This new study of the Old Testament canon by Roger Beckwith is on a scale to match H. E. Ryle's classic work, which was first published in 1892. But Beckwith has the advantage of writing after the Qumran (and other) discoveries; and he has also made full use of all the available sources, including biblical manuscripts and rabbinical and patristic literature, taking into account the seldom studied Syriac material as well as the Greek and Latin material. The result of many years of study, this book is a major work of scholarship on a subject which has been neglected in recent times. It is both historical and theological, but Beckwith's first consideration has been to make a thorough and unprejudiced historical investigation. One of his most important concerns - and one that is crucial for all students of Judaism, and Christians in particular - is to decide when the limits of the Jewish canon were settled. In the answer to this question lies an important key to the teaching of Jesus and his apostles, and the resultant beliefs of the New Testament church. Furthermore, any answers to questions about the state of the canon in the New Testament period would help to open a way through the present ecumenical (and interfaith) impasse on the subject. With its meticulous research and evenhanded approach, this book is sure to become the starting point for study of the Old Testament canon in the years to come.
This book offers a fresh cross-disciplinary approach to the current discussion on the Christian canon formation process. By carefully integrating historical, hermeneutical and theological aspects to account for the emergence of the canon, it seeks to offer a more comprehensive picture of the canon development than has previously been achieved. The formation and continuous usage of the Christian biblical canon is here viewed as an act of literary preservation and actualization of the church's apostolic normative tradition - 'the Scriptures and the Lord' - addressing, first of all, the church, but also the wider society. In order to grasp the complex phenomenon of the biblical canon, the study is divided into four parts, focusing respectively on linguistic and effective-historical, textual and material, performative, and ideational aspects of the canon. Attention is given to the scribal nomina sacra convention, the codex format, oral and written Gospel, early Christian liturgical praxis and the Rule of Faith. Bokedal argues that the canon was formed in a process, with its own particular intention, history, and direction. Throughout the study, history and theology, past and present are considered alongside each other. By using a Gadamerian hermeneutics of tradition, the reader's attention is directed to historical dimensions of the canon and its interpretative possibilities for our time. The notion of effective history (Wirkungsgeschichte), as well as the interaction between text, community and reader are crucial to the argument. The canonical text as text, its interpretation and ritual contextualization are highlighted as unifying elements for the communities being addressed.
Given the popular-level conversations on phenomena like the Gospel of Thomas and Bart Ehrman’s Misquoting Jesus, as well as the current gap in evangelical scholarship on the origins of the New Testament, Michael Kruger’s Canon Revisited meets a significant need for an up-to-date work on canon by addressing recent developments in the field. He presents an academically rigorous yet accessible study of the New Testament canon that looks deeper than the traditional surveys of councils and creeds, mining the text itself for direction in understanding what the original authors and audiences believed the canon to be. Canon Revisited provides an evangelical introduction to the New Testament canon that can be used in seminary and college classrooms, and read by pastors and educated lay leaders alike. In contrast to the prior volumes on canon, this volume distinguishes itself by placing a substantial focus on the theology of canon as the context within which the historical evidence is evaluated and assessed. Rather than simply discussing the history of canon—rehashing the Patristic data yet again—Kruger develops a strong theological framework for affirming and authenticating the canon as authoritative. In effect, this work successfully unites both the theology and the historical development of the canon, ultimately serving as a practical defense for the authority of the New Testament books.
"Lee McDonald has written a lucid and accessible account of the formation of the Christian Bible, clearly marshalling the major evidence, working through the main problems, and reaching persuasive conclusions. Treating separately the canons of the Old and New Testaments, he provides translations of most of the ancient primary sources, good summaries of scholarly debates, and a useful guide to the extensive scholarly literature on the subject. This book will find an appreciative readership among students, pastors, and inquiring laypersons." " Harry Gamble, Professor and Chair of Religious Studies, University of Virginia "This is a remarkable book in that it tackles the question of the formation of the Christian biblical canon in its full sense, that is, both testaments. . . . McDonald has produced a timely study, considerably improved in the sections of the OT canon and generally more comprehensive for both testaments than in his first edition, that should command wide attention for years to come. He has, in my opinion, come to the right conclusions on the essential questions." " James A. Sanders, Professor of Biblical and Intertestamental Studies, School of Theology at Claremont
This book is filled with background materials covering each of the books of the Bible along with charts and diagrams that will assist the reader in his studies of the Scriptures. --from publisher description
This bestselling reference tool has been a trusted resource for more than 25 years with over 165,000 copies sold. Now thoroughly updated and substantially revised to meet the needs of today's students and classrooms, it offers cutting-edge overviews of key theological topics. Readable and reliable, this work features new articles on topics of contemporary relevance to world Christianity and freshened articles on enduring theological subjects, providing comprehensive A-Z coverage for today's theology students. The author base reflects the increasing diversity of evangelical scholars. Advisory editors include D. Jeffrey Bingham, Cheryl Bridges Johns, John G. Stackhouse Jr., Tite Tiénou, and Kevin J. Vanhoozer.
The Bible took shape over the course of centuries, and today Christian groups continue to disagree over details of its contents. The differences among these groups typically involve the Old Testament, as they mostly accept the same 27-book New Testament. An essential avenue for understanding the development of the Bible are the many early lists of canonical books drawn up by Christians and, occasionally, Jews. Despite the importance of these early lists of books, they have remained relatively inaccessible. This comprehensive volume redresses this unfortunate situation by presenting the early Christian canon lists all together in a single volume. The canon lists, in most cases, unambiguously report what the compilers of the lists considered to belong to the biblical canon. For this reason they bear an undeniable importance in the history of the Bible. The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity provides an accessible presentation of these early canon lists. With a focus on the first four centuries, the volume supplies the full text of the canon lists in English translation alongside the original text, usually Greek or Latin, occasionally Hebrew or Syriac. Edmon L. Gallagher and John D. Meade orient readers to each list with brief introductions and helpful notes, and they point readers to the most significant scholarly discussions. The book begins with a substantial overview of the history of the biblical canon, and an entire chapter is devoted to the evidence of biblical manuscripts from the first millennium. This authoritative work is an indispensable guide for students and scholars of biblical studies and church history.
Alter explores the ways in which a range of iconoclastic 20th century authors have put to use the stories, language, and imagery found in the Hebrew Bible. Includes attention on Franz Kafka's "Amerika" and James Joyce's "Ulysses".
Readers will gain even more appreciation for their Bible when they see how God directed its development, from the original authors through today’s translations. How Did We Get the Bible? provides an easy-to-read historical overview, covering the Holy Spirit’s inspiration of the writers, the preservation of the documents, the compilation of the canon, and the efforts to bring the Bible to people in their own language. This fascinating story, populated by intriguing characters, will encourage readers with God’s faithfulness—to His own Word, and to those of us who read it. It’s a fantastic, value-priced resource for individuals and ministries!
How does the church understand the relation between its Scripture and its creedal formulations? No one is more qualified to address that question than Robert W. Jenson, who shows how canon and creed work together and interact and that neither is an adequate or sufficient to guide Christian faith without the help of the other. His book will enable contemporary interpreters and teachers, pastors, and laity to deal with the questions and tensions that are always present as the church seeks to hold canon and creed together.
The authority of the Bible is one of the defining features of Christianity. However, the origins of the Biblical canon, both as an idea and as a composition still pose many unresolved questions and the nature of the bible's authority, including the many ways in which that authority has been tapped throughout history, are important and vast areas of investigation. The essays in this book discuss such crucial issues as the history of the formation of the biblical canon, examples of the canonisation of books in Antiquity outside Christianity, and the nature and function of canonical texts in general. Several essays, furthermore, deal with the numerous ways in which biblical canonicity has been construed and utilised in more recent European history. The essays, written by specialists in religious studies, ancient history, classical philology, church history and literary theory, should be of great interest to students, scholars and general readers concerned with scriptural and literary canon formation.
Where did our Bible come from? How good are the texts?Why do we believe its origin is supernatural?How do we know that it really is the Word of God?How accurate are our translations?Which version is the best? Chuck Missler, an internationally recognized Biblical authority, reviews the origin of both the Old and New Testaments in light of recent discoveries and controversies.
Lee McDonald is well known for his scholarly works on the formation of the biblical canon - now he has written an accessible and helpful introduction. Combining his lifelong commitment to Scripture as pastor and scholar, McDonald approaches his task with sensitivity and precision. He tells the fascinating and gripping story of how the church's canon came to be.
An internationally respected biblical scholar investigates the origins of the Christian canon. John Barton explores the reasons behind the development of the New Testament and pursues the historical factors involved in combining these books with the Hebrew Scriptures.
DIVThe discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls provides unprecedented insight into the nature of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament before its fixation. Timothy Lim here presents a complete account of the formation of the canon in Ancient Judaism from the emergence of the Torah in the Persian period to the final acceptance of the list of twenty-two/twenty-four books in the Rabbinic period./divDIV /divDIVUsing the Hebrew Bible, the Scrolls, the Apocrypha, the Letter of Aristeas, the writings of Philo, Josephus, the New Testament, and Rabbinic literature as primary evidence he argues that throughout the post-exilic period up to around 100 CE there was not one official “canon” accepted by all Jews; rather, there existed a plurality of collections of scriptures that were authoritative for different communities. Examining the literary sources and historical circumstances that led to the emergence of authoritative scriptures in ancient Judaism, Lim proposes a theory of the majority canon that posits that the Pharisaic canon became the canon of Rabbinic Judaism in the centuries after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple./div
Acts is the sequel to Luke's gospel and tells the story of Jesus's followers during the 30 years after his death. It describes how the 12 apostles, formerly Jesus's disciples, spread the message of Christianity throughout the Mediterranean against a background of persecution. With an introduction by P.D. James