The central focus of this book is the avian respiratory system. The authors explain why the respiratory system of modern birds is built the way it is and works the way that it does. Birds have been and continue to attract particular interest to biologists. The more birds are studied, the more it is appreciated that the existence of human-kind on earth very much depends directly and indirectly on the existence of birds. Regarding the avian respiratory system, published works are scattered in biological journals of fields like physiology, behavior, anatomy/morphology and ecology while others appear in as far afield as paleontology and geology. The contributors to this book are world-renowned experts in their various fields of study. Special attention is given to the evolution, the structure, the function and the development of the lung-air sac system. Readers will not only discover the origin of birds but will also learn how the respiratory system of theropod dinosaurs worked and may have transformed into the avian one. In addition, the work explores such aspects as swallowing mechanism in birds, the adaptations that have evolved for flight at extreme altitude and gas exchange in eggs. It is a highly informative and carefully presented work that provides cutting edge scientific insights for readers with an interest in the respiratory biology and the evolution of birds.
In biology, few organs have been as elusive as the lung-air sac system of birds. Considerable progress has recently been made to fill the gaps in the knowledge. While summarizing and building on earlier observations and ideas, this book provides cutting-edge details on the development, structure, function, and the evolutionary design of the avian respiratory system. Outlining the mechanisms and principles through which biological complexity and functional novelty have been crafted in a unique gas exchanger, this account will provoke further inquiries on the many still uncertain issues. The specific goal here was to highlight the uniqueness of the design of the avian respiratory system and the factors that obligated it.
Gives an account of the morphologies of vertebrate respiratory organs and attempts to explicate the basis of the common and different structural and functional designs and stratagems that have evolved for acquisition of molecular oxygen. The book has been written with a broad readership in mind: students of biology as well as experts in the disciplines of zoology, physiology, morphology, biological microscopy, biomedical engineering, and ecology and those that work or may contemplate working on materials and aspects concerning respiration in whole organisms will find it useful. Scientists in earth sciences with particular interest on the outcomes of past interactions between environmental factors (the physical domain) and evolution and adaptation (the biological domain), mechanisms that have set the composition, patterning, and anatomies of extant animal life, will find the book of interest.
Sauropods, those huge plant-eating dinosaurs, possessed bodies that seem to defy every natural law. What were these creatures like as living animals and how could they reach such uniquely gigantic sizes? A dedicated group of researchers in Germany in disciplines ranging from engineering and materials science to animal nutrition and paleontology went in search of the answers to these questions. Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs reports on the latest results from this seemingly disparate group of research fields and integrates them into a coherent theory regarding sauropod gigantism. Covering nutrition, physiology, growth, and skeletal structure and body plans, this volume presents the most up-to-date knowledge about the biology of these enormous dinosaurs.
Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many important human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens. Despite their enormous importance, the nature of the viral genome had proved an obstacle to research, with the result that paramyxoviral research had lagged behind that of other viruses. The advent of reverse genetics in recent years has changed this, enabling great strides in the understanding of the genomics, molecular biology, and viral pathogenesis. This book provides a timely and comprehensive review of current knowledge of all paramyxoviruses and is written by renowned scientists who have made seminal contributions in their respective paramyxovirus fields of expertise. Topics include: mumps virus * simian virus 5 * parainfluenza viruses * Newcastle disease and related avian paramyxoviruses * Sendai virus * Hendra virus * Nipah virus * measles virus * canine distemper virus * rinderpest virus * peste des petits ruminants virus * human respiratory syncytial virus * metapneumoviruses * new and emerging paramyxoviruses. Each chapter covers current knowledge on history, genome organization, viral proteins, reverse genetics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis, prevention, and control and future challenges. This book is an invaluable reference source of timely information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, physicians, veterinarians, and scientists working on paramyxoviruses. It is also strongly recommended for all medical and veterinary school libraries.
Der vorliegende Atlas ist eine bislang einmalige Zusammenstellung aller bildgebenden Verfahren für die drei großen "Heimtierklassen" Vögel, Kleinsäuger und Reptilien. Für jede Kleintierpraxis liegt damit eine ideale Ergänzung zu der bisher verfügbaren Literatur der bildgebenden Diagnostik vor.
Avian Biology, Volume II is a collection of papers that deals with the biology of birds such as their integumentary and respiratory systems. One paper describes the integument of birds that includes the skin, feathers, pterylosis, skin muscles, and other integumentary derivatives such as beaks, comb, claws, and spurs. The book explains the process of molting and the different generations of feathers; such molting is dependent on the wear and tear of the plumage, as well as hormonal changes. One author compares the blood vascular system of birds and mammals, and then gives a detailed description of avian hematology. Other papers deal with the respiratory functions, digestive system, and the nutritional needs of birds. Of interest is one author's description of the production of nutritive fluids, holocrine, which is secreted for the young. This secreted fluid contains about 23 percent protein, 10 percent fat, and no sugar. Unlike mammalian milk, it also contains cells. Another paper examines the intermediary metabolism of birds and the climatic effects on metabolism. This book is suitable for bird enthusiasts, zoologists, and avian biologists.
The underlying theme of this book the role of experience in the development of the nervous system. It is now widely acknowledged that there are a variety of organi- environment interactions that guide the development of the nervous system. The popular press has also picked up on this theme and parents are being advised to enrich their child's sensory experience as early as possible. The importance of experience in development is so well accepted that it has begun to dictate public policy. In 1997, the President and First Lady hosted "The White House Conference on Early Childhood Development and Learning: What New Research on the Brain Tells Us About Our Youngest Children. " Along with this conference came a reemphasis on programs directed at enriching the en- ronment of America's youth. In some cases laws have been passed to assure enhanced early experience. In Georgia, the former governor proposed sending newborn children home from the hospital with classical music CDs. This received some praise, but was also ridiculed by others who felt the policy was not justified by the available scientific evidence. Here in Florida, enhanced "brain development activities" are mandated for sta- funded child care facilities. Chapter 402. 25 of the 1998 State of Florida Statues reads (emphasis added): Infants and toddlers in state-funded education and care programs; brain development activities.
Biology and Evolution of Crocodylians is a comprehensive review of current knowledge about the world's largest and most famous living reptiles. Gordon Grigg's authoritative and accessible text and David Kirshner's stunning interpretive artwork and colour photographs combine expertly in this contemporary celebration of crocodiles, alligators, caimans and gharials. This book showcases the skills and capabilities that allow crocodylians to live how and where they do. It covers the biology and ecology of the extant species, conservation issues, crocodylian–human interaction and the evolutionary history of the group, and includes a vast amount of new information; 25 per cent of 1100 cited publications have appeared since 2007. Richly illustrated with more than 500 colour photographs and black and white illustrations, this book will be a benchmark reference work for crocodylian biologists, herpetologists and vertebrate biologists for years to come.
Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.
Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds, Volume I focuses on the physiology, classification, characteristics, and geographical distribution, as well as the digestive, blood, and nervous systems, of birds. The selection first offers information on the origin of birds and adaptive radiation in birds. Discussions focus on relative resemblances of archaeopteryx to reptiles and birds, development of homoiothermy, locomotor and feeding adaptations, and adaptive radiation within families of birds. The book also examines the classification of birds and geographical distribution of living birds. The publication takes a look at the development of birds and integumentary system. Concerns include body shape, blood, urogenital, and nervous systems, muscles and limbs, endocrine organs, feathers, and development of patterns of melanin pigmentation. The book also ponders on skeleton, digestive system, and muscle structure of birds. The selection is a vital source of information for readers interested in the physiology of birds.
This single-authored text, now in its second edition, offers a cohesive, detailed presentation suitable for a college-level course. Linzey (biology, Wytheville Community College has thoroughly updated this comprehensive survey. Coverage includes systematic and evolution; zoogeography, ecology, morphology, and reproduction; early chordates; fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals; population dynamics; movement and migration; behavior; and extinction processes, among other topics. Illustrations are in black & white. A glossary and an extensive bibliography are included.
Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology, Fourth Editionupdates the most comprehensive reference available on exotic animalhematology and cytology of all major species. Acts as both an atlas and a text, offering high-qualityphotographs and step-by-step descriptions of techniques associatedwith preparing and interpreting hematology and cytologysamples Presents complete information on hematology and cytology in awide range of exotic species, including small mammals, birds,reptiles, amphibians, and fish Includes more than 700 high-quality color photographs, now withsizing bars Takes a new disease-based structure for improved ease ofuse Provides straightforward step-by-step descriptions of samplepreparation and interpretation
Medical professionals will be able to connect the science of biology to their own lives through the stunning visuals in Visualizing Human Biology. The important concepts of human biology are presented as they relate to the world we live in. The role of the human in the environment is stressed throughout, ensuring that topics such as evolution, ecology, and chemistry are introduced in a non-threatening and logical fashion. Illustrations and visualization features are help make the concepts easier to understand. Medical professionals will appreciate this visual and concise approach.
Sturkie's Avian Physiology is the classic comprehensive single volume on the physiology of domestic as well as wild birds. The Fifth Edition is thoroughly revised and updated, and includes new chapters on the physiology of incubation and growth. Chapters on the nervous system and sensory organs have been greatly expanded due to the many recent advances in the field. The text also covers the physiology of flight, reproduction in both male and female birds, and the immunophysiology of birds. The Fifth Edition, like the earlier editions, is a must for anyone interested in comparative physiology, poultry science, veterinary medicine, and related fields. This volume establishes the standard for those who need the latest and best information on the physiology of birds. Thoroughly updated and revised Coverage of both domestic and wild birds New larger format Only comprehensive, single volume devoted to birds