The period between the late seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries represents a critical period of transition in urban history as the traditional towns of the early modern era evolved into the far larger and more specialised cities of Victorian Britain. This 'long eighteenth century' was a time of vigorous activity in almost every sphere of urban life. Booming health and leisure resorts, seaports, market towns and industrial centres, joined together with the capital cities of London and Edinburgh to cream off the rising wealth of the countryside. This new prosperity was reflected not simply in the growth of urban populations but also in sharply rising standards of material comfort for a substantial proportion of those populations. Local pride celebrated the bright lights, the crowds, the bustle and general cultural superiority of town over country. However, urban life was equally condemned for its noise, smell, squalor, vice and callous indifference, drawbacks highlighted by growing inequalities of wealth and income in this period. This lucid, interesting and persuasive account of the multi-facted experiences of British towns and their inhabitants therefore gives as much weight to the back streets and narrow alleyways that lay at the heart of working-class neighbourhoods as it does to the fashionable squares of Bath, Edinburgh or London's West End. It is also concerned with the role played by the female majority of urban residents within these communities, a role often overlooked by urban historians in the past. Its overall aim is to provide a broad but coherent synthesis combining original research with an overview of the many new issues and interpretations that are currently stimulating a lively debate among historians of urban life.
Until the 1950s, the Irish were by far the largest ethnic minority in Britain. This leading study focuses on the most important phase of Irish migration, providing an analytical discussion of why and how the Irish settled in such numbers. The Irish Diaspora in Britain, 1750-1939, second edition: • examines key aspects of the social, religious and political worlds of these migrants • explores both Catholic and Protestant immigrants • explains why they were so often the victims of native hostility • adopts a truly Britain-wide approach • draws upon the latest research and a wide range of printed primary sources. Thoroughly revised, updated and expanded, the new edition of this essential text broadens the analysis to 1939 and now features additional chapters on gender and the Irish diaspora in transnational perspective.
Rural workers in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century England were not passive victims in the face of rapid social change. Carl J. Griffin demonstrates that they deployed an extensive range of resistances – from wood-taking and poaching to the Swing Riots and Chartism - to defend their livelihoods and communities. Thematically organised, Protest, Politics and Work in Rural England, 1700-1850 analyses: • cultures of work, worklessness, the poor laws and poverty • relations between law, the evolving state and rural labourers • enclosure, land-use and changes in the environment • religion, custom and the politics of everyday life and resistance • rural protest movements, trade unionism, and popular, radical politics. Locating protest in the wider contexts of work, poverty and landscape change, this lively and approachable volume offers the first critical overview of a growing area of study.
This new study explores how British youth was made, and how it made itself, over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Adopting a chronological approach to a number of key themes and debates, Melanie Tebbutt compares and contrasts representations and lived experiences while emphasising diversity and the need to recognise regional differences.
The First World War has left its imprint on British society and the popular imagination to an extent almost unparalleled in modern history. Its legacy of mass death, mechanized slaughter, propaganda, and disillusionment swept away long-standing romanticized images of warfare, and continues to haunt the modern consciousness. Focusing on the lives of ordinary Britons, George Robb's engaging new study seeks to comprehend what it meant for an entire society to undergo the tremendous shocks and demands of total war; how it attempted to make sense of the conflict, explain it to others, and deal with the war's legacies. British Culture and the First World War - examines the war's impact on ideologies of race, class and gender, the government's efforts to manage news and to promote patriotism, the role of the arts and sciences, and the commemoration of the war in the decades since - synthesizes much of the best and most recent scholarship on the social and cultural history of the war - reclaims a great deal of neglected or forgotten popular cultural sources such as films, cartoons, juvenile literature and pulp fiction Compact but comprehensive, this accessible and refreshing text is essential reading for anyone interested in British society and culture during the turbulent years of the First World War.
An impressively thorough exploration of the changing functions, character and experience of English towns in a key age of transition which includes smaller communities as well as the larger industrialising towns. Among the issues examined are demography, social stratification, manners, religion, gender, dissent, amenities and entertainment, and the resilience of provincial culture in the face of the growing influence of London. At its heart is an authoritative study of urban politics: the structures of authority, the realities of civic administration, and the general movement for reform that climaxed in the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.
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"Based on extensive primary-source research, A Pleasing Prospect considers the changing historical identity of eighteenth-century Colchester from the perspective of its 'middling sort' - a section of society often attached to cultures of politeness and to the practices of consumption and production that helped shape economic change, and which has recently attracted greater attention from historians. Shani D'Cruze reconstructs eighteenth-century social networks along lines of family, kinship, gender, spatiality, religion and politics to examine the relationships between individual and family of biographies and broader historical change and to reflect on the historical identity of the middling sort as well as on eighteenth-century provincial urban society and culture." --Book Jacket.
The eighteenth century represents a critical period in the transition of the English urban history, as the town of the early modern era involved into that of the industrial revolution; and since Britain was the 'first industrial nation', this transformation is of more-than-national significance for all those interested in the histroy of towns. This book gathers together in one volume some of the most interesting and important articles that have appeared in research journals to provide a rich variety of perspectives on urban evelopment in the period.
L'ouvrage dresse un vaste panorama de l'histoire anglaise à l'époque moderne, de la Réforme religieuse à la révolution industrielle. L'histoire insulaire a suscité une réflexion souvent originale, de Richard Tawney ou Lewis Namier à François Crouzet. Comme les meilleurs spécialistes nous l'ont enseigné outre-Manche, l'économie, la société et la religion sont inséparables de l'approche culturelle. Trente ans après l'entrée de la Grande-Bretagne dans l'Europe, l'histoire anglaise s'est largement ouverte sur le continent. Il convient, en retour, de mieux comprendre son évolution. Sont ainsi évoqués la critique de la whig history, l'impact de la sociologie allemande ou les débats entourant l'adoption récente du terme uniforme d'ancien régime pour cerner les sociétés passées.
Liverpool, 1660 –1750 explores the demographic, economic, social, and political structures which made this British port city one of the world’s greatest metropolises. Liverpool was unique in the rate of its commercial development from the late 1600s through the 1900s, but despite this fact, little research has been done either on the characteristics of Liverpool’s population at the beginning of the boom or its social structure. Now, for the first time, a study exists that examines Liverpool’s entire social stratum, from enterprising merchants to the humble shipwrights and craftsmen usually hidden from the history books.
Although politicians in Britain are now calling for a "classless society," can one conclude, as do many scholars, that class does not matter anymore? Cannadine uncovers the meanings of class for such disparate figures as Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and Margaret Thatcher and identifies the moments when opinion shifted, such as the aftermath of the French Revolution and the rise of the Labour Party in the early twentieth century.
A pioneering account of how South Africa's three leading cities were fashioned, experienced, promoted and perceived.
By looking at England's cathedral towns, Regency spas and industrial cities, and at their market squares, docks, council chambers and assembly rooms, the author traces the development of English towns through the centuries.