The central focus of this book is the avian respiratory system. The authors explain why the respiratory system of modern birds is built the way it is and works the way that it does. Birds have been and continue to attract particular interest to biologists. The more birds are studied, the more it is appreciated that the existence of human-kind on earth very much depends directly and indirectly on the existence of birds. Regarding the avian respiratory system, published works are scattered in biological journals of fields like physiology, behavior, anatomy/morphology and ecology while others appear in as far afield as paleontology and geology. The contributors to this book are world-renowned experts in their various fields of study. Special attention is given to the evolution, the structure, the function and the development of the lung-air sac system. Readers will not only discover the origin of birds but will also learn how the respiratory system of theropod dinosaurs worked and may have transformed into the avian one. In addition, the work explores such aspects as swallowing mechanism in birds, the adaptations that have evolved for flight at extreme altitude and gas exchange in eggs. It is a highly informative and carefully presented work that provides cutting edge scientific insights for readers with an interest in the respiratory biology and the evolution of birds.
In biology, few organs have been as elusive as the lung-air sac system of birds. Considerable progress has recently been made to fill the gaps in the knowledge. While summarizing and building on earlier observations and ideas, this book provides cutting-edge details on the development, structure, function, and the evolutionary design of the avian respiratory system. Outlining the mechanisms and principles through which biological complexity and functional novelty have been crafted in a unique gas exchanger, this account will provoke further inquiries on the many still uncertain issues. The specific goal here was to highlight the uniqueness of the design of the avian respiratory system and the factors that obligated it.
Sauropods, those huge plant-eating dinosaurs, possessed bodies that seem to defy every natural law. What were these creatures like as living animals and how could they reach such uniquely gigantic sizes? A dedicated group of researchers in Germany in disciplines ranging from engineering and materials science to animal nutrition and paleontology went in search of the answers to these questions. Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs reports on the latest results from this seemingly disparate group of research fields and integrates them into a coherent theory regarding sauropod gigantism. Covering nutrition, physiology, growth, and skeletal structure and body plans, this volume presents the most up-to-date knowledge about the biology of these enormous dinosaurs.
Avian Biology, Volume II is a collection of papers that deals with the biology of birds such as their integumentary and respiratory systems. One paper describes the integument of birds that includes the skin, feathers, pterylosis, skin muscles, and other integumentary derivatives such as beaks, comb, claws, and spurs. The book explains the process of molting and the different generations of feathers; such molting is dependent on the wear and tear of the plumage, as well as hormonal changes. One author compares the blood vascular system of birds and mammals, and then gives a detailed description of avian hematology. Other papers deal with the respiratory functions, digestive system, and the nutritional needs of birds. Of interest is one author's description of the production of nutritive fluids, holocrine, which is secreted for the young. This secreted fluid contains about 23 percent protein, 10 percent fat, and no sugar. Unlike mammalian milk, it also contains cells. Another paper examines the intermediary metabolism of birds and the climatic effects on metabolism. This book is suitable for bird enthusiasts, zoologists, and avian biologists.
Dieser Band nimmt sie mit auf eine spannende Reise in Bildern und Texten. Spektakuläre, großformatige Fotos auf Doppelseiten mit einem Erklärungstext machen die Leser neugierig auf das, was die Evolution im Bereich des Fliegens hervorgebracht hat: von der pflanzlichen Luftflotte (Pollenkörner, Flugsamen,...) über fliegende Schlangen und Fische, unter Wasser fliegende Pinguine bis zum Menschen, der sich in die Lüfte erhebt. Das Buch kann in beliebiger Reihenfolge, Doppelseite für Doppelseite, gelesen werden. Querverweise sorgen für bequemes Umspringen auf andere Doppelseiten. Die Textpassagen sind zumeist - abgesehen von der fundierten Einleitung - unabhängig von einander und besprechen besondere Highlights im evolutionären Prozess. Ergänzt wird die Doppelseite mit Literaturhinweisen und Verweisen auf instruktive Internet-Seiten.
Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many important human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens. Despite their enormous importance, the nature of the viral genome had proved an obstacle to research, with the result that paramyxoviral research had lagged behind that of other viruses. The advent of reverse genetics in recent years has changed this, enabling great strides in the understanding of the genomics, molecular biology, and viral pathogenesis. This book provides a timely and comprehensive review of current knowledge of all paramyxoviruses and is written by renowned scientists who have made seminal contributions in their respective paramyxovirus fields of expertise. Topics include: mumps virus * simian virus 5 * parainfluenza viruses * Newcastle disease and related avian paramyxoviruses * Sendai virus * Hendra virus * Nipah virus * measles virus * canine distemper virus * rinderpest virus * peste des petits ruminants virus * human respiratory syncytial virus * metapneumoviruses * new and emerging paramyxoviruses. Each chapter covers current knowledge on history, genome organization, viral proteins, reverse genetics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis, prevention, and control and future challenges. This book is an invaluable reference source of timely information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, physicians, veterinarians, and scientists working on paramyxoviruses. It is also strongly recommended for all medical and veterinary school libraries.
The underlying theme of this book the role of experience in the development of the nervous system. It is now widely acknowledged that there are a variety of organi- environment interactions that guide the development of the nervous system. The popular press has also picked up on this theme and parents are being advised to enrich their child's sensory experience as early as possible. The importance of experience in development is so well accepted that it has begun to dictate public policy. In 1997, the President and First Lady hosted "The White House Conference on Early Childhood Development and Learning: What New Research on the Brain Tells Us About Our Youngest Children. " Along with this conference came a reemphasis on programs directed at enriching the en- ronment of America's youth. In some cases laws have been passed to assure enhanced early experience. In Georgia, the former governor proposed sending newborn children home from the hospital with classical music CDs. This received some praise, but was also ridiculed by others who felt the policy was not justified by the available scientific evidence. Here in Florida, enhanced "brain development activities" are mandated for sta- funded child care facilities. Chapter 402. 25 of the 1998 State of Florida Statues reads (emphasis added): Infants and toddlers in state-funded education and care programs; brain development activities.
Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds, Volume I focuses on the physiology, classification, characteristics, and geographical distribution, as well as the digestive, blood, and nervous systems, of birds. The selection first offers information on the origin of birds and adaptive radiation in birds. Discussions focus on relative resemblances of archaeopteryx to reptiles and birds, development of homoiothermy, locomotor and feeding adaptations, and adaptive radiation within families of birds. The book also examines the classification of birds and geographical distribution of living birds. The publication takes a look at the development of birds and integumentary system. Concerns include body shape, blood, urogenital, and nervous systems, muscles and limbs, endocrine organs, feathers, and development of patterns of melanin pigmentation. The book also ponders on skeleton, digestive system, and muscle structure of birds. The selection is a vital source of information for readers interested in the physiology of birds.
Biology and Evolution of Crocodylians is a comprehensive review of current knowledge about the world's largest and most famous living reptiles. Gordon Grigg's authoritative and accessible text and David Kirshner's stunning interpretive artwork and colour photographs combine expertly in this contemporary celebration of crocodiles, alligators, caimans and gharials. This book showcases the skills and capabilities that allow crocodylians to live how and where they do. It covers the biology and ecology of the extant species, conservation issues, crocodylian–human interaction and the evolutionary history of the group, and includes a vast amount of new information; 25 per cent of 1100 cited publications have appeared since 2007. Richly illustrated with more than 500 colour photographs and black and white illustrations, this book will be a benchmark reference work for crocodylian biologists, herpetologists and vertebrate biologists for years to come.
Archosaurs, an important reptile group that includes today's crocodiles and birds, arose during the Triassic in the aftermath of the greatest mass extinction of all time. In the last 20 years, our understanding of the early evolution of the group has improved substantially with the discovery of new fossils and species of early archosaurs and their closest relatives, a better understanding of the relationships of these animals, and new insights into their palaeobiology. In order to synthesize these new data, researchers of early archosaurs from around the world met at the first symposium of early archosaur evolution at the IV Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología de Vertebrados (September 2011) in San Juan, Argentina. This symposium facilitated collaboration and strove to paint a better understanding of these extraordinary animals. The resultant body of work is a state-of-the-art examination of early archosaur groups and their close relatives including historical, anatomical, biogeographical, evolutionary and palaeobiological data. This contribution furthers our knowledge of the anatomy, relationships, and palaeobiology of species-level taxa as well as more global patterns of archosaur evolution during the Triassic -- P. 4 of cover.
This single-authored text, now in its second edition, offers a cohesive, detailed presentation suitable for a college-level course. Linzey (biology, Wytheville Community College has thoroughly updated this comprehensive survey. Coverage includes systematic and evolution; zoogeography, ecology, morphology, and reproduction; early chordates; fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals; population dynamics; movement and migration; behavior; and extinction processes, among other topics. Illustrations are in black & white. A glossary and an extensive bibliography are included.
Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology, Fourth Editionupdates the most comprehensive reference available on exotic animalhematology and cytology of all major species. Acts as both an atlas and a text, offering high-qualityphotographs and step-by-step descriptions of techniques associatedwith preparing and interpreting hematology and cytologysamples Presents complete information on hematology and cytology in awide range of exotic species, including small mammals, birds,reptiles, amphibians, and fish Includes more than 700 high-quality color photographs, now withsizing bars Takes a new disease-based structure for improved ease ofuse Provides straightforward step-by-step descriptions of samplepreparation and interpretation
A Hudson Booksellers Staff Pick for the Best Books of 2013 One of Publishers Weekly's Top Ten Spring Science Books A Bookshop Santa Cruz Staff Pick Dinosaurs, with their awe-inspiring size, terrifying claws and teeth, and otherworldly abilities, occupy a sacred place in our childhoods. They loom over museum halls, thunder through movies, and are a fundamental part of our collective imagination. In My Beloved Brontosaurus, the dinosaur fanatic Brian Switek enriches the childlike sense of wonder these amazing creatures instill in us. Investigating the latest discoveries in paleontology, he breathes new life into old bones. Switek reunites us with these mysterious creatures as he visits desolate excavation sites and hallowed museum vaults, exploring everything from the sex life of Apatosaurus and T. rex's feather-laden body to just why dinosaurs vanished. (And of course, on his journey, he celebrates the book's titular hero, "Brontosaurus"—who suffered a second extinction when we learned he never existed at all—as a symbol of scientific progress.) With infectious enthusiasm, Switek questions what we've long held to be true about these beasts, weaving in stories from his obsession with dinosaurs, which started when he was just knee-high to a Stegosaurus. Endearing, surprising, and essential to our understanding of our own evolution and our place on Earth, My Beloved Brontosaurus is a book that dinosaur fans and anyone interested in scientific progress will cherish for years to come.
The American Robin is North America's most widespread songbird, with a range extending from Alaska, Canada, and Newfoundland to the highlands of Mexico and Guatemala. Its ruddy red breast and cheerful song have also made it one of our most beloved birds—as American as apple pie, as familiar a harbinger of spring as the first daffodil. Connecticut, Michigan, and Wisconsin have chosen the American Robin as their state bird, while a pair of robins grace the Canadian two dollar bill. In this book, Roland Wauer offers a complete natural history of the American Robin for a popular audience. Combining his own observations as a field naturalist with data gleaned from the scientific literature, he describes the American Robin from every angle—appearance and biology, distribution, behavior, life cycle, and enemies and threats. In addition, he explores the legends and lore surrounding robins and offers suggestions for attracting them to your yard.
The new edition of Blood’s classic Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary has been completely redesigned, revised and updated for today’s veterinary team. Now with a wide range of superb full-colour illustrations, well over 60,000 main and subentries including large animals, small animals and exotics, and an all-new, user-friendly format, the fourth edition offers the most comprehensive dictionary reference in the field. Comprehensive text covering the whole range of veterinary medicine Classic authoritative reference work Valuable and accessible appendices for instant access to key information at a glance Well over 60,000 main entries and subentries Extensive contributions from internationally acknowledged expert consultants New for this edition Over 1,000 colour illustrations to aid further understanding of disease processes and important terminology Pronunciation of key terms Brand new design and format to help find key information at a glance Extensive revision, clarification and focussing of entries to reflect current practice
This lecture presents an in-depth treatment of the synthetic biological design principles of bacterial reporters, the engineering of which started as simple recombinant DNA puzzles, but has now become a more rational approach of choosing and combining sensing, controlling and reporting DNA 'parts'. Several examples of existing bacterial reporter designs and their genetic circuitry will be illustrated. Besides the design principles, the lecture also focuses on the application principles of bacterial reporter assays. A variety of assay formats will be illustrated, and principles of quantification will be dealt with. In addition to this discussion, substantial reference material is supplied in various Annexes."--P. [vi].
Gives an account of the morphologies of vertebrate respiratory organs and attempts to explicate the basis of the common and different structural and functional designs and stratagems that have evolved for acquisition of molecular oxygen. The book has been written with a broad readership in mind: students of biology as well as experts in the disciplines of zoology, physiology, morphology, biological microscopy, biomedical engineering, and ecology and those that work or may contemplate working on materials and aspects concerning respiration in whole organisms will find it useful. Scientists in earth sciences with particular interest on the outcomes of past interactions between environmental factors (the physical domain) and evolution and adaptation (the biological domain), mechanisms that have set the composition, patterning, and anatomies of extant animal life, will find the book of interest.
Backyard Poultry Medicine and Surgery is a practicalresource offering guidance on developing diagnostic and treatmentplans for individual companion poultry or small flocks. Organized by body system to aid in developing a differentialdiagnosis list for common presenting signs, the book provides allthe information clinicians need to effectively treat backyardpoultry. Written by experts from both the commercial poultry fieldand the companion avian field, the book provides thorough coverageof both common and less common diseases of backyard chickens,ducks, and other poultry. The book begins with introductory chapters covering generalinformation, an overview of US laws, and basic husbandry concerns,then moves into specific disease chapters organized bysystem. The book takes an individual medicine perspectivethroughout, with photographs, radiographs, and histopathologicalphotomicrographs to illustrate principles and diseases. Backyard Poultry Medicine and Surgery is an invaluable guideto diseases and treatments for any practitioners treating backyardpoultry.