The central focus of this book is the avian respiratory system. The authors explain why the respiratory system of modern birds is built the way it is and works the way that it does. Birds have been and continue to attract particular interest to biologists. The more birds are studied, the more it is appreciated that the existence of human-kind on earth very much depends directly and indirectly on the existence of birds. Regarding the avian respiratory system, published works are scattered in biological journals of fields like physiology, behavior, anatomy/morphology and ecology while others appear in as far afield as paleontology and geology. The contributors to this book are world-renowned experts in their various fields of study. Special attention is given to the evolution, the structure, the function and the development of the lung-air sac system. Readers will not only discover the origin of birds but will also learn how the respiratory system of theropod dinosaurs worked and may have transformed into the avian one. In addition, the work explores such aspects as swallowing mechanism in birds, the adaptations that have evolved for flight at extreme altitude and gas exchange in eggs. It is a highly informative and carefully presented work that provides cutting edge scientific insights for readers with an interest in the respiratory biology and the evolution of birds.
The central focus of this book is the avian respiratory system. The authors explain why the respiratory system of modern birds is built the way it is and works the way that it does. Birds have been and continue to attract particular interest to biologists. The more birds are studied, the more it is appreciated that the existence of human-kind on earth very much depends directly and indirectly on the existence of birds. Regarding the avian respiratory system, published works are scattered in biological journals of fields like physiology, behavior, anatomy/morphology and ecology while others appear in as far afield as paleontology and geology. The contributors to this book are world-renowned experts in their various fields of study. Special attention is given to the evolution, the structure, the function and the development of the lung-air sac system. Readers will not only discover the origin of birds but will also learn how the respiratory system of theropod dinosaurs worked and may have transformed into the avian one. In addition, the work explores such aspects as swallowing mechanism in birds, the adaptations that have evolved for flight at extreme altitude and gas exchange in eggs. It is a highly informative and carefully presented work that provides cutting edge scientific insights for readers with an interest in the respiratory biology and the evolution of birds.
Avian Biology, Volume II is a collection of papers that deals with the biology of birds such as their integumentary and respiratory systems. One paper describes the integument of birds that includes the skin, feathers, pterylosis, skin muscles, and other integumentary derivatives such as beaks, comb, claws, and spurs. The book explains the process of molting and the different generations of feathers; such molting is dependent on the wear and tear of the plumage, as well as hormonal changes. One author compares the blood vascular system of birds and mammals, and then gives a detailed description of avian hematology. Other papers deal with the respiratory functions, digestive system, and the nutritional needs of birds. Of interest is one author's description of the production of nutritive fluids, holocrine, which is secreted for the young. This secreted fluid contains about 23 percent protein, 10 percent fat, and no sugar. Unlike mammalian milk, it also contains cells. Another paper examines the intermediary metabolism of birds and the climatic effects on metabolism. This book is suitable for bird enthusiasts, zoologists, and avian biologists.
In biology, few organs have been as elusive as the lung-air sac system of birds. Considerable progress has recently been made to fill the gaps in the knowledge. While summarizing and building on earlier observations and ideas, this book provides cutting-edge details on the development, structure, function, and the evolutionary design of the avian respiratory system. Outlining the mechanisms and principles through which biological complexity and functional novelty have been crafted in a unique gas exchanger, this account will provoke further inquiries on the many still uncertain issues. The specific goal here was to highlight the uniqueness of the design of the avian respiratory system and the factors that obligated it.
The second edition of Avian Immunology provides an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of avian immunology. From the ontogeny of the avian immune system to practical application in vaccinology, the book encompasses all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity in chickens. In addition, chapters are devoted to the immunology of other commercially important species such as turkeys and ducks, and to ecoimmunology summarizing the knowledge of immune responses in free-living birds often in relation to reproductive success. The book contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system, encompassing the mucosal, enteric, respiratory and reproductive systems. The diseases and disorders it covers include immunodepressive diseases and immune evasion, autoimmune diseases, and tumors of the immune system. Practical aspects of vaccination are examined as well. Extensive appendices summarize resources for scientists including cell lines, inbred chicken lines, cytokines, chemokines, and monoclonal antibodies. The world-wide importance of poultry protein for the human diet, as well as the threat of avian influenza pandemics like H5N1 and heavy reliance on vaccination to protect commercial flocks makes this book a vital resource. This book provides crucial information not only for poultry health professionals and avian biologists, but also for comparative and veterinary immunologists, graduate students and veterinary students with an interest in avian immunology. With contributions from 33 of the foremost international experts in the field, this book provides the most up-to-date review of avian immunology so far Contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system reviewing constitutive barriers, chemical and cellular responses; it includes a comprehensive review of avian Toll-like receptors Contains a wide-ranging review of the "ecoimmunology" of free-living avian species, as applied to studies of population dynamics, and reviews methods and resources available for carrying out such research
This book - a visual guide to the structure and anatomy of birds - is one of the most heavily illustrated ornithology references ever written. A concise atlas of anatomy, it contains more than 200 specially prepared accurate and clear drawings that include material never illustrated before. The text is as informative as the drawings; written at a level appropriate to undergraduate students and to bird lovers in general, it discusses why birds look and act the way they do. Designed to supplement a basic ornithology textbook, Manual of Ornithology covers systematics and evolution, topography feathers and flight, the skeleton and musculature, and the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory reproductive, sensory, and nervous systems of birds, as well as field techniques for watching and studying birds. Each chapter concludes with a list of key references for the topic covered, with a comprehensive bibliography at the end of the volume. The book will be a guide and reference for every level of bird study - a basic tool for investigation for anyone curious about the fascinating world of birds.
Since the publication of earlier editions, there has been The new edition has a number of new contributors, a considerable increase in research activity ina number who have written on the nervous system, sense organs, of areas, with each succeeding edition including new muscle, endocrines, reproduction, digestion and immu chapters and an expansion of knowledge in older chap nophysiology. Contributors from previous editions ters. have expanded their offerings considerably. The fourth edition contains two new chapters, on The authors are indebted to various investigators, muscle and immunophysiology, the latter an area journals and books for the many illustrations used. Indi where research on Aves has contributed significantly vidual acknowledgement is made in the legends and to our general knowledge of the subject. references. Preface to the 'Third Edition Since the publication of the first and second editions, pathways of birds and mammals. New contributors in there has been a considerable increase of research activ clude M. R. Fedde and T. B. Bolton, who have com ity in avian physiology in a number of areas, including pletely revised and expanded the chapters on respira endocrinology and reproduction, heart and circulation, tion and the nervous system, respectively, and J. G. respiration, temperature regulation, and to a lesser ex Rogers, Jr. , W. J. Mueller, H. Opel, and D. e. Meyer, who have made contributions to Chapters 2,16, 17, tent in some other areas. There appeared in 1972-1974 a four volume treatise and 19, respectively.
Sturkie's Avian Physiology is the classic comprehensive single volume on the physiology of domestic as well as wild birds. The Sixth Edition is thoroughly revised and updated, and features several new chapters with entirely new content on such topics as migration, genomics and epigenetics. Chapters throughout have been greatly expanded due to the many recent advances in the field. The text also covers the physiology of flight, reproduction in both male and female birds, and the immunophysiology of birds. The Sixth Edition, like the earlier editions, is a must for anyone interested in comparative physiology, poultry science, veterinary medicine, and related fields. This volume establishes the standard for those who need the latest and best information on the physiology of birds. Includes new chapters on endocrine disruptors, magnetoreception, genomics, proteomics, mitochondria, control of food intake, molting, stress, the avian endocrine system, bone, the metabolic demands of migration, behavior and control of body temperature Features extensively revised chapters on the cardiovascular system, pancreatic hormones, respiration, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal gland, muscle, gastro-intestinal physiology, incubation, circadian rhythms, annual cycles, flight, the avian immune system, embryo physiology and control of calcium. Stands out as the only comprehensive, single volume devoted to bird physiology Offers a full consideration of both blood and avian metabolism on the companion website (http://booksite.elsevier.com/ 9780124071605). Tables feature hematological and serum biochemical parameters together with circulating concentrations of glucose in more than 200 different species of wild birds
For 65 million years dinosaurs ruled the Earth--until a deadly asteroid forced their extinction. But what accounts for the incredible longevity of dinosaurs? A renowned scientist now provides a startling explanation that is rewriting the history of the Age of Dinosaurs. Dinosaurs were pretty amazing creatures--real-life monsters that have the power to fascinate us. And their fiery Hollywood ending only serves to make the story that much more dramatic. But fossil evidence demonstrates that dinosaurs survived several mass extinctions, and were seemingly unaffected by catastrophes that decimated most other life on Earth. What could explain their uncanny ability to endure through the ages? Biologist and earth scientist Peter Ward now accounts for the remarkable indestructibility of dinosaurs by connecting their unusual respiration system with their ability to adapt to Earth's changing environment--a system that was ultimately bequeathed to their descendants, birds. By tracing the evolutionary path back through time and carefully connecting the dots from birds to dinosaurs, Ward describes the unique form of breathing shared by these two distant relatives and demonstrates how this simple but remarkable characteristic provides the elusive explanation to a question that has thus far stumped scientists. Nothing short of revolutionary in its bold presentation of an astonishing theory, Out of Thin Air is a story of science at the edge of discovery. Ward is an outstanding guide to the process of scientific detection. Audacious and innovative in his thinking, meticulous and thoroughly detailed in his research, only a scientist of his caliber is capable of telling this surprising story.
Regenerative Biology and Medicine, Second Edition — Winner of a 2013 Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award for Medicine — discusses the fundamentals of regenerative biology and medicine. It provides a comprehensive overview, which integrates old and new data into an ever-clearer global picture. The book is organized into three parts. Part I discusses the mechanisms and the basic biology of regeneration, while Part II deals with the strategies of regenerative medicine developed for restoring tissue, organ, and appendage structures. Part III reflects on the achievements of regenerative biology and medicine; future challenges; bioethical issues that need to be addressed; and the most promising developments in regenerative medicine. The book is designed for multiple audiences: undergraduate students, graduate students, medical students and postdoctoral fellows, and research investigators interested in an overall synthesis of this field. It will also appeal to investigators from fields not directly related to regenerative biology and medicine, such as chemistry, informatics, computer science, mathematics, physics, and engineering. Highly Commended 2013 BMA Medical Book Award for Medicine Includes coverage of skin, hair, teeth, cornea, and central neural tissues Provides description of regenetive medicine in digestive, respiratory, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular systems Includes amphibians as powerful research models with discussion of appendage regeneration in amphibians and mammals
This wonderful handbook provides a crystal-clear introduction to every fascinating aspect of bird biology. It will now be my own first reference source about birds, and it should be yours, too - regardless of whether you are a backyard bird watcher, a hard-core birder, or a professional ornithologist.' Jared Diamond, Professor of Geography at the University of California-Los Angeles, specialist on New Guinea birds, and Pulitzer-Prize winning author. 'This new edition of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's Handbook of.
Sauropods, those huge plant-eating dinosaurs, possessed bodies that seem to defy every natural law. What were these creatures like as living animals and how could they reach such uniquely gigantic sizes? A dedicated group of researchers in Germany in disciplines ranging from engineering and materials science to animal nutrition and paleontology went in search of the answers to these questions. Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs reports on the latest results from this seemingly disparate group of research fields and integrates them into a coherent theory regarding sauropod gigantism. Covering nutrition, physiology, growth, and skeletal structure and body plans, this volume presents the most up-to-date knowledge about the biology of these enormous dinosaurs.
This book presents an up-to-date, detailed and thorough review of the most fascinating ecological findings of bird migration. It deals with all aspects of this absorbing subject, including the problems of navigation and vagrancy, the timing and physiological control of migration, the factors that limit their populations, and more. Author, Ian Newton, reveals the extraordinary adaptability of birds to the variable and changing conditions across the globe, including current climate change. This adventurous book places emphasis on ecological aspects, which have received only scant attention in previous publications. Overall, the book provides the most thorough and in-depth appraisal of current information available, with abundant tables, maps and diagrams, and many new insights. Written in a clear and readable style, this book appeals not only to migration researchers in the field and Ornithologists, but to anyone with an interest in this fascinating subject. * Hot ecological aspects include: various types of bird movements, including dispersal and nomadism, and how they relate to food supplies and other external conditions * Contains numerous tables, maps and diagrams, a glossary, and a bibliography of more than 2,700 references * Written by an active researcher with a distinguished career in avian ecology, including migration research
Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many important human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens. Despite their enormous importance, the nature of the viral genome had proved an obstacle to research, with the result that paramyxoviral research had lagged behind that of other viruses. The advent of reverse genetics in recent years has changed this, enabling great strides in the understanding of the genomics, molecular biology, and viral pathogenesis. This book provides a timely and comprehensive review of current knowledge of all paramyxoviruses and is written by renowned scientists who have made seminal contributions in their respective paramyxovirus fields of expertise. Topics include: mumps virus * simian virus 5 * parainfluenza viruses * Newcastle disease and related avian paramyxoviruses * Sendai virus * Hendra virus * Nipah virus * measles virus * canine distemper virus * rinderpest virus * peste des petits ruminants virus * human respiratory syncytial virus * metapneumoviruses * new and emerging paramyxoviruses. Each chapter covers current knowledge on history, genome organization, viral proteins, reverse genetics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis, prevention, and control and future challenges. This book is an invaluable reference source of timely information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, physicians, veterinarians, and scientists working on paramyxoviruses. It is also strongly recommended for all medical and veterinary school libraries.
"Amongst animals, diversity of form and of environmental circumstances have given rise to a multitude of different adap tations subserving the relatively unified patterns of cellular metabolism. Nowhere else is this state of affairs better exem plified than in the realm of respiration". Jones (1972). The field of comparative respiratory biology is expanding almost exponentially. With the ever-improving analytical tools and methods of experimentation, its scope is blossoming to fascinating horizons. The innovativeness and productivity in the area continue to confound students as well as specialists. The increasing wealth of data makes it possible to broaden the information base and meaning fully synthesize, rationalize, reconcile, redefine, consolidate, and offer empirical validation of some of the earlier anecdotal views and interpretations, helping resolve the issues into adequately realistic and easily perceptible models. Occa sional reflections on the advances made, as well as on the yet unresolved prob lems, helps chart out new grounds, formulate new concepts, and stimulate inquiry. Moreover, timely assessments help minimize isolation among investiga tors, averting costly duplication of effort. This exposition focuses on the diversity of the design of the gas exchangers and gives a critical appraisal of the plausible or constrained the evolvement of respiration. The factors that have motivated cause-and-effect relationship between the phylogenetic, developmental, and en vironmental factors, conditions, and states which at various thresholds and under certain backgrounds conspired in molding the gas exchangers is argued.
There is a marked and most unfortunate dichotomy in the studies of avian eggs and hence in the application of new findings in commerce. Thus over the past twenty years there has been a renewed interest in the contribu tions of various parts of an egg to embryo development. This is best illustrated by those studies that have explored the diffusion of respiratory gases across the shell and at long last have provided a fundamental definition of a previously nebulous term, porosity. The activity in this general area has led in the past four years to the publication of three major books dealing with many aspects of egg structure, function and embryogenesis. When brows ing over these books, two developments are evident. First, the advantages that are to be gained by comparative studies. Thus it is now common to see within a single book articles concerned with the eggs of a range of avian species as well as those of reptiles. Second, it is evident that zoologists and physiologists as well as those employed in large breeding firms are all contributing to an improvement of our knowledge of the egg's role in the breeding biology of birds. Comparative studies are a very uncommon feature of studies concerned with bacterial infection of eggs.
This book provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the genetics and genomics of the agriculturally important Cucurbitaceae plant family, which includes crops such as watermelon, melon, cucumber, summer and winter squashes, pumpkins, and gourds. Recent years have resulted in tremendous increases in our knowledge of these species due to large scale genomic and transcriptomic studies and production of draft genomes for the four major species, Citrullus lanatus, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, and Cucurbita spp. This text examines genetic resources and structural and functional genomics for each species group and across species groups. In addition, it explores genomic-informed understanding and commonalities in cucurbit biology with respect to vegetative growth, floral development and sex expression, fruit growth and development, and important fruit quality traits.
Marking the change in focus of tree genomics from single species to comparative approaches, this book covers biological, genomic, and evolutionary aspects of angiosperm trees that provide information and perspectives to support researchers broadening the focus of their research. The diversity of angiosperm trees in morphology, anatomy, physiology and biochemistry has been described and cataloged by various scientific disciplines, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this diversity have only recently been explored. Excitingly, advances in genomic and sequencing technologies are ushering a new era of research broadly termed comparative genomics, which simultaneously exploits and describes the evolutionary origins and genetic regulation of traits of interest. Within tree genomics, this research is already underway, as the number of complete genome sequences available for angiosperm trees is increasing at an impressive pace and the number of species for which RNAseq data are available is rapidly expanding. Because they are extensively covered by other literature and are rapidly changing, technical and computational approaches—such as the latest sequencing technologies—are not a main focus of this book. Instead, this comprehensive volume provides a valuable, broader view of tree genomics whose relevance will outlive the particulars of current-day technical approaches. The first section of the book discusses background on the evolution and diversification of angiosperm trees, as well as offers description of the salient features and diversity of the unique physiology and wood anatomy of angiosperm trees. The second section explores the two most advanced model angiosperm tree species (poplars and eucalypts) as well as species that are soon to emerge as new models. The third section describes the structural features and evolutionary histories of angiosperm tree genomes, followed by a fourth section focusing on the genomics of traits of biological, ecological, and economic interest. In summary, this book is a timely and well-referenced foundational resource for the forest tree community looking to embrace comparative approaches for the study of angiosperm trees.
Gives an account of the morphologies of vertebrate respiratory organs and attempts to explicate the basis of the common and different structural and functional designs and stratagems that have evolved for acquisition of molecular oxygen. The book has been written with a broad readership in mind: students of biology as well as experts in the disciplines of zoology, physiology, morphology, biological microscopy, biomedical engineering, and ecology and those that work or may contemplate working on materials and aspects concerning respiration in whole organisms will find it useful. Scientists in earth sciences with particular interest on the outcomes of past interactions between environmental factors (the physical domain) and evolution and adaptation (the biological domain), mechanisms that have set the composition, patterning, and anatomies of extant animal life, will find the book of interest.

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