This text is an outgrowth of notes prepared by J. Y. Girard for a course at the University of Paris VII. It deals with the mathematical background of the application to computer science of aspects of logic (namely the correspondence between proposition & types). Combined with the conceptual perspectives of Girard's ideas, this sheds light on both the traditional logic material & its prospective applications to computer science. The book covers a very active & exciting research area, & it will be essential reading for all those working in logic & computer science.
This book is intended for students in computer science, formal linguistics, mathematical logic and to colleagues interested in categorial grammars and their logical foundations. These lecture notes present categorial grammars as deductive systems, in the approach called parsing-as-deduction, and the book includes detailed proofs of their main properties. The papers are organized in topical sections on AB grammars, Lambek’s syntactic calculus, Lambek calculus and montague grammar, non-associative Lambek calculus, multimodal Lambek calculus, Lambek calculus, linear logic and proof nets and proof nets for the multimodal Lambek calculus.
When confronted with an ethical dilemma, most of us like to think we would stand up for our principles. But we are not as ethical as we think we are. In Blind Spots, leading business ethicists Max Bazerman and Ann Tenbrunsel examine the ways we overestimate our ability to do what is right and how we act unethically without meaning to. From the collapse of Enron and corruption in the tobacco industry, to sales of the defective Ford Pinto, the downfall of Bernard Madoff, and the Challenger space shuttle disaster, the authors investigate the nature of ethical failures in the business world and beyond, and illustrate how we can become more ethical, bridging the gap between who we are and who we want to be. Explaining why traditional approaches to ethics don't work, the book considers how blind spots like ethical fading--the removal of ethics from the decision--making process--have led to tragedies and scandals such as the Challenger space shuttle disaster, steroid use in Major League Baseball, the crash in the financial markets, and the energy crisis. The authors demonstrate how ethical standards shift, how we neglect to notice and act on the unethical behavior of others, and how compliance initiatives can actually promote unethical behavior. They argue that scandals will continue to emerge unless such approaches take into account the psychology of individuals faced with ethical dilemmas. Distinguishing our "should self" (the person who knows what is correct) from our "want self" (the person who ends up making decisions), the authors point out ethical sinkholes that create questionable actions. Suggesting innovative individual and group tactics for improving human judgment, Blind Spots shows us how to secure a place for ethics in our workplaces, institutions, and daily lives.
This volume constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third International Conference on the History and Philosophy of Computing, held in Pisa, Italy in October 2015. The 18 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from the 30 papers presented at the conference. They cover topics ranging from the world history of computing to the role of computing in the humanities and the arts.
Although sequent calculi constitute an important category of proof systems, they are not as well known as axiomatic and natural deduction systems. Addressing this deficiency, Proof Theory: Sequent Calculi and Related Formalisms presents a comprehensive treatment of sequent calculi, including a wide range of variations. It focuses on sequent calculi for various non-classical logics, from intuitionistic logic to relevance logic, linear logic, and modal logic. In the first chapters, the author emphasizes classical logic and a variety of different sequent calculi for classical and intuitionistic logics. She then presents other non-classical logics and meta-logical results, including decidability results obtained specifically using sequent calculus formalizations of logics. The book is suitable for a wide audience and can be used in advanced undergraduate or graduate courses. Computer scientists will discover intriguing connections between sequent calculi and resolution as well as between sequent calculi and typed systems. Those interested in the constructive approach will find formalizations of intuitionistic logic and two calculi for linear logic. Mathematicians and philosophers will welcome the treatment of a range of variations on calculi for classical logic. Philosophical logicians will be interested in the calculi for relevance logics while linguists will appreciate the detailed presentation of Lambek calculi and their extensions.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 19 International Conference on Formal Grammar 2014, collocated with the European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information in August 2014. The 10 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited contributions were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 19 submissions. Traditionally linguistics has been studied from the point of view of the arts, humanities and letters, but in order to make concrete ideas which might otherwise be fanciful the study of grammar has been increasingly subject to the rigours of computer science and mathematization i.e. articulation in the language of science.
Beginning in the seventeenth century, the greatest French writers and artists became embroiled in a debate that turned on the priority of painting or sculpture, touch or sight, color or design, ancients or moderns. Jacqueline Lichtenstein guides readers through these historic quarrels, decoding the key terms of the heated discussions and revealing how the players were influenced by the concurrent explosion of scientific discoveries concerning the senses of sight and touch. Drawing on the work of René Descartes, Roger de Piles, Denis Diderot, Charles Baudelaire, and Émile Zola, among others, The Blind Spot lets readers eavesdrop on an energetic and contentious conversation that preoccupied French intellectuals for three hundred years.
This first English translation illuminates Hegelianism's most obscure dialectical synthesis: the relation between the phenomenology and the logic. This book is essential for understanding the development of French thought in this century.
This book argues for a view in which processes of dialogue and interaction are taken to be foundational to reasoning, logic, and meaning. This is both a continuation, and a substantial modification, of an inferentialist approach to logic. As such, the book not only provides a critical introduction to the inferentialist view, but it also provides an argument that this shift in perspective has deep and foundational consequences for how we understand the nature of logic and its relationship with meaning and reasoning. This has been upheld by several technical results, including, for example a novel approach to logical paradox and logical revision, and an account of the internal justification of logical rules. The book shows that inferentialism is greatly strengthened, such that it can answer the most stringent criticisms of the view. This leads to a view of logic that emphasizes the dynamics of reasoning, provides a novel account of the justification and normativity of logical rules, thus leading to a new, attractive approach to the foundations of logic. The book addresses readers interested in philosophy of language, philosophical and mathematical logic, theories of reasoning, and also those who actively engage in current debates involving, for example, logical revision, and the relationship between logic and reasoning, from advanced undergraduates, to professional philosophers, mathematicians, and linguists.
Modern algorithmic techniques for summation, most of which were introduced in the 1990s, are developed here and carefully implemented in the computer algebra system MapleTM. The algorithms of Fasenmyer, Gosper, Zeilberger, Petkovšek and van Hoeij for hypergeometric summation and recurrence equations, efficient multivariate summation as well as q-analogues of the above algorithms are covered. Similar algorithms concerning differential equations are considered. An equivalent theory of hyperexponential integration due to Almkvist and Zeilberger completes the book. The combination of these results gives orthogonal polynomials and (hypergeometric and q-hypergeometric) special functions a solid algorithmic foundation. Hence, many examples from this very active field are given. The materials covered are suitable for an introductory course on algorithmic summation and will appeal to students and researchers alike.
Selected as a Financial Times Best Book of 2013 In Strategy: A History, Sir Lawrence Freedman, one of the world's leading authorities on war and international politics, captures the vast history of strategic thinking, in a consistently engaging and insightful account of how strategy came to pervade every aspect of our lives. The range of Freedman's narrative is extraordinary, moving from the surprisingly advanced strategy practiced in primate groups, to the opposing strategies of Achilles and Odysseus in The Iliad, the strategic advice of Sun Tzu and Machiavelli, the great military innovations of Baron Henri de Jomini and Carl von Clausewitz, the grounding of revolutionary strategy in class struggles by Marx, the insights into corporate strategy found in Peter Drucker and Alfred Sloan, and the contributions of the leading social scientists working on strategy today. The core issue at the heart of strategy, the author notes, is whether it is possible to manipulate and shape our environment rather than simply become the victim of forces beyond one's control. Time and again, Freedman demonstrates that the inherent unpredictability of this environment-subject to chance events, the efforts of opponents, the missteps of friends-provides strategy with its challenge and its drama. Armies or corporations or nations rarely move from one predictable state of affairs to another, but instead feel their way through a series of states, each one not quite what was anticipated, requiring a reappraisal of the original strategy, including its ultimate objective. Thus the picture of strategy that emerges in this book is one that is fluid and flexible, governed by the starting point, not the end point. A brilliant overview of the most prominent strategic theories in history, from David's use of deception against Goliath, to the modern use of game theory in economics, this masterful volume sums up a lifetime of reflection on strategy.
How can great companies do everything right - identify real customer needs, deliver excellent innovations, beat their competitors to market - and still fail? The sad truth is that many companies fail because they focus too intensely on their own innovations, and then neglect the innovation ecosystems on which their success depends. In our increasingly interdependent world, winning requires more than just delivering on your own promises. It means ensuring that a host of partners -some visible, some hidden- deliver on their promises, too. In The Wide Lens, innovation expert Ron Adner draws on over a decade of research and field testing to take you on far ranging journeys from Kenya to California, from transport to telecommunications, to reveal the hidden structure of success in a world of interdependence. A riveting study that offers a new perspective on triumphs like Amazon's e-book strategy and Apple's path to market dominance; monumental failures like Michelin with run-flat tires and Pfizer with inhalable insulin; and still unresolved issues like electric cars and electronic health records, The Wide Lens offers a powerful new set of frameworks and tools that will multiply your odds of innovation success. The Wide Lens will change the way you see, the way you think - and the way you win.
Famous classic has introduced countless readers to symbolic logic with its thorough and precise exposition. Starts with simple symbols and conventions and concludes with the Boole-Schroeder and Russell-Whitehead systems. No special knowledge of mathematics necessary. "One of the clearest and simplest introductions to a subject which is very much alive." — Mathematics Gazette.
Co-written by science-fiction/fantasy luminaries Austin Hall and Homer Eon Flint, The Blind Spot is a thought-provoking novel that posits the existence of a mysterious portal that links together multiple dimensions. It's a long-time favorite that fantasy fans should add to their must-read lists.
The Apple-Certified Way to Learn Record, arrange, mix, produce, and polish your music with this bestselling, Apple-certified guide to Logic Pro X 10.3. Veteran producer and composer David Nahmani uses step-by-step, project-based instructions and straightforward explanations to teach everything from basic music creation to sophisticated production techniques. Using the book’s downloadable lesson files and Logic Pro X, you’ll begin making music in the first lesson. From there, you’ll learn to record audio and MIDI, create and edit sequences, and master mixing and automation techniques such as submixing with Track Stacks or the practical uses of true stereo panning. You will create both acoustic and electronic virtual drum performances using Drummer tracks with Drum Kit Designer and Drum Machine Designer. You’ll use Logic Pro X MIDI plug-ins and Smart Controls to control software synthesizers from a MIDI controller or an iPad. Flex Time will allow you to precisely edit the timing of notes inside an audio recording, and you’ll explore Flex Pitch to correct the pitch of a vocal recording. Finally, you’ll mix, automate, and master the song, using plug-ins to process only selected sections or entire tracks, giving your audio creations the final polish needed to achieve a professional sound. Downloadable lesson and media files allow you to perform the hands-on exercises. Focused lessons take you step by step through practical, real-world tasks. Ample illustrations help you master techniques fast. Lesson goals and time estimates help you plan your time. Chapter review questions help you prepare for the Logic Pro X 10.3 certification exam. The Apple Pro Training Series is both a self-paced learning tool and the official curriculum of the Apple Training and Certification program. Upon completing the course material in this guide, you can become Apple Certified by passing the Logic Pro X 10.3 certification exam at an Apple Authorized Training Provider. To find an Apple Authorized Training Provider near you, please visit training.apple.com. Also in the Apple Pro Training Series: Final Cut Pro X 10.3 Pages, Numbers, and Keynote macOS Support Essentials
In this LIPIcs proceedings one can find research papers on the following topics: analysis of the classical principles in intuitionistic calculi, type isomorphisms for intersection types, monads and their semantics in functional programming languages, realizability, extensions of type theory, extensions of linear logic, models of type theory, control operators in type systems, formal verification of programs, program extraction, compiler formalization and modelling of natural language features. All papers obtained at least two reviews, and up to six reviews, counting a second round of review.
Situation Theory and situation semantics are recent approaches to language and information, approaches first formulated by Jon Barwise and John Perry in Situations and Attitudes (1983). The present volume collects some of Barwise's papers written since then, those directly concerned with relations among logic, situation theory, and situation semantics. Several papers appear here for the first time.
Speaking wisely and provocatively about the political economy of race, Glenn Loury has become one of our most prominent black intellectuals--and, because of his challenges to the orthodoxies of both left and right, one of the most controversial. A major statement of a position developed over the past decade, this book both epitomizes and explains Loury's understanding of the depressed conditions of so much of black society today--and the origins, consequences, and implications for the future of these conditions. Using an economist's approach, Loury describes a vicious cycle of tainted social information that has resulted in a self-replicating pattern of racial stereotypes that rationalize and sustain discrimination. His analysis shows how the restrictions placed on black development by stereotypical and stigmatizing racial thinking deny a whole segment of the population the possibility of self-actualization that American society reveres--something that many contend would be undermined by remedies such as affirmative action. On the contrary, this book persuasively argues that the promise of fairness and individual freedom and dignity will remain unfulfilled without some forms of intervention based on race. Brilliant in its account of how racial classifications are created and perpetuated, and how they resonate through the social, psychological, spiritual, and economic life of the nation, this compelling and passionate book gives us a new way of seeing--and, perhaps, seeing beyond--the damning categorization of race in America.
Richard Alba argues that the social cleavages that separate Americans into distinct, unequal ethno-racial groups could narrow dramatically in the coming decades. In Blurring the Color Line, Alba explores a future in which socially mobile minorities could blur stark boundaries and gain much more control over the social expression of racial differences.