Travis Hirschi is one of the most cited criminologists of the twentieth century. His work has provoked controversy and heated debates about the causes of crime, proper research methods, and the most effective policies to prevent and control crime. Known as a spokesperson for social control theory, Hirschi always ties his ideas to the mode of investigation and the mode of investigation to substantive concerns. Theoretical contributions and research methodology have been twin driving forces throughout his career. This book contains representative selections of Hirshi’s work over many years. It is remarkable how little is known about Hirschi’s life and career. John H. Laub’s introduction combines a discerning account of Hirschi’s life and work, accompanied by an interview with the author. Laub’s volume covers various topics: methodological issues; principles of casual analysis; criteria of causality; longitudinal research on crime; rules and the study of deviant behavior; correlations between crime and delinquency; control theory of delinquency; intelligence, causes, and prevention of delinquency; family structure and crime; theory of crime; crime and criminality; deviance; white collar crime; and juvenile justice systems. Now available in paperback, this is an invaluable text for courses in criminology, as well as a valuable addition to professional libraries.
For a free 30-day online trial to this title, visit www.sagepub.com/freetrial This two-volume set is designed to serve as a reference source for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary criminological theory. Drawing together a team of international scholars, it examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them, presenting them in a context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. The work provides essays on cutting-edge research as well as concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Topics include contexts and concepts in criminological theory, the social construction of crime, policy implications of theory, diversity and intercultural contexts, conflict theory, rational choice theories, conservative criminology, feminist theory, and more. Key ThemesThe Classical School of CriminologyThe Positivist School of CriminologyEarly American Theories of CrimeBiological and Biosocial Theories of CrimePsychological Theories of CrimeThe Chicago School of CriminologyCultural and Learning Theories of CrimeAnomie and Strain Theories of Crime and DevianceControl Theories of CrimeLabeling and Interactionist Theories of CrimeTheories of the Criminal SanctionConflict, Radical, and Critical Theories of CrimeFeminist and Gender-Specific Theories of CrimeChoice and Opportunity Theories of CrimeMacro-Level/ Community Theories of CrimeLife-Course and Developmental Theories of CrimeIntegrated Theories of CrimeTheories of White-Collar and Corporate CrimeContemporary Gang TheoriesTheories of Prison Behavior and InsurgencyTheories of Fear and Concern About Crime
Criminology is in a period of much theoretical ferment. Older theories have been revitalized, and newer theories have been set forth. The very richness of our thinking about crime, however, leads to questions about the relative merits of these competing paradigms. Accordingly, in this volume advocates of prominent theories are asked to "take stock" of their perspectives. Their challenge is to assess the empirical status of their theory and to map out future directions for theoretical development. The volume begins with an assessment of three perspectives that have long been at the core of criminology: social learning theory, control theory, and strain theory. Drawing on these traditions, two major contemporary macro-level theories of crime have emerged and are here reviewed: institutional-anomie theory and collective efficacy theory. Critical criminology has yielded diverse contributions discussed in essays on feminist theories, radical criminology, peacemaking criminology, and the effects of racial segregation. The volume includes chapters examining Moffitt's insights on life-course persistent/adolescent-limited anti-social behavior and Sampson and Laub's life-course theory of crime. In addition, David Farrington provides a comprehensive assessment of the adequacy of the leading developmental and life-course theories of crime. Finally, Taking Stock presents essays that review the status of perspectives that have direct implications for the use of criminological knowledge to control crime. Taken together, these chapters provide a comprehensive update of the field's leading theories of crime. The volume will be of interest to criminological scholars and will be ideal for classroom use in courses reviewing contemporary theories of criminal behavior.
Offering an extensive look into the lives and times of fifteen notable crime theorists, Criminological Thought: Pioneers Past and Present examines the people who have helped shape the discipline. Features fifteen criminological pioneers. Includes a systematic approach that focuses on one thinker per chapter. Offers an innovative work that places the theoretical perspective within a historical context.
This book brings together prominent investigators to provide a comprehensive guide to doing life course research, including an “inside view” of how they designed and carried out influential longitudinal studies. Using vivid examples, the contributors trace the connections between early and later experience and reveal how researchers and graduate students can discover these links in their own research. Well-organized chapters describe the best and newest ways to: *Use surveys, life records, ethnography, and data archives to collect different types of data over years or even decades. *Apply innovative statistical methods to measure dynamic processes that result in improvement, decline, or reversibility in economic fortune, stress, health, and criminality. *Explore the micro- and macro-level explanatory factors that shape individual trajectories, including genetic and environmental interactions, personal life history, interpersonal ties, and sociocultural institutions.
Offers projects with a criminal theme, including a crime scene carpet, see-behind sunglasses, and a garter belt shiv cozy.
Seminal essays by a pioneering criminologist, collected for the first time
A supplemental textbook that examines the self-control theory of crime from a range of perspectives, both supportive and critical.
Throughout the 20th century numerous explanations for crime and deviance have emerged that have been offered as better explanations than other theories and perspectives. Yet, the impact of criminological theorizing on public policy remained insignificant. In this situation Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi presented their book A General Theory of Crime and suggested self-control theory. Their theory arrived on the scene with a 'make-up' of seriousness, objectivity and truth, which seemingly flattered politics since it was taken as to justify the status quo of the criminal justice system. Whereas the popularity of self-control theory has certainly sparked an enormous interest in the empirical examination of the theory, the amount of critique remained limited.The study "Beyond self-control" is a first attempt to remedy this situation. The author through theoretical analysis, works back to the logical presuppositions of self-control theory and assesses their validity in light of current data and understandings. This methodological endeavour, eventually, brings to light that Gottfredson and Hirschi's book on self-control theory contains more criminological wisdom than acknowledged by most scholars in criminology.
By articulating a general theory of crime and related behavior, the authors present a new and comprehensive statement of what the criminological enterprise should be about. They argue that prevalent academic criminology—whether sociological, psychological, biological, or economic—has been unable to provide believable explanations of criminal behavior. The long-discarded classical tradition in criminology was based on choice and free will, and saw crime as the natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. It concerned itself with the nature of crime and paid little attention to the criminal. The scientific, or disciplinary, tradition is based on causation and determinism, and has dominated twentieth-century criminology. It concerns itself with the nature of the criminal and pays little attention to the crime itself. Though the two traditions are considered incompatible, this book brings classical and modern criminology together by requiring that their conceptions be consistent with each other and with the results of research. The authors explore the essential nature of crime, finding that scientific and popular conceptions of crime are misleading, and they assess the truth of disciplinary claims about crime, concluding that such claims are contrary to the nature of crime and, interestingly enough, to the data produced by the disciplines themselves. They then put forward their own theory of crime, which asserts that the essential element of criminality is the absence of self-control. Persons with high self-control consider the long-term consequences of their behavior; those with low self-control do not. Such control is learned, usually early in life, and once learned, is highly resistant to change. In the remainder of the book, the authors apply their theory to the persistent problems of criminology. Why are men, adolescents, and minorities more likely than their counterparts to commit criminal acts? What is the role of the school in the causation of delinquincy? To what extent could crime be reduced by providing meaningful work? Why do some societies have much lower crime rates than others? Does white-collar crime require its own theory? Is there such a thing as organized crime? In all cases, the theory forces fundamental reconsideration of the conventional wisdom of academians and crimina justic practitioners. The authors conclude by exploring the implications of the theory for the future study and control of crime.
The Black Dahlia case. The Manson murders. The Zodiac Killer. The slaughter of JonBenet Ramsay. These killings, among many others in Bill James's astonishing chronicle of the history of American crime, have all created a frenzy of interest and speculation about human nature. And while many of us choose to avoid the news about gruesome murders, Bill James contends that these crime stories, which create such frenzy (and have throughout history), are as important to understanding our society, culture and history as anything we may consider to be a more 'serious' subject. The topic envelopes our society so completely, we almost forget about it. James looks at the ways in which society has changed by examining the development of how crimes have been committed, investigated and prosecuted. The booktakes on such issues as the rise of an organized police force, the controversial use of the death penalty, the introduction of evidence such as fingerprinting and DNA, and the unexpected ways in which the most shocking crimes have shaped the criminal justice system and our perceptions of violence.
Criminological Theory: The Essentials sheds light on some of history's most renowned criminologists and their theories. In addition, policy implications brought about by theoretical perspectives that have developed from recent critical work, together with practical applications, compel the reader to apply theories to the contemporary social milieu.
During the 1960s, traditional thinking about crime and its punishment, deviance and its control, came under radical attack. The discipline of criminology split into feuding factions, and various schools of thought emerged, each with quite different ideas about the nature of the crime problem and its solutions. These differences often took political form, with conservative, liberal, and radical supporters, and the resulting controversies continue to reverberate throughout the fields of criminology and sociology, as well as related areas such as social work, social policy, psychiatry, and law. Stanley Cohen has been at the center of these debates in Britain and the United States. This volume is a selection of his essays, written over the past fifteen years, which contribute to and comment upon the major theoretical conflicts in criminology during this period. Though associated with the "new" or radical criminology, Cohen has always been the first to point out its limitations--particularly in translating its theoretical claims into real world applications. His essays cove a wide range of topics-political crime, the nature of individual responsibility, the implications of new theories for social work practice, models of crime used in the Third World, banditry and rebellion, and the decentralization of social control. Also included is a previously unpublished paper on how radical social movements such as feminism deal with criminal law. Many criminology textbooks present particular theories or research findings. This book uniquely reviews the main debates of the last two decades about just what the role and scope of the subject should be.
"...what makes the book stand out is the inclusion of real research into various criminal justice institutions that have actually been undertaken by the authors. In doing so, what is produced is a book that stimulates interest and injects research passion, as well as offering research â€˜know howâ€™ into what can often be a difficult and sometimes dry area of research." Tina Patel, Liverpool John Moores University "This book provides an essential tool for undergraduate students embarking upon their own research projects in Criminology. It provides clear and informative guidance on a range of research methods and designs to assist students in their own criminological endeavours." Jacki Tapley, University of Portsmouth How do criminologists go about studying crime and its consequences? How are programmes for offenders and communities evaluated? How can you collect and analyse criminological material? Research on crime and criminality is often referred to by the media, policy makers and practitioners, but where does this research come from and how reliable is it? Designed especially for students on criminology and criminal justice courses, and professionals working in the field,Researching Criminologyemphasises the importance of research as an integrated process. It looks at the ways in which a mixture of investigative methods can be used to analyze a criminological question. Written by two experienced researchers and lecturersResearching Criminologyis a comprehensive introduction to the aims, principles and methods of doing criminological research. The book covers all the key topics that you will encounter when researching crime. Individual chapters include material on: The research process Principles of researching criminology How to design criminological research Evaluation research Researching ethically A glossary of essential key concepts Structured in three parts, addressing the principles of criminological research, how to collect and analyse material and providing detailed examples of real world research,Researching Criminologywill be of benefit to all students of criminology and criminal justice, for practitioners interested in criminological research, and for those undertaking criminological research for the first time.
In this powerfully reasoned, lucidly written work, Harvard Law Professor Randall Kennedy takes on the highly complex issues of race, crime, and the legal system, uncovering the long-standing failure of the justice system to protect blacks from criminals and revealing difficult truths about these factors in the United States. From the Hardcover edition.
Examines the links between criminological theory and criminal justice policy and practice.
Based on Russell Schutt's bestselling text Investigating the Social World, this Third Edition of The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice is the most comprehensive research methods text available to students in criminal justice and criminology. Specifically designed for criminal justice courses and programs, this innovative text uniquely helps to teach research design and techniques within the context of substantive criminology and criminal justice issues of interest to students and the field. With expanded coverage of topics like causation, ethics, and qualitative analysis, along with a comprehensive and one-of-a-kind ancillary package, the Third Edition is a text both students and instructors will appreciate.