverse nature of the s- ject and the varied backgrounds of the anticipated participants, the ASI was divided into three broadly de?ned but interrelated areas: the - creasing need for fast and accurate sensing, the scienti?c underpinnings of the ongoing revolution in sensing, and speci?c sensing algorithms and techniques. The ASI brought together world leaders from academia, government, andindustry,withextensivemultidisciplinarybackgroundsevidencedby theirresearchandparticipationinnumerousworkshopsandconferences.
Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information. Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known. This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations. Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
A presentation of algorithms for synthetic aperture radar imagery. It studies: image formation; image registration and fusion; image quality assessment; and feature extraction.
A resource like no other-the first comprehensive guide to phase unwrapping Phase unwrapping is a mathematical problem-solving technique increasingly used in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, optical interferometry, adaptive optics, and medical imaging. In Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping, two internationally recognized experts sort through the multitude of ideas and algorithms cluttering current research, explain clearly how to solve phase unwrapping problems, and provide practicable algorithms that can be applied to problems encountered in diverse disciplines. Complete with case studies and examples as well as hundreds of images and figures illustrating the concepts, this book features: * A thorough introduction to the theory of phase unwrapping * Eight algorithms that constitute the state of the art in phase unwrapping * Detailed description and analysis of each algorithm and its performance in a number of phase unwrapping problems * C language software that provides a complete implementation of each algorithm * Comparative analysis of the algorithms and techniques for evaluating results * A discussion of future trends in phase unwrapping research * Foreword by former NASA scientist Dr. John C. Curlander Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping skillfully integrates concepts, algorithms, software, and examples into a powerful benchmark against which new ideas and algorithms for phase unwrapping can be tested. This unique introduction to a dynamic, rapidly evolving field is essential for professionals and graduate students in SAR interferometry, optical interferometry, adaptive optics, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing simply and methodically presents principles and techniques of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image generation by analyzing its system transfer function. The text considers the full array of operation modes from strip to scan, emphasizes processing techniques, enabling the design of operational SAR codes. A simple example then follows. This book will be invaluable to all SAR scientists and engineers working in the field. It may be used as the basis for a course on SAR image generation or as a reference book on remote sensing. It contains a wide spectrum of information presented with clarity and rigor.
Written for students, remote sensing specialists, researchers and SAR system designers, Processing of SAR Data shows how to produce quality SAR images. In particular, this practical reference presents new methods and algorithms concerning the interferometric processing of SAR data with emphasis on system and signal theory, namely how SAR imagery is formed, how interferometry SAR images are created, and a detailed mathematical description of different focussing algorithms. Starting with the processing basics and progressing to the final geo-coded SAR data product, the book describes the complete processing steps in detail. Algorithms based on the effects of side-looking geometry are developed to correct foreshortening, shadowing and layover.
An up-to-date analysis of the SAR wavefront reconstruction signal theory and its digital implementation With the advent of fast computing and digital information processing techniques, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology has become both more powerful and more accurate. Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms addresses these recent developments, providing a complete, up-to-date analysis of SAR and its associated digital signal processing algorithms. This book introduces the wavefront reconstruction signal theory that underlies the best SAR imaging methods and provides clear guidelines to system design, implementation, and applications in diverse areas-from airborne reconnaissance to topographic imaging of ocean floors to surveillance and air traffic control to medical imaging techniques, and numerous others. Enabling professionals in radar signal and image processing to use synthetic aperture technology to its fullest potential, this work: * Includes M-files to supplement this book that can be retrieved from The MathWorks anonymous FTP server at ftp://ftp.mathworks.com/pub/books/soumekh * Provides practical examples and results from real SAR, ISAR, and CSAR databases * Outlines unique properties of the SAR signal that cannot be found in other information processing systems * Examines spotlight SAR, stripmap SAR, circular SAR, and monopulse SAR modalities * Discusses classical SAR processing issues such as motion compensation and radar calibration
This rigorous text provides in-depth coverage of radar signal processing from a DSP perspective, filling a gap in the literature. There are a number of good books on general radar systems: Skolnik and Nathanson are the most popular. There are also good monographs on advanced and specialty topics like synthetic aperture imaging. But there is a large, practical gap between the qualitative system books and the advanced DSP titles, and that is the slot this book fills.