This new book provides the most thorough analysis of the 'law merchant' analysing and clarifying current thinking and including a formula to recognise and apply a rule of the lex mercatoria in practice.
Harmonised and uniform international laws are now being spread across different jurisdictions and fields of law, bringing with them an increasing body of scholarship on practical problems and theoretical dimensions. This comprehensive and insightful book focuses on the contributions to the development and understanding of the critical theory of harmonisation. The contributing authors address a variety of different subjects concerned with harmonisation and the application of legal rules resulting from harmonisation efforts. This study is written by leading scholars engaged in different aspects of harmonisation, and covers both regional harmonisation within the EU and regional human rights treaties, as well as harmonisation with international treaty obligations. With comparative analysis that contributes to the development of a more general theory on the harmonisation process, this timely book will appeal to EU and international law scholars and practitioners, as well as those looking to future legal harmonisation in other regions in Asia, Latin America and Africa.
International commercial contracts in the context of increasing globalization of the national markets have posed some of the most difficult questions of the legal theory as developed since the emergence of nation states; those are, whether it is possible or desirable to allow international commercial contracts to be governed by the law merchant or, in its medieval name, lex mercatoria, a body of rules which has not been derived from the will of sovereign states, but mainly from transnational trade usages and practices, and to what extent those rules should govern transnational transactions. The traditional approach of legal positivism to the questions maintains that law governing contracts containing a foreign element should be a national law which will be determined according to choice of law rules. However, the particularities of cross border trade yield unsatisfactory results when the rules essentially designed for the settlement of domestic disputes or national laws pertaining to international economic relations, but developed under the influence of a certain legal tradition, are tried to be applied. New solutions are needed to overcome the special problems of international trade between merchants from different legal systems. In that regard, while the international commercial arbitration which has been freed from the constraints of the domestic laws is an important step, the courts generally applying the principle of party autonomy which allows parties to designate the law that will apply to their transactions have proved insufficient due to the positivistic influence on the conflict of laws rules of most countries which has limited parties' choice of law to the national substantive laws. The problems created by those inconsistencies and divergences have been felt more strongly in the European Community which constitutes an internal market by integrating the national markets of Member States into a single one. The present paper is an attempt to search for answers to those questions with a special emphasis on the situation in the European Community on the basis of the idea that law as a servant of social need must take account of the far reaching and dramatic socio-economic changes.
Advanced notion of the Creeping Codification which is based on the 'TransLex Principles', operated by the Center for Transnational Law (CENTRAL) of Cologne University at www.trans-lex.org. The Trans- Lex Principles are based on the 'List of Principles, Rules and Standards of the Lex Mercatoria' which was reproduced in the Annex of the first edition of this book. This Internet-based codification method realized through the TransLex Principles corresponds to the unique character of the Creeping Codification of the New Lex Mercatoria which is an ongoing, spontaneous, and dynamic process which is never completed.
The Yearbook of Private International Law is published by Sellier. ELP in cooperation with the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law. This annual publication provides analysis and information on private international law developments world-wide. The editors commission articles of enduring importance concerning the most significant trends in the field. The Yearbook also devotes attention to the important work and research carried out in the context of the Hague Conference, the Hague Academy, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), and the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT). The authority of the editors and the lasting nature of the works included make the Yearbook an integral addition to the libraries of international law scholars and practitioners. Volume VII includes various topics, such as: Hague Convention of 30 June 2005 on Choice of Court Agreements -- General Problems of Private International Law in Modern Codifications-De Lege Lata and De Lege Europea Ferenda -- Maintenance in Private International Law in the United States -- What's New In Latin American Private International Law? -- International Subcontracting in EC Private International Law -- Recognition of Foreign Insolvency Proceedings -- National Reports from South Africa, Ukraine, Brazil, and Italy -- Case Law, Texts, Materials, and Recent Developments
From 2005 on the Yearbook of Private International Law is published by S.ELP in cooperation with the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law. This English-language annual publication provides analysis and information on private international law developments world-wide. The Editors commission articles of enduring importance concerning the most significant trends in the field. The Yearbook also devotes attention to the important work and research carried out in the context of the Hague Conference, The Hague Academy, UNCITRAL and UNIDROIT. The authority of the editors and the lasting nature of the works included make the Yearbook an integral addition to the libraries of international law scholars and practitioners.
Traditionally, legal problems arising in connection with international business transactions had to be solved by a national law. This view was challenged in post war scholarly writing and transnational practice. It was argued that transnational rules (such as transnational contracts, general conditions, trade usages, general principles, uniform rules, arbitral cases) should be applied instead. Often, these transnational rules are referred to as lex mercatoria. This volume analyzes the different legal approaches to international business problems (including the theory of lex mercatoria) as well as their implications for international practice. As such, the relevance and importance of substantive law and conflict of laws and of national, international and transnational rules are discussed both with regard to their application by national courts and by international commercial arbitrators.
The technical, economic, and social development of the last one hundred years has created a new type of long-term contract which one may call `Complex International Contract'. Typical examples include complex civil engineering and constructions contracts as well as joint venture, shareholders, project finance, franchising, cooperation and management agreements. The dispute resolution mechanism, which normally deals with such contracts, is commercial arbitration, which has been deeply affected in recent decades by attempts to improve its capabilities. Most importantly, there is the trend towards further denationalization of arbitration with respect to the applicable substantive law. In this regard, a new generation of conflict rules no longer imposes on the arbitrators a particular method to be applied for the purpose of determining the applicable rules of law. Moreover, arbitration more frequently took on the task of adapting Complex International Contracts to changed circumstances. Also, special rules have been developed for so-called multi-party arbitration and fast track arbitration facilitating efficient dispute resolution. The author describes these trends both from a practical as well as a theoretical perspective, evaluating not only the advantages, but also the risks involved with the new developments in arbitration. Relevant issues with respect to the drafting and renegotiation of such contracts are also discussed.
This book provides a comparative assessment of the current state of private international law by exploring the fundamental philosophical, ideological, and methodological challenges encountered during the 20th century and the responses to those challenges in the western world. Among the questions discussed are: the dilemma between `conflicts justice' and `material justice'; the conflict between the goal of international uniformity and the need or desire to protect state or national interests; the tension between the goals of certainty and flexibility; the symbiosis of the multilateral, unilateral, and substantive methodologies; and the antagonism or co-existence between choice-of-law rules and flexible `approaches', and between `jurisdiction-selecting' and `content-oriented' rules or approaches. Written by some of the world's most distinguished scholars, this thought-provoking book provides insightful and diverse perspectives from nineteen countries. It is essential reading for any teacher or student of private international law or comparative law.
The Ancient and Medieval Roots of Insurance This richly detailed history examines the: "(i) origin and development of the contract of Bottomry and Respondentia down to the 11th century A.D. (ii) the traces of methods of insurance other than life known to the Ancients (iii) The Question whether life assurance was known and practised by the Romans or their predecessors (iv) The history of the development of mediaeval insurance in the Low Countries from the family group system and of modern insurance therefrom" (1)." Originally submitted as a thesis to the University of London by the late Dr. C.F. Trenerry, whose intention it was to recast it for publication. Edited by Ethel L. Gover and Agnes S. Paul. CONTENTS Introduction and Summary PART I Origin and Development of Contract of Bottomry and Respondentia Down to the 11th Century A.D. CH. I The Origin and Development of the Contract of Bottomry CH. II The Origin of the Contract of Bottomry, Prior to 250 B.C. CH. III The Contract as Known to the Hindus CH. IV The Contract as Known to the Greeks CH. V The Contract as Known to the Romans PART II Traces of Methods of Insurance Other than Life Known to the Ancients CH. VI Marine Insurance (Other than Bottomry) Practised by the Romans CH. VII Contracts of Indemnity Used by the Romans PART III Whether Life Assurance was Known to the Ancients CH. VIII Life Assurance as Known to the Romans CH. IX Probability that the Romans Had Some Means by which Loss Arising through Death Might be Reduced or Nullified CH. X Allusions to Longevity, Mortality, Etc., by Early Writers CH. XI Sufficiency of the Knowledge of Mathematics and of Finance Possessed by the Romans During the Early Empire for the Calculations Required CH. XII Tables of Annuity Values Which Were Sanctioned by the Roman Law for Purposes of the Lex Falcidia CH. XIII Actuarial Knowledge Not Essential for Transaction of Life Assurance Business CH. XIV Manner of Making Contracts of Non-mutual Life Assurance and of Transacting the Legal Part of the Business CH. XV Nature and Essential Parts of a Contract of Life Assurance CH. XVI Societies Among the Greeks and Romans Which Provided Funds at Death or Members for Burial or Other Purposes, With or Without Other Benefits CH. XVII The Roman Civilian (I.E. Non-Military) Societies CH. XVIII The Roman Veterans' Societies CH. XIX The Roman Military Societies CH. XX Non-Mutual Contracts for Payment on Death of a Person or Persons as Known to the Romans CH. XXI Examination of Other Extracts from Roman Law which Deal with Contracts of a Similar Nature PART IV Development of Modern Insurance from the Family Group System as Exemplified in Belgium CH. XXII Derivation of Modern Insurance CH. XXIII Development of Communal Insurance from Family Group System CH. XXIV Non-Mutual Insurance Between 1227 and 1310 CH. XXV Marine Insurance CH. XXVI Life Assurance CH. XXVII Marine and Other Insurance in Other Countries APPENDICES BIBLIOGRAPHY"
An oft-repeated assertion within contract law scholarship and cases is that a good contract law (or a good commercial contract law) will meet the needs and expectations of commercial contractors. Despite the prevalence of this statement, relatively little attention has been paid to why this should be the aim of contract law, how these 'commercial expectations' are identified and given substance, and what precise legal techniques might be adopted by courts to support the practices and expectations of business people. This book explores these neglected issues within contract law. It examines the idea of commercial expectation, identifying what expectations commercial contractors may have about the law and their business relationships (using empirical studies of contracting behaviour), and assesses the extent to which current contract law reflects these expectations. It considers whether supporting commercial expectations is a justifiable aim of the law according to three well-established theoretical approaches to contractual obligations: rights-based explanations, efficiency-based (or economic) explanations and the relational contract critique of the classical law. It explores the specific challenges presented to contract law by modern commercial relationships and the ways in which the general rules of contract law could be designed and applied in order to meet these challenges. Ultimately the book seeks to move contract law beyond a simple dichotomy between contextualist and formalist legal reasoning, to a more nuanced and responsive legal approach to the regulation of commercial agreements.
This is the fifth edition of the leading work on transnational and comparative commercial and financial law, covering a wide range of complex topics in the modern law of international commerce, finance and trade. As a guide for students and practitioners it has proven to be unrivalled. Since the fourth edition, the work has been divided into three volumes, each of which can be used independently or as part of the complete work. Volume one covers the roots and foundations of private law; the different orientations and structure of civil and common law; the concept, forces, and theoretical basis of the transnationalisation of the law in the professional sphere; the autonomous sources of the new law merchant or modern lex mercatoria, its largely finance-driven impulses; and its relationship to domestic public policy and public order requirements. Volume two deals with transnational contract, movable and intangible property law. Volume three deals with financial products and financial services, with the structure and operation of modern commercial and investment banks, and with financial risk, stability and regulation, including the fall-out from the recent financial crisis and regulatory responses in the US and Europe. All three volumes may be purchased separately or as a single set. From the reviews of previous editions: "...synthesizes and integrates diverse bodies of law into a coherent and accessible account...remarkable in its scope and depth. It stands alone in its field not only due to its comprehensive coverage, but also its original methodology. Although it appears to be a weighty tome, in fact, in light of its scope, it is very concise. While providing a wealth of intensely practical information, its heart is highly conceptual and very ambitious...likely to become a classic text in its field." American Journal of Comparative Law "Dalhuisen's style is relaxed...what he writes convinces without the need for an excess of references to sources...a highly valuable contribution to the legal literature. It adopts a useful, modern approach to teaching the young generation of lawyers how to deal with the increasing internationalisation of law. It is also helpful to the practising lawyer and to legislators." Uniform Law Review/Revue de Droit Uniforme "this is a big book, with big themes and an author with the necessary experience to back them up. ... Full of insights as to the theories that underlie the rules governing contract, property and security, it is an important contribution to the law of international commerce and finance." Law Quarterly Review "...presents a very different case: that of a civilized and cultivated cosmopolitan legal scholar, with a keen sense of international commercial and financial practice, with an in-depth grounding in both comparative legal history and comparative law, combined with the ability to transcend conventional English black-letter law description with critical judgment towards institutional wisdom and intellectual fashions. ...a wide-ranging, historically and comparatively very deep and comprehensive commentary, but which is also very contemporary and forward-looking on many or most of the issues relevant in modern transnational commercial, contract and financial transactions..." International and Comparative Law Quarterly
The growth of national economic regulation and the process of globalisation increasingly expose international transactions to an array of regulations from different jurisdictions. These developments often contribute to widespread international contractual failures when parties claim the incompatibility of their contractual obligations with regulatory laws. The author challenges conventional means of dispute resolution and argues for an interdisciplinary approach whereby disciplines such as international economic law, conflict of laws, contract law and economic regulations are functionally united to resolve international and multifaceted regulatory disputes. He identifies the normative foundation of contract law as an important determinant in this process, contending that contract law is essentially neutral and underpinned by the concept of corrective justice, while economic regulations are mainly prompted by distributive justice. Applying this corrective/distributive justice dichotomy to international contracts, the author critically assesses major conflict of laws approaches such as `proper law', `the Rome Convention' and `governmental interest analysis', which could disregard either public interest or private rights. The author, taking these theories into account, proposes an alternative two-dimensional interest analysis approach. He tests the viability of this approach with reference to arbitral awards and court decisions in various jurisdictions and concludes that it uniquely fits into the structure of international commercial arbitration. In adopting this approach arbitrators would take into account both corrective and distributive justice, and to the extent that corrective justice prevails, would be able to avert a total failure of the contract.
This book fills a gap in legal academic study and practice in International Commercial Arbitration (ICA) by offering an in-depth analysis on legal discourse and interpretation. Written by a specialist in international business law, arbitration and legal theory, it examines the discursive framework of arbitral proceedings, through an exploration of the unique status of arbitration as a legal and semiotic phenomenon. Historical and contemporary aspects of legal discourse and interpretation are considered, as well as developments in the field of discourse analysis in ICA. A section is devoted to institutional and structural determinants of legal discourse in ICA in which ad hoc and institutional forms are examined. The book also deals with functional aspects of legal interpretation in arbitral discourse, focusing on interpretative standards, methods and considerations in decision-making in ICA. The comparative examinations of existing legal framework and case law reflect the international nature of the subject and the book will be of value to both academic and professional readers.
Most literature on international arbitration is practice-oriented, technical, and promotional. It is by arbitrators and largely for arbitrators and their clients. Outside analyses by non-participants are still very rare. This book boldly steps away from this tradition of scholarship to reflect analytically on international arbitration as a form of global governance. It thus contributes to a rapidly growing literature that describes the profound economic, legal, and political transformation in which key governance functions are increasingly exercised by a new constellation that include actors other than national public authorities. The book brings together leading scholars from law and the social sciences to assess and critically reflect on the significance and implications of international arbitration as a new locus of global private authority. The views predictably diverge. Some see the evolution of these private courts positively as a significant element of an emerging transnational private legal system that gradually evolves according to the needs of market actors without much state interference. Others fear that private courts allow transnational actors to circumvent state regulation and create an illegitimate judicial system that is driven by powerful transnational companies at the expense of collective public interests. Still others accept that these contrasting views serve as useful starting points of an analysis but are too simplistic to adequately understand the complex governance structures that international arbitration courts have been developing over the last two decades. In sum, this book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date analytical overview of arguments in a vigorous nascent interdisciplinary debate about arbitration courts and their exercise of private governance power in the transnational realm. This debate is generating fascinating new insights into such central topics as legitimacy, constitutional order and justice beyond classical nation state institutions.