As people move through life, they continually shift affiliation from one position to another, dependent on the wider contexts of their interactions. Different forms of material culture may be employed as affiliations shift, and the connotations of any given set of artifacts may change. In this volume the authors explore these overlapping spheres of social affiliation. Social actors belong to multiple identity groups at any moment in their life. It is possible to deploy one or many potential labels in describing the identities of such an actor. Two main axes exist upon which we can plot experiences of social belonging – the synchronic and the diachronic. Identities can be understood as multiple during one moment (or the extended moment of brief interaction), over the span of a lifetime, or over a specific historical trajectory. From the Introduction The international contributions each illuminate how the various identifiers of race, ethnicity, sexuality, age, class, gender, personhood, health, and/or religion are part of both material expressions of social affiliations, and transient experiences of identity. The Archaeology of Plural and Changing Identities: Beyond Identification will be of great interest to archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, curators and other social scientists interested in the mutability of identification through material remains.
The Archaeology of Identities brings together seventeen seminal articles from this exciting new discipline in one indispensable volume for the first time. Editor Timothy Insoll expertly selects a cross-section of contributions by leading authorities to form a comprehensive and balanced representation of approaches and interests. Issues covered include: gender and sexuality ethnicity, nationalism and caste age ideology disability. Chapters are thematically arranged and are contextualized with lucid summaries and an introductory chapter, providing an accessible introduction to the varied selection of case studies included and archaeological materials considered from global sources. The study of identity is increasingly recognized as a fundamental division of archaeological enquiry, and has recently become the focus of a variety of new and challenging developments. As such, this volume will fast become the definitive sourcebook in archaeology of identities, making it essential reading for students, lecturers and researchers in the field.
Bringing together a wealth of research in social and cultural anthropology, philosophy and related fields, this is the first book to address the contribution that an understanding of personhood can make to our interpretations of the past Applying an anthropological approach to detailed case studies from European prehistoric archaeology, the book explores the connection between people, animals, objects, their societies and environments and investigates the relationship that jointly produces bodies, persons, communities and artefacts. The Archaeology of Personhood examines the characteristics that define a person as a category of being, highlights how definitions of personhood are culturally variable and explores how that variation is connected to human uses of material culture.
The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.
Illustrates new methodological directions in analyzing human social and biological variation Offers a wide array of research on past populations around the globe Explains the central features of bioarchaeological research by key researchers and established experts around the world
This volume examines human sexuality as an intrinsic element in the interpretation of complex colonial societies. While archaeological studies of the historic past have explored the dynamics of European colonialism, such work has largely ignored broader issues of sexuality, embodiment, commemoration, reproduction and sensuality. Recently, however, scholars have begun to recognize these issues as essential components of colonization and imperialism. This book explores a variety of case studies, revealing the multifaceted intersections of colonialism and sexuality. Incorporating work that ranges from Phoenician diasporic communities of the eighth century to Britain's nineteenth-century Australian penal colonies to the contemporary Maroon community of Brazil, this volume changes the way we understand the relationship between sexuality and colonial history.
The study of American institutional confinement, its presumed successes, failures, and controversies, is incomplete without examining the remnants of relevant sites no longer standing. Asking what archaeological perspectives add to the understanding of such a provocative topic, Eleanor Conlin Casella describes multiple sites and identifies three distinct categories of confinement: places for punishment, for asylum, and for exile. Her discussion encompasses the multifunctional shelters of the colonial era, Civil War prison camps, Japanese-American relocation centers, and the maximum-security detention facilities of the twenty-firstcentury. Her analysis of the material world of confinement takes into account architecture and landscape, food, medicinal resources, clothing, recreation, human remains, and personal goods. Casella exposes the diversity of power relations that structure many of America's confinement institutions. Weaving together themes of punishment, involuntary labor, personal dignity, and social identity, The Archaeology of Institutional Confinement tells a profound story of endurance in one slice of society. It will illuminate and change contemporary notions of gender, race, class, infirmity, deviance, and antisocial behavior.
Eleanor Conlin Casella and James Symonds th The essays in this book are adapted from papers presented at the 24 Annual Conference of the Theoretical Archaeology Group, held at the University of Manchester, in December 2002. The conference session “An Industrial Revolution? Future Directions for Industrial Arch- ology,” was jointly devised by the editors, and sponsored by English Heritage, with the intention of gathering together leading industrial and historical archaeologists from around the world. Speakers were asked to consider aspects of contemporary theory and practice, as well as possible future directions for the study of industrialisation and - dustrial societies. It perhaps ?tting that this meeting was convened in Manchester, which has a rich industrial heritage, and has recently been proclaimed as the “archetype” city of the industrial revolution (McNeil and George, 2002). However, just as Manchester is being transformed by reg- eration, shaking off many of the negative connotations associated st with factory-based industrial production, and remaking itself as a 21 century city, then so too, is the archaeological study of industrialisation being transformed. In the most recent overview of industrial archaeology in the UK, Sir Neil Cossons cautioned that industrial archaeology risked becoming a “one generation subject”, that stood on the edge of oblivion, alongside th the mid-20 century pursuit of folklife studies (Cossons 2000:13). It is to be hoped that the papers in this volume demonstrate that this will not be the case.
The question of ethnicity is highly controversial in contemporary archaeology. Indigenous and nationalist claims to territory, often rely on reconstructions of the past based on the traditional identification of 'cultures' from archaeological remains. Sian Jones responds to the need for a reassessment of the ways in which social groups are identified in the archaeological record, with a comprehensive and critical synthesis of recent theories of ethnicity in the human sciences. In doing so, she argues for a fundamentally different view of ethnicity, as a complex dynamic form of identification, requiring radical changes in archaeological analysis and interpretation.
Archaeology and Women draws together from a variety of angles work currently being done within a contemporary framework on women in archaeology. One section of this collection of original articles addresses the historical and contemporary roles of women in the discipline. Another attempts to link contemporary archaeological theory and practice to work on women and gender in other fields. Finally, this volume presents a wide diversity of theoretical approaches and methods of study of women in the ancient world, representing a cross section of work being carried out today under the broad banner of gender archaeology. The geographical and chronological range of the contributions is also wide, from Southeast Asia and South America to Western Asia, Egypt and Europe, from Great Britain to Greece, and from 10,000 years ago to the recent past. An ideal sampler for courses dealing with women and archaeology.
Brings together over thirty of the leading scholars in Post Medieval archaeology and examines where this relatively new discipline has developed from and, perhaps most importantly, where it is going in the future.
"A clear and evocative demonstration of how historical archaeology, when done by a scholar of Voss's caliber, can contribute in a substantive and profound way to our understanding of colonialism."—Mary C. Beaudry, author of Findings: The Material Culture of Needlework and Sewing "The Archaeology of Ethnogenesis will become a model for research on identity in historical archaeology. Extremely well written and readable, it presents the results of original research in innovative ways."—Randall H. McGuire, author of A Marxist Archaeology "In her innovative archaeological study of shifting identities in Spanish California, Voss shows that the colonists of San Francisco used diverse material practices to establish a new Californio identity and legitimize their status as occupiers of a new land. This book will be of considerable interest to scholars of the Spanish borderlands and gender politics."—Robert W. Preucel, coeditor of A Companion to Social Archaeology
Presenting the results of a recent archaeological survey of the region, this book attempts to uncover the history of Bahrain during the period between the 6th and 13th centuries AD, of which little is currently understood.
Identity is the master variable for many constructivist scholars of international politics. In this comparative study, Richard Ned Lebow shows that states do not have identities any more than people do. Leaders, peoples, and foreign actors seek to impose national identifications consistent with their political projects and psychological needs. These identifications are multiple, fluid and rise in importance as a function of priming and context. Leaders are at least as likely to invoke national identifications as rationalizations for policies pursued for other reasons as they are to be influenced by them. National identifications are nevertheless important because they invariably stress the alleged uniqueness of a people and its country, and are a principal means of seeking status and building self-esteem. Lebow tracks the relative appeal of these principles, the ways in which they are constructed, how they influence national identifications, and how they in turn affect regional and international practices.
16 papers presented from an EAA session held at Krakow in 2006, exploring various aspects of the archaeology of death. Contents: Chapter 1. The Materiality of Death: Bodies, Burials, Beliefs (Fredrik Fahlander & Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 2. More than Metaphor: Approaching the Human Cadaver in Archaeology (Liv Nilsson Stutz); Chapter 3. A Piece of the Mesolithic. Horizontal Stratigraphy and Bodily Manipulations at Skateholm (Fredrik Fahlander); Chapter 4. Excavating the KingsAe Bones: The Materiality of Death in Practice and Ethics Today 9Anders Kaliff & Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 5. From Corpse to Ancestor: The Role of Tombside Dining in the Transformation of the Body in Ancient Rome (Regina Gee); Chapter 6. Cremations, Conjecture and Contextual Taphonomies: Material Strategies during the 4th to 2nd Millennia BC in Scotland (Paul R J Duffy and Gavin MacGregor); Chapter 7. Ritual and Remembrance at Archaic Crustumerium. The Transformations of Past and Modern Materialities in the Cemetery of Cisterna Grande (Rome, Italy) (Ulla Rajala); Chapter 8. Reuse in Finnish Cremation Cemeteries under Level Ground - Examples of Collective Memory (Anna Wickholm); Chapter 9. Life and Death in the Bronze Age of the NW of Iberian Peninsula (Ana M. S. Bettencourt); Chapter 10. Norwegian Face-Urns: Local Context and Interregional Contacts (Malin Aasbe); Chapter 11. The Use of Ochre in Stone Age Burials of the East Baltic (Ilga Zagorska); Chapter 12. oDeath Mythso: Performing of Rituals and Variation in Corpse Treatment during the Migration Period in Norway (Siv Kristoffersen and Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 13. Reproduction and Relocation of Death in Iron Age Scandinavia (Terje Gansum); Chapter 14. A Road for the VikingAes Soul (Ake Johansson); Chapter 15. A Road to the Other Side (Camilla Gr); Chapter 16. Stones and Bones: The Myth of Ymer and Mortuary Practises with an Example from the Migration Period in Uppland, Central Sweden (Christina Lindgren).
Since its very beginning, archaeology has in many senses always related to a much wider constituency than just archaeologists. This relationship between archaeology and the public has often been overlooked and constantly changes. Public archaeology, as a field of research and practice, has been developing since the 1970s in English-speaking countries, particularly in the United States, Britain, and Australia, and is today beginning to spread to other parts of the world. Global expansion of public archaeology comes with the recognition of the need for a careful understanding of local contexts, particularly the culture and socio-political climate. This volume critically examines the current theories and practices of public archaeology through relevant case studies from different regions throughout the world, including: Japan, China, South Korea, New Caledonia, South Africa, Senegal, Jordon, Italy, Peru, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia. These case studies are examined from a wide variety of theoretical contexts, to provide a thorough and comprehensive guide to the state of public archaeology today, as well as implications for its future. As the theory and practice of public archaeology continues to change and grow, archaeology’s relationship with the broader community needs to be critically and openly examined. The contributions in this wide-ranging work are a key source of information for anyone practicing or studying archaeology in a public context.
Tenure describes certain relations between people and material things. It has long been an important theme in archaeology, especially in the interpretation of ancient land division. How do archaeologists approach this subject, and which approaches have the most potential? This monograph explores tenure through analysis of Bronze Age land division on Dartmoor (south-west Britain) . The research has two aims: to develop existing approaches to tenure, and to interpret land division and tenure on Dartmoor during the second millennium BC. The research applies a series of different theories of, and approaches to tenure to data from Dartmoor. Methods used include spatial analysis of land division and settlement patterns, metrological analysis, experimental reconstruction and synthesis of palaeoenvironmental, excavation and artefactual data. The results are used to advance an interpretation of land division and tenure on Dartmoor and to reflect critically on approaches to tenure.
The momentum provided by ongoing fieldwork and innovative archaeological interpretation is pushing British prehistory to the forefront of contemporary archaeological research. "Prehistoric Britain" taps into and incorporates the very latest archaeological findings to provide a fascinating overview of the development of human societies in Britain from the Upper Palaeolithic to the end of the Iron Age. Breaking free of the constraints of traditional, period-based narratives, "Prehistoric Britain" offers readers an incisive synthesis and much-needed overview of current research themes. The book presents a series of essays from leading scholars and professionals who address the very latest trends in current research. Drawing upon original, innovative fieldwork and in-depth analysis, "Prehistoric Britain" provides a thorough examination of the issues central to the study of British prehistory.
This volume presents the methodology and results for the excavations at Cairnderry and Bargrennan, south-west Scotland. A comparative chapter compares the excavation results from both sites, and presents interpretations of these results, particularly in terms of the architecture and the early Bronze Age mortuary practices. Chapter 5 considers the architecture of Cairnderry and Bargrennan in terms of wider trends in the construction of chambered cairns throughout the British Isles and throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Chapter 6 places the early Bronze Age activity at Cairnderry and Bargrennan within a local context by examining mortuary practices across Dumfries and Galloway. It focuses on comparisons with other sites where cremated bones were deposited and cinerary urns used and/or sites where cairns were constructed or re-used in the early Bronze Age. Chapter 7 provides a summary of conclusions as to the finds and revisits the problem of dating Bargrennan chambered cairns, before suggesting avenues for future research in Galloway. The appendices draw together the specialists reports on finds from the excavations (including a substantial contextualisation of some of the early Bronze Age artefacts), context descriptions and radiocarbon dating results.