Modern airborne and spaceborne imaging radars, known as synthetic aperture radars (SARs), are capable of producing high-quality pictures of the earth's surface while avoiding some of the shortcomings of certain other forms of remote imaging systems. Primarily, radar overcomes the nighttime limitations of optical cameras, and the cloud- cover limitations of both optical and infrared imagers. In addition, because imaging radars use a form of coherent illumination, they can be used in certain special modes such as interferometry, to produce some unique derivative image products that incoherent systems cannot. One such product is a highly accurate digital terrain elevation map (DTEM). The most recent (ca. 1980) version of imaging radar, known as spotlight-mode SAR, can produce imagery with spatial resolution that begins to approach that of remote optical imagers. For all of these reasons, synthetic aperture radar imaging is rapidly becoming a key technology in the world of modern remote sensing. Much of the basic `workings' of synthetic aperture radars is rooted in the concepts of signal processing. Starting with that premise, this book explores in depth the fundamental principles upon which the spotlight mode of SAR imaging is constructed, using almost exclusively the language, concepts, and major building blocks of signal processing. Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach is intended for a variety of audiences. Engineers and scientists working in the field of remote sensing but who do not have experience with SAR imaging will find an easy entrance into what can seem at times a very complicated subject. Experienced radar engineers will find that the book describes several modern areas of SAR processing that they might not have explored previously, e.g. interferometric SAR for change detection and terrain elevation mapping, or modern non-parametric approaches to SAR autofocus. Senior undergraduates (primarily in electrical engineering) who have had courses in digital signal and image processing, but who have had no exposure to SAR could find the book useful in a one-semester course as a reference.
"Spotlight-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach describes an important mode of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, known as spotlight-mode SAR. By treating the subject via the principles of signal processing, this book allows those individuals who are not schooled in the specialized (and sometimes confusing) language of radar imaging to gain accessibility to the critical ideas of SAR relatively quickly. An understanding of basic signal processing concepts (Fourier transforms, convolution, filtering, etc.) is the only required background." "The first two chapters of the book develop a rigorous theoretical framework for spotlight-mode SAR, using a paradigm based on three-dimensional tomographic concepts. Following that, a chapter is devoted to the various signal processing steps that are required for robust spotlight-mode image formation via the polar-reformatting algorithm. Numerous examples, derived from simulated as well as real spotlight-mode imagery, are employed to clearly demonstrate the important concepts. Chapter 4 then discusses the effects of phase errors on spotlight-mode SAR imagery, and describes various algorithms for automatic phase error correction, also known as autofocus. The widely used technique of Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) is analyzed in depth and a variety of results from actual SAR imagery are shown. The final chapter discusses the subject of interferometry from spotlight-mode SAR imagery. This important topic is currently the subject of extensive research and development efforts across the international SAR community." "Spotlight-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach is intended for a variety of audiences. Engineers and scientists working in the field of remote sensing, but who do not have experience with SAR imaging, will find an easy entrance into what can seem at times a very complicated subject. Experienced radar engineers will find that the book describes several modern areas of SAR processing that they might not have explored previously, e.g. interferometric SAR for change detection and terrain elevation mapping, or modern non-parametric approaches to SAR autofocus. Senior undergraduates (primarily in electrical engineering) who have had courses in digital signal and image processing, but who have had no exposure to SAR will find the book useful as a reference."--BOOK JACKET.
"The first two chapters of the book develop a rigorous theoretical framework for spotlight-mode SAR, using a paradigm based on three-dimensional tomographic concepts. Following that, a chapter is devoted to the various signal processing steps that are required for robust spotlight-mode image formation via the polar-reformatting algorithm. Numerous examples, derived from simulated as well as real spotlight-mode imagery, are employed to clearly demonstrate the important concepts. Chapter 4 then discusses the effects of phase errors on spotlight-mode SAR imagery, and describes various algorithms for automatic phase error correction, also known as autofocus. The widely used technique of Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) is analyzed in depth and a variety of results from actual SAR imagery are shown. The final chapter discusses the subject of interferometry from spotlight-mode SAR imagery. This important topic is currently the subject of extensive research and development efforts across the international SAR community.".
?The book gives an excellent theoretical and practical background of SAR in general and specifically of spotlight SAR. The rich experience of the authors in spotlight SAR processing is reflected by a very detailed summary of the associated theory as well as a lot of SAR image examples. These images illustrate the techniques described in the book and provide a valuable connection to practice. This book can be highly recommended to all scientists and engineers involved in SAR system design and SAR data evaluation.?---International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Written from a signal processing point of view, this authoritative volume on digital processing of synthetic aperture radar data is geared toward professionals and students with a general electrical engineering background.
This book describes the application of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar to earth remote sensing based on research at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This book synthesizes all current research to provide practical information for both the newcomer and the expert in radar polarimetry. The text offers a concise description of the mathematical fundamentals illustrated with many examples using SAR data, with a main focus on remote sensing of the earth. The book begins with basics of synthetic aperture radar to provide the basis for understanding how polarimetric SAR images are formed and gives an introduction to the fundamentals of radar polarimetry. It goes on to discuss more advanced polarimetric concepts that allow one to infer more information about the terrain being imaged. In order to analyze data quantitatively, the signals must be calibrated carefully, which the book addresses in a chapter summarizing the basic calibration algorithms. The book concludes with examples of applying polarimetric analysis to scattering from rough surfaces, to infer soil moisture from radar signals.
This book provides a full representation of Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imagery, which is a popular and important radar signal processing tool. The book covers all possible aspects of ISAR imaging. The book offers a fair amount of signal processing techniques and radar basics before introducing the inverse problem of ISAR and the forward problem of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Important concepts of SAR such as resolution, pulse compression and image formation are given together with associated MATLAB codes. After providing the fundamentals for ISAR imaging, the book gives the detailed imaging procedures for ISAR imaging with associated MATLAB functions and codes. To enhance the image quality in ISAR imaging, several imaging tricks and fine-tuning procedures such as zero-padding and windowing are also presented. Finally, various real applications of ISAR imagery, like imaging the antenna-platform scattering, are given in a separate chapter. For all these algorithms, MATLAB codes and figures are included. The final chapter considers advanced concepts and trends in ISAR imaging.
A resource like no other-the first comprehensive guide to phase unwrapping Phase unwrapping is a mathematical problem-solving technique increasingly used in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, optical interferometry, adaptive optics, and medical imaging. In Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping, two internationally recognized experts sort through the multitude of ideas and algorithms cluttering current research, explain clearly how to solve phase unwrapping problems, and provide practicable algorithms that can be applied to problems encountered in diverse disciplines. Complete with case studies and examples as well as hundreds of images and figures illustrating the concepts, this book features: * A thorough introduction to the theory of phase unwrapping * Eight algorithms that constitute the state of the art in phase unwrapping * Detailed description and analysis of each algorithm and its performance in a number of phase unwrapping problems * C language software that provides a complete implementation of each algorithm * Comparative analysis of the algorithms and techniques for evaluating results * A discussion of future trends in phase unwrapping research * Foreword by former NASA scientist Dr. John C. Curlander Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping skillfully integrates concepts, algorithms, software, and examples into a powerful benchmark against which new ideas and algorithms for phase unwrapping can be tested. This unique introduction to a dynamic, rapidly evolving field is essential for professionals and graduate students in SAR interferometry, optical interferometry, adaptive optics, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
An up-to-date analysis of the SAR wavefront reconstruction signal theory and its digital implementation With the advent of fast computing and digital information processing techniques, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology has become both more powerful and more accurate. Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms addresses these recent developments, providing a complete, up-to-date analysis of SAR and its associated digital signal processing algorithms. This book introduces the wavefront reconstruction signal theory that underlies the best SAR imaging methods and provides clear guidelines to system design, implementation, and applications in diverse areas-from airborne reconnaissance to topographic imaging of ocean floors to surveillance and air traffic control to medical imaging techniques, and numerous others. Enabling professionals in radar signal and image processing to use synthetic aperture technology to its fullest potential, this work: * Includes M-files to supplement this book that can be retrieved from The MathWorks anonymous FTP server at ftp://ftp.mathworks.com/pub/books/soumekh * Provides practical examples and results from real SAR, ISAR, and CSAR databases * Outlines unique properties of the SAR signal that cannot be found in other information processing systems * Examines spotlight SAR, stripmap SAR, circular SAR, and monopulse SAR modalities * Discusses classical SAR processing issues such as motion compensation and radar calibration
Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing simply and methodically presents principles and techniques of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image generation by analyzing its system transfer function. The text considers the full array of operation modes from strip to scan, emphasizes processing techniques, enabling the design of operational SAR codes. A simple example then follows. This book will be invaluable to all SAR scientists and engineers working in the field. It may be used as the basis for a course on SAR image generation or as a reference book on remote sensing. It contains a wide spectrum of information presented with clarity and rigor.
Featuring an extensive 40 page tutorial introduction, this carefully compiled anthology of 65 of the most important papers on phase-locked loops and clock recovery circuits brings you comprehensive coverage of the field-all in one self-contained volume. You'll gain an understanding of the analysis, design, simulation, and implementation of phase-locked loops and clock recovery circuits in CMOS and bipolar technologies along with valuable insights into the issues and trade-offs associated with phase locked systems for high speed, low power, and low noise.
Intended as a text for three courses—Signals and Systems, Digital Signal Processing (DSP), and DSP Architecture—this comprehensive book, now in its Second Edition, continues to provide a thorough understanding of digital signal processing, beginning from the fundamentals to the implementation of algorithms on a digital signal processor. This Edition includes a new chapter on Continuous Time Signals and Systems, and many Assembly and C programs, which are useful to conduct a laboratory course in Digital Signal Processing. Besides, many existing chapters are modified substantially to widen the coverage of the book. Primarily designed for undergraduate students of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Computer Science and Engineering, and Information Technology, this text will also be useful as a supplementary text for advanced digital signal processing and real time digital signal processing courses of Postgraduate programmes. KEY FEATURES : Provides a large number of worked-out examples to strengthen the grasp of the concepts of digital signal processing. Explains the architecture, addressing modes and instructions of TMS 320C54XX fixed point DSP with assembly language and C programs. Includes MATLAB programs and exercises throughout the book. Offers review questions and multiple choice questions at the end of each chapter to help students test their understanding about the fundamentals of the subject. Contains MATLAB commands in Appendix.
Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.
This book comprehensively describes high-resolution microwave imaging and super-resolution information processing technologies and discusses new theories, methods and achievements in the high-resolution microwave imaging fields. Its chapters, which include abundant research results and examples, systematically summarize the authors’ main research findings in recent years. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates in the fields of electronics systems, signal information processing and data analysis, microwave remote sensing and microwave imaging radar, as well as space technology, especially in the microwave remote sensing and airborne or space-borne microwave imaging radar fields.
Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: A System Simulation Approach demonstrates the use of image simulation for SAR. It covers the various applications of SAR (including feature extraction, target classification, and change detection), provides a complete understanding of SAR principles, and illustrates the complete chain of a SAR operation. The book places special emphasis on a ground-based SAR, but also explains space and air-borne systems. It contains chapters on signal speckle, radar-signal models, sensor-trajectory models, SAR-image focusing, platform-motion compensation, and microwave-scattering from random media. While discussing SAR image focusing and motion compensation, it presents processing algorithms and applications that feature extraction, target classification, and change detection. It also provides samples of simulation on various scenarios, and includes simulation flowcharts and results that are detailed throughout the book. Introducing SAR imaging from a systems point of view, the author: Considers the recent development of MIMO SAR technology Includes selected GPU implementation Provides a numerical analysis of system parameters (including platforms, sensor, and image focusing, and their influence) Explores wave-target interactions, signal transmission and reception, image formation, motion compensation Covers all platform motion compensation and error analysis, and their impact on final image radiometric and geometric quality Describes a ground-based SFMCW system Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: A System Simulation Approach is dedicated to the use, study, and development of SAR systems. The book focuses on image formation or focusing, treats platform motion and image focusing, and is suitable for students, radar engineers, and microwave remote sensing researchers.
Through-the-wall radar imaging (TWRI) allows police, fire and rescue personnel, first responders, and defense forces to detect, identify, classify, and track the whereabouts of humans and moving objects. Electromagnetic waves are considered the most effective at achieving this objective, yet advances in this multi-faceted and multi-disciplinary technology require taking phenomenological issues into consideration and must be based on a solid understanding of the intricacies of EM wave interactions with interior and exterior objects and structures. Providing a broad overview of the myriad factors involved, namely size, weight, mobility, acquisition time, aperture distribution, power, bandwidth, standoff distance, and, most importantly, reliable performance and delivery of accurate information, Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging examines this technology from the algorithmic, modeling, experimentation, and system design perspectives. It begins with coverage of the electromagnetic properties of walls and building materials, and discusses techniques in the design of antenna elements and array configurations, beamforming concepts and issues, and the use of antenna array with collocated and distributed apertures. Detailed chapters discuss several suitable waveforms inverse scattering approaches and revolve around the relevance of physical-based model approaches in TWRI along with theoretical and experimental research in 3D building tomography using microwave remote sensing, high-frequency asymptotic modeling methods, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques, impulse radars, airborne radar imaging of multi-floor buildings strategies for target detection, and detection of concealed targets. The book concludes with a discussion of how the Doppler principle can be used to measure motion at a very fine level of detail. The book provides a deep understanding of the challenges of TWRI, stressing its multidisciplinary and phenomenological nature. The breadth and depth of topics covered presents a highly detailed treatment of this potentially life-saving technology.
The VHDL Reference: The essential guide for students and professionals working in computer hardware design and synthesis. The definitive guide to VHDL, this book combines a comprehensive reference of the VHDL syntax with tutorial and workshop materials that guide the reader through the principles of digital hardware design. The Authors describe the concept of VHDL and VHDL-AMS for modelling and synthesis and explain how VHDL can be used for the design of digital systems. The CD-ROM features workshop and reference material to familiarise beginners with the use of VHDL for simulation and for synthesis. In-depth examples of VHDL construct are explained in compact and easy to follow form providing immediate help and answers to specific problems. Features include: * downloadable version of the VHDL Reference including demonstration tools and workshop material covering language aspects for digital systems. * Modelling tutorial featuring VHDL-AMS, the new standard for modelling and simulating mixed signal micro systems. Real-life examples enable the reader to test their knowledge and clarify their understanding of the concepts. * Design workshop format taking the reader through an entire circuit design using an actual design problem, allowing beginners to put their VHDL skills into practice. * A user friendly reference section providing in depth coverage of the VHDL language for digital systems. * Includes tools for editing VHDL source files, simulating and synthesising VHDL models. The VHDL Reference is a highly accessible single source reference to the industry standard language for computer-aided electronic system design. It is not only an essential guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students in electrical engineering but also an indispensable aid to researchers and hardware designers and teachers using VHDL and logic synthesis.
From Astronomy to X-ray optics, this encyclopedia contains more than 230 entries which examine technological advances and perspectives from distinguished professionals around the globe. It covers topics such as digital image enhancement, biological modelling, biomedical spectroscopy and ocean optics for coverage of applications in this field.
Based on the experiences of the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Pisa and the Radar and Surveillance System (RaSS) national laboratory of the National Interuniversity Consortium of Telecommunication (CNIT), Radar Imaging for Maritime Observation presents the most recent results in radar imaging for maritime observation. The book explores both the areas of sea surface remote sensing and maritime surveillance providing key theoretical concepts of SAR and ISAR imaging and more advanced and ad-hoc techniques for applications in maritime scenarios. The book is organized in two sections. The first section discusses the fundamentals of standard SAR/ISAR processing and novel imaging techniques, such as Bistatic, Passive, and, 3D Interferometric ISAR. The second section focuses on the applications and results obtained by processing real data from maritime observations like SAR image processing for oil spill, detection in SAR images and fractal analysis. Useful to both beginners and experts in maritime observation, this book provides several examples of (mainly space-borne) radar imaging of maritime targets. Nevertheless, the same principles and techniques apply to the case of manned or unmanned carriers and to ground and air moving targets.