This new book provides the most thorough analysis of the 'law merchant' analysing and clarifying current thinking and including a formula to recognise and apply a rule of the lex mercatoria in practice.
International commercial contracts in the context of increasing globalization of the national markets have posed some of the most difficult questions of the legal theory as developed since the emergence of nation states; those are, whether it is possible or desirable to allow international commercial contracts to be governed by the law merchant or, in its medieval name, lex mercatoria, a body of rules which has not been derived from the will of sovereign states, but mainly from transnational trade usages and practices, and to what extent those rules should govern transnational transactions. The traditional approach of legal positivism to the questions maintains that law governing contracts containing a foreign element should be a national law which will be determined according to choice of law rules. However, the particularities of cross border trade yield unsatisfactory results when the rules essentially designed for the settlement of domestic disputes or national laws pertaining to international economic relations, but developed under the influence of a certain legal tradition, are tried to be applied. New solutions are needed to overcome the special problems of international trade between merchants from different legal systems. In that regard, while the international commercial arbitration which has been freed from the constraints of the domestic laws is an important step, the courts generally applying the principle of party autonomy which allows parties to designate the law that will apply to their transactions have proved insufficient due to the positivistic influence on the conflict of laws rules of most countries which has limited parties' choice of law to the national substantive laws. The problems created by those inconsistencies and divergences have been felt more strongly in the European Community which constitutes an internal market by integrating the national markets of Member States into a single one. The present paper is an attempt to search for answers to those questions with a special emphasis on the situation in the European Community on the basis of the idea that law as a servant of social need must take account of the far reaching and dramatic socio-economic changes.
Harmonised and uniform international laws are now being spread across different jurisdictions and fields of law, bringing with them an increasing body of scholarship on practical problems and theoretical dimensions. This comprehensive and insightful book focuses on the contributions to the development and understanding of the critical theory of harmonisation. The contributing authors address a variety of different subjects concerned with harmonisation and the application of legal rules resulting from harmonisation efforts. This study is written by leading scholars engaged in different aspects of harmonisation, and covers both regional harmonisation within the EU and regional human rights treaties, as well as harmonisation with international treaty obligations. With comparative analysis that contributes to the development of a more general theory on the harmonisation process, this timely book will appeal to EU and international law scholars and practitioners, as well as those looking to future legal harmonisation in other regions in Asia, Latin America and Africa.
Traditionally, legal problems arising in connection with international business transactions had to be solved by a national law. This view was challenged in post war scholarly writing and transnational practice. It was argued that transnational rules (such as transnational contracts, general conditions, trade usages, general principles, uniform rules, arbitral cases) should be applied instead. Often, these transnational rules are referred to as lex mercatoria. This volume analyzes the different legal approaches to international business problems (including the theory of lex mercatoria) as well as their implications for international practice. As such, the relevance and importance of substantive law and conflict of laws and of national, international and transnational rules are discussed both with regard to their application by national courts and by international commercial arbitrators.
Lex Mercatoria--a doctrine of transnational commercial law--can work for the everyday legal practice of the international practitioner. The Creeping Codification of the Lex Mercatoria introduces a method for the codification of transnational commercial law for precisely this purpose. The book first analyses the doctrinal basis of the modern lex mercatoria and introduces a coherent systematic framework of transnational commercial law. It then describes previous and modern efforts towards the codification of the lex mercatoria, such as the UNIDROIT Principles and the principles of European Contract Law drafted by the Lando Commission. As a practical alternative to these initiatives, this book presents the idea of Creeping Codification of Transnational Commercial Law, a comprehensive, regularly updated list of over 60 principles and rules that easily be incorporated into day-to-day practice. This work saves practitioners time and money by providing an easily accessed list of relevant rules and principles, thereby reducing the comparative law research needed to master the lex mercatoria. It supplies an understanding of the lex mercatoria and how to apply it in daily practice. It also offers insights into the rules of international arbitration, and more generally, into the development of transnational commercial law.
This book addresses conflicts involving different normative orders: what happens when international law prohibits behavior, but the same behavior is nonetheless morally justified or warranted? Can the actor concerned ignore international law under appeal to morality? Can soldiers escape legal liability by pointing to honor? Can accountants do so under reference to professional standards? How, in other words, does law relate to other normative orders? The assumption behind this book is that law no longer automatically claims supremacy, but that actors can pick and choose which code to follow. The novelty resides not so much in identifying conflicts, but in exploring if, when and how different orders can be used intentionally. In doing so, the book covers conflicts between legal orders and conflicts involving law and honor, self-regulation, lex mercatoria, local social practices, bureaucracy, religion, professional standards and morality.
This book fills a gap in legal academic study and practice in International Commercial Arbitration (ICA) by offering an in-depth analysis on legal discourse and interpretation. Written by a specialist in international business law, arbitration and legal theory, it examines the discursive framework of arbitral proceedings, through an exploration of the unique status of arbitration as a legal and semiotic phenomenon. Historical and contemporary aspects of legal discourse and interpretation are considered, as well as developments in the field of discourse analysis in ICA. A section is devoted to institutional and structural determinants of legal discourse in ICA in which ad hoc and institutional forms are examined. The book also deals with functional aspects of legal interpretation in arbitral discourse, focusing on interpretative standards, methods and considerations in decision-making in ICA. The comparative examinations of existing legal framework and case law reflect the international nature of the subject and the book will be of value to both academic and professional readers.
Lex Mercatoria--a doctrine of transnational commercial law--can work for the everyday legal practice of the international practitioner. The Creeping Codification of the Lex Mercatoria introduces a method for the codification of transnational commercial law for precisely this purpose. The book first analyses the doctrinal basis of the modern lex mercatoria and introduces a coherent systematic framework of transnational commercial law. It then describes previous and modern efforts towards the codification of the lex mercatoria, such as the UNIDROIT Principles and the principles of European Contract Law drafted by the Lando Commission. As a practical alternative to these initiatives, this book presents the idea of Creeping Codification of Transnational Commercial Law, a comprehensive, regularly updated list of over 60 principles and rules that easily be incorporated into day-to-day practice. This work saves practitioners time and money by providing an easily accessed list of relevant rules and principles, thereby reducing the comparative law research needed to master the lex mercatoria. It supplies an understanding of the lex mercatoria and how to apply it in daily practice. It also offers insights into the rules of international arbitration, and more generally, into the development of transnational commercial law.
Private law has long been the focus of efforts to explain wider developments of law in an era of globalisation. As consumer transactions and corporate activities continue to develop with scant regard to legal and national boundaries, private law theorists have begun to sketch and conceptualise the possible architecture of a transnational legal theory. Drawing a detailed map of the mixed regulatory landscape of 'hard' and 'soft' laws, official, unofficial, direct and indirect modes of regulation, rules, recommendations and principles as well as exploring the concept of governance through disclosure and transparency, this book develops a theoretical framework of transnational legal regulation. Rough Consensus and Running Code describes and analyses different law-making regimes currently observable in the transnational arena. Its core aim is to reassess the transnational regulation of consumer contracts and corporate governance in light of a dramatic proliferation of rule-creators and compliance mechanisms that can no longer be clearly associated with either the 'state' or the 'market'. The chosen examples from two of the most dynamic legal fields in the transnational arena today serve as backdrops for a comprehensive legal theoretical inquiry into the changing institutional and normative landscape of legal norm-creation.
This book provides a comparative assessment of the current state of private international law by exploring the fundamental philosophical, ideological, and methodological challenges encountered during the 20th century and the responses to those challenges in the western world. Among the questions discussed are: the dilemma between `conflicts justice' and `material justice'; the conflict between the goal of international uniformity and the need or desire to protect state or national interests; the tension between the goals of certainty and flexibility; the symbiosis of the multilateral, unilateral, and substantive methodologies; and the antagonism or co-existence between choice-of-law rules and flexible `approaches', and between `jurisdiction-selecting' and `content-oriented' rules or approaches. Written by some of the world's most distinguished scholars, this thought-provoking book provides insightful and diverse perspectives from nineteen countries. It is essential reading for any teacher or student of private international law or comparative law.
The technical, economic, and social development of the last one hundred years has created a new type of long-term contract which one may call `Complex International Contract'. Typical examples include complex civil engineering and constructions contracts as well as joint venture, shareholders, project finance, franchising, cooperation and management agreements. The dispute resolution mechanism, which normally deals with such contracts, is commercial arbitration, which has been deeply affected in recent decades by attempts to improve its capabilities. Most importantly, there is the trend towards further denationalization of arbitration with respect to the applicable substantive law. In this regard, a new generation of conflict rules no longer imposes on the arbitrators a particular method to be applied for the purpose of determining the applicable rules of law. Moreover, arbitration more frequently took on the task of adapting Complex International Contracts to changed circumstances. Also, special rules have been developed for so-called multi-party arbitration and fast track arbitration facilitating efficient dispute resolution. The author describes these trends both from a practical as well as a theoretical perspective, evaluating not only the advantages, but also the risks involved with the new developments in arbitration. Relevant issues with respect to the drafting and renegotiation of such contracts are also discussed.
This book introduces and develops Contract Governance as a new approach to contract theory. While the concept of governance has already been developed in Williamson's seminal article, it has, ironically, not received much attention in general contract law theory. Indeed, Contract Governance appears to be an important and necessary complement to corporate governance and in fact, as the second, equally important pillar of governance research in the core of private law. With this in mind, Grundmann, Möslein, and Riesenhuber provide a novel approach in setting an international and interdisciplinary research agenda for developing contract law scholarship. Contract Governance focuses particularly on the ways in which a governance perspective leads to research questions that have been neglected in traditional contract law scholarship, and how, from a governance perspective, the questions are dealt with in a different manner and style. Combining substantive chapters and commentaries, this collection of essays addresses an array of topics, including: third party impact and contract governance problems in herd behaviour; governance of networks of contracts; governance in long-term contractual relationships; contract governance and rule setting; and contract governance and political dimensions.
This work reflects analytically on international arbitration as a form of global governance. It thus contributes to a rapidly growing literature that describes the profound economic, legal, and political transformation in which key governance functions are increasingly exercised by a new constellation that include actors other than national public authorities.
Issues of corruption turn up with disturbing frequency in commercial arbitration. Yet there is no uniformity in arbitral practice to tackle this phenomenon, despite a constant chorus of condemnation from all quarters. This important book attempts to explain the discrepancy between the mountain condemnation of corruption in international trade and public procurement and the persistent resistance to such condemnation. It specifically describes how corruption uses duplicity in practice, and how such practice challenges the imperativeness of condemnation. In the process of developing theory in this area, the book analyzes relevant cases and other legal materials, and thus provides both theoretical and practical guidance in such matters as the following: the arbitrability of corruption matters; the validity of arbitration agreements contained in corruption contracts; the standard and extent of proof that the arbitrator should apply in connection with corruption allegations; the various presumptions of corruption; the principle of party autonomy and corrupt relations; the applicability of national mandatory laws prohibiting corruption in international arbitration; the application of transnational public policy condemning corruption; the effect of nullity of corrupt relations; and, the degree of judicial review of arbitral awards rulings on corruption allegations. In addition to its matchless value as a guide to law and practice in the field, Corruption in International Trade and Commercial Arbitration is unsurpassed in the wealth of reference material it provides. Important cases from many countries are analyzed with in-depth attention to the circumstances surrounding them, and many national laws (including those of Arab countries) and international agreements are also examined. The entire work is superbly cross-referenced to indexes and a rich bibliography. This book will be of immeasurable value to arbitration practitioners and scholars, corruption scholars and specialists in governmental and non-governmental organizations, officials and experts concerned with money laundering, civil servants in charge of national accountability or transparency bureaus, and law enforcement officials and judges charged with criminal justice procedure in matters of corruption.
How can property rights be protected and contracts be enforced in countries where the rule of law is ineffective or absent? How can firms from advanced market economies do business in such circumstances? In Lawlessness and Economics, Avinash Dixit examines the theory of private institutions that transcend or supplement weak economic governance from the state. In much of the world and through much of history, private mechanisms--such as long-term relationships, arbitration, social networks to disseminate information and norms to impose sanctions, and for-profit enforcement services--have grown up in place of formal, state-governed institutions. Even in countries with strong legal systems, many of these mechanisms continue under the shadow of the law. Numerous case studies and empirical investigations have demonstrated the variety, importance, and merits, and drawbacks of such institutions. This book builds on these studies and constructs a toolkit of theoretical models to analyze them. The models shed new conceptual light on the different modes of governance, and deepen our understanding of the interaction of the alternative institutions with each other and with the government's law. For example, one model explains the limit on the size of social networks and illuminates problems in the transition to more formal legal systems as economies grow beyond this limit. Other models explain why for-profit enforcement is inefficient. The models also help us understand why state law dovetails with some non-state institutions and collides with others. This can help less-developed countries and transition economies devise better processes for the introduction or reform of their formal legal systems.

Best Books