This is a major study of the 1549 rebellions, the largest and most important risings in Tudor England. Based upon extensive archival evidence, the book sheds fresh light on the causes, course and long-term consequences of the insurrections. Andy Wood focuses on key themes in the social history of politics, concerning the end of medieval popular rebellion; the Reformation and popular politics; popular political language; early modern state formation; speech, silence and social relations; and social memory and the historical representation of the rebellions. He examines the long-term significance of the rebellions for the development of English society, arguing that the rebellions represent an important moment of discontinuity between the late medieval and the early modern periods. This compelling history of Tudor politics from the bottom up will be essential reading for late medieval and early modern historians as well as early modern literary critics.
The story of the reign of Charles I - through the lives of his people. Prize-winning historian David Cressy mines the widest range of archival and printed sources, including ballads, sermons, speeches, letters, diaries, petitions, proclamations, and the proceedings of secular and ecclesiastical courts, to explore the aspirations and expectations not only of the king and his followers, but also the unruly energies of many of his subjects, showing how royal authority was constituted, in peace and in war - and how it began to fall apart. A blend of micro-historical analysis and constitutional theory, parish politics and ecclesiology, military, cultural, and social history, Charles I and the People of England is the first major attempt to connect the political, constitutional, and religious history of this crucial period in English history with the experience and aspirations of the rest of the population. From the king and his ministers to the everyday dealings and opinions of parishioners, petitioners, and taxpayers, David Cressy re-creates the broadest possible panorama of early Stuart England, as it slipped from complacency to revolution.
The Memory of the People is a major new study of popular memory in the early modern period.
In November 1918, the implementation of agrarian change in the Scottish Highlands threatened another wave of unemployment and eviction for the land-working population, which led to widespread and varied social protest. Those who had been away on war service (and their families) faced returning to exactly the same social and economic conditions in the Scottish Highlands they had hoped they had left behind in the struggle to make ‘a land fit for heroes’. Widespread and varied social protest rapidly followed. It argues that, previously, there has been a failure to capture fully the geography, chronology typology and rate of occurrence of these events. The book not only offers new insights and a greater understanding of what was happening in the Highlands in this period, but illustrates how a range of forms of protest were used which demand attention, not least for the fact that these events, unlike most of the earlier Land Wars period, were successful. There are functioning townships in the Highlands today that owe their existence to the land invasions of the 1920s. The book innovatively concentrates on formulating explanation and interpretation from within and looks to the crofting landscape as base, means and motive to disturbance and interpretation. It proposes that protest is much more convincingly understood as an expression of environmental ethics from 'the bottom up' coming increasingly into conflict with conservationist views expressed from 'the top down' It focuses on individual case studies in order to engage more convincingly with an important evidential base - that of popular memory of land disturbances - and to adopt a frame and lens through which to explore the fluid and contingent nature of protest performances. Based upon the belief that in the study of landscapes of social protest the old shibboleth of space as solely passive setting and symbolic register is no longer tenable is paid here to nature/culture interactions, to vernacular ecological beliefs and to the dynamic and formative role of landscape in people’s lifespaces. It suggests reading and engaging with event as text in anticipation of revealing their fluid and contingent nature rather than, as has previously been done, imposing single master narratives. Critically, this book draws on oral testimony. The view taken here is that historical events are dynamic. While written, primary source material is nearly always static - recording only particular 'moments' of an incident - oral testimony captures different 'moments' of the same event and, if interwoven with the written archival material as here proposed, can only enrich our understanding.
'Community' and 'justice' recur in anthropological, historical, and legal scholarship, yet as concepts they are notoriously slippery. Historians and lawyers look to anthropologists as 'community specialists', but anthropologists often avoid the concept through circumlocution: although much used (and abused) by historians, legal thinkers, and political philosophers, the term remains strikingly indeterminate and often morally overdetermined. 'Justice', meanwhile, is elusive, alternately invoked as the goal of contemporary political theorizing, and wrapped in obscure philosophical controversy. A conceptual knot emerges in much legal and political thought between law, justice, and community, but theories abound, without any agreement over concepts. The contributors to this volume use empirical case studies to unpick threads of this knot. Local codes from Anglo-Saxon England, north Africa, and medieval Armenia indicate disjunctions between community boundaries and the subjects of local rules and categories; processes of justice from early modern Europe to eastern Tibet suggest new ways of conceptualizing the relationship between law and justice; and practices of exile that recur throughout the world illustrate contingent formulations of community. In the first book in the series, Legalism: Anthropology and History, law was addressed through a focus on local legal categories as conceptual tools. Here this approach is extended to the ideas and ideals of justice and community. Rigorous cross-cultural comparison allows the contributors to avoid normative assumptions, while opening new avenues of inquiry for lawyers, anthropologists, and historians alike.
Food and Identity in England, 1540-1640 considers early modern food consumption in an important new way, connecting English consumption practices between the reigns of Henry VIII and Charles I with ideas of 'self' and 'otherness' in wider contexts of society and the class system. Examining the diets of various social groups, ranging from manual labourers to the aristocracy, special foods and their preparation, as well as festive events and gift foods, this all-encompassing study reveals the extent to which individuals and communities identified themselves and others by what and how they ate between the Reformation of the church and the English Civil Wars. This text provides remarkable insights for anyone interested in knowing more about the society and culture of early modern England.
This book argues that Shakespeare was permanently preoccupied with the brutality, corruption, and ultimate groundlessness of the political order of his state, and that the impact of original Tudor censorship, supplemented by the relatively depoliticizing aesthetic traditions of later centuries, have together obscured the consistent subversiveness of his work. Traditionally, Shakespeare’s political attitudes have been construed either as primarily conservative, or as essays in richly imaginative ambiguation, irreducible to settled viewpoints. Fitter contends that government censorship forced superficial acquiescence upon Shakespeare in establishment ideologies — monarchic, aristocratic and patriarchal — that were enunciated through rhetorical set pieces, but that Shakespeare the dramatist learned from Shakespeare the actor a variety of creative methods for sabotaging those perspectives in performance in the public theatres. Using historical contextualizations and recuperation of original performance values, the book argues that Shakespeare emerged as a radical writer not in middle age with King Lear and Coriolanus — plays whose radicalism is becoming widely recognized — but from his outset, with Henry VI and Taming of the Shrew. Recognizing Shakespeare’s allusiveness to 1590s controversies and dissident thought, and recovering the subtextual politics of Shakespeare’s distinctive stagecraft reveals populist, at times even radical meaning and a substantially new, and astonishingly interventionist, Shakespeare.
Region, Religion and English Renaissance Literature brings together leading scholars of early modern literature and culture to explicate the ways in which both regional and religious contexts inform the production, circulation and interpretation of Renaissance literary texts. Examining texts by a wide variety of early modern writers - including Edmund Spenser, Lodowick Lloyd, Richard Nugent, Thomas Middleton and John Webster, Richard Montagu, and John Milton - the contributors to this volume enhance our understanding of the complex cultural contexts of early modern Anglophone writing.
A unique exploration of how anarchist philosophy and practice has inspired some of the English language's most revered, and reviled, authors.
Circled with Stone is the most comprehensive study to date of the fortifications of an early modern English city. The culmination of some twenty years of archaeological and documentary research, it provides a richly detailed portrait of the ancient system of walls, towers and gates which ringed the city of Exeter during the Tudor and early Stuart periods. The book traces the development of the fortifications over time, explores the many purposes which they served, and shows how they were defended against a series of major attacks: most notably during the Prayer Book rebellion of 1549 and the English Civil War. The text is accompanied by a series of extensive transcripts from Exeter's matchless civic archives, inlcuding two newly-discovered documents relating to the Prayer Book rebellion. The book includes a wealth of illustrations and brings together, for the very first time, colour reproductions of all the early maps of Exeter, as well as a series of specially commissioned photographs of the city walls today. Designed to be accessible to the general reader, as well as to the specialist, Circled with Stone paints a uniquely vivid picture of the role which urban fortifications played in everyday life in one of early modern England's greatest cities. Richly detailed, fully illustrated and accessible to the general reader as well as of interest to historians and archaeologists.
The Wirral peninsula is not a particularly large place, and for most of its history it was not very populous. Despite that, a number of influential or celebrated individuals have been associated with the peninsula, some born here and others who have spent periods of time there. This is a book about some of those people.
Britannia Rules the Cut is the first book to investigate the Royal Navy's Canal Fleet.
Aspects of English Protestantism examines the reverberations of the Protestant Reformation, which contented up until the end of the 17th century. In this wide-ranging book Nicholas Tyacke looks at the history of Puritanism, from the Reformation itself, and the new marketplace of ideas that opened up, to the establishment of the freedom of worship for Protestant non-conformists in 1689. Tyacke also looks at the theology of the Restoration Church, and the relationship between religion and science.
Einzigartig und fesselnd erzählt der renommierte Oxford-Historiker Nicholas Stargardt in ›Der Deutsche Krieg‹ aus der Nahsicht, wie die Deutschen – Soldaten, Lehrer, Krankenschwestern, Nationalsozialisten, Christen und Juden – den Zweiten Weltkrieg durchlebten. Tag für Tag erleben wir mit, worauf sie hofften, was sie schockierte, worüber sie schwiegen und wie sich ihre Sicht auf den Krieg allmählich wandelte. Gestützt auf zahllose Tagebücher und Briefe, unter anderem von Heinrich Böll und Victor Klemperer, Wilm Hosenfeld und Konrad Jarausch, gelingt Nicholas Stargardt ein Blick in die Köpfe der Menschen, der deutlich macht, warum so viele Deutsche noch an die nationale Sache glaubten, als der Krieg längst verloren war und die Gewissheit wuchs, an einem Völkermord teilzuhaben. Ein verstörendes Kaleidoskop der Jahre 1939 bis 1945 im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland. »Ein Meisterwerk der Geschichtsschreibung, das die ›Vogelperspektive‹ nahtlos mit einer Mikrogeschichte dieser verhängnisvollen Periode des 20. Jahrhunderts verbindet.« Jan T. Gross »Erstmals wird die Chronologie der Stimmung, der Hoffnungen und Befürchtungen (...) der deutschen Bevölkerung während des Krieges wirklich sichtbar. Eine eindrucksvolle, fesselnde Darstellung.« Mark Roseman »Hervorragend geschrieben und in seiner Argumentation überzeugend, ist dieses Buch ein Muss.« Saul Friedländer
Thinkers and historians have long perceived violence and its control as integral to the very idea of 'Western Civilization'. While there is an enduring fascination with war and state violence, from military history to the study of genocide, historians have been more reticent about studying interpersonal violence, despite the huge role it plays in human affairs. This timely collection, which focuses on the post-medieval West, brings together the latest interdisciplinary and historical research in the field.