Grasslands are everywhere: agricultural land, playing fields and road verges; but while species-poor, intensively managed grasslands are widespread, colourful semi-natural grasslands and heathlands, buzzing with life, are scarce. These semi-natural habitats are ancient, cultural landscapes, which are of considerable, if not international importance for biodiversity. However, despite targets for the conservation and restoration of these valuable grasslands and heathlands, these habitats continue to decline before our eyes. Lowland Grassland and Heathland Habitats contrasts the uniformity of intensively managed grassland with the diversity of traditionally managed grasslands and heathlands. It examines topics of concern to the ecologist or habitat manager such as causes of the loss and deterioration of these habitats, including inappropriate management, eutrophication and climate change. It then evaluates opportunities for positive change, such as conservation, restoration and creation. A series of case-studies illustrates the pressures on some lowland grassland and heathland habitat types and looks at ways to enhance them for biodiversity. This habitat guide features illustrated species boxes of typical plants and animals, as well as a full species list, a series of projects on the ecology of grassland and heathland species, a colour plate section, up-to-date references and information, and a full glossary. It will provide students and environmentalists with a deeper understanding of the nature and importance of lowland grasslands and heathlands.
Biodiversity is recognised to be of global importance, yet species and habitats continue to be under increasing pressure from human-induced influences. Environmental concerns are high on the political agenda, driving increased legislation to protect the natural environment. The starting point for much of this legislation is the requirement for a comprehensive biodiversity audit. For those needing to undertake such audits, this Handbook, first published in 2005, provides standard procedures which will enable practitioners to better monitor the condition of the biodiversity resource, resulting in improved data upon which to base future policy decisions and actions. Organised in three parts, the Handbook first addresses planning, covering method selection, experimental design, sampling strategy, and data analysis and evaluation. The second part describes survey, evaluation and monitoring methods for a broad range of habitats. Part three considers species and provides information on general methods before addressing specific methods of survey and monitoring for the major taxonomic groups.
Coastal Conservation and Management provides the reader with a synthesis of the range and variation of the main coastal formations and includes practical guidance on their management. The book discusses all the main coastal habitats of importance for nature conservation (saltmarsh, shingle, sand dune and seacliff) as well as combinations of these habitats (estuaries and other coastal wetlands). It offers a comprehensive picture of both the soft sedimentary formations and those which are more resilient. While these habitats have all been covered elsewhere in the literature, no single volume gives such a wide-ranging account. An attempt is made throughout to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the importance and range of variation of each habitat and coastal ecosystem. The principal issues are discussed and the key management options identified. Some prescriptive suggestions are made, though for the most part, the reader is left to ponder the issues and their possible solutions.
Responding to concerns about the environment, landscape managers and developers are using extensive naturalistic plantings to restore habitats degraded by building, development, or overuse. This book is the definitive guide to habitat creation and repair; it includes discussions of ethics, theory, and general principles, along with the practical details of designing habitats for wildlife. The authors, who have been working and teaching in the field for many years, draw on a wealth of practical experience--as well as an in-depth knowledge of the widely scattered literature--to provide an authoritative and accessible account of this rapidly developing subject. From coastal and freshwater ecosystems to mountains, forest, and grasslands, the book contains specific chapters on most of the major habitat types. The authors give advice on deciding when habitat creation is the correct path to follow, and then cover all steps from site survey through to the final design and actual realization of the scheme. A useful resource for professionals, this volume is ideal as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in ecology, landscape architecture, resource management, and environmental science.
This edition of Thermodynamics is a thoroughly revised, streamlined, and cor rected version of the book of the same title, first published in 1975. It is intended for students, practicing engineers, and specialists in materials sciences, metallur gical engineering, chemical engineering, chemistry, electrochemistry, and related fields. The present edition contains many additional numerical examples and prob lems. Greater emphasis is put on the application of thermodynamics to chemical, materials, and metallurgical problems. The SI system has been used through out the textbook. In addition, a floppy disk for chemical equilibrium calculations is enclosed inside the back cover. It contains the data for the elements, oxides, halides, sulfides, and other inorganic compounds. The subject material presented in chapters III to XIV formed the basis of a thermodynamics course offered by one of the authors (R.G. Reddy) for the last 14 years at the University of Nevada, Reno. The subject matter in this book is based on a minimum number of laws, axioms, and postulates. This procedure avoids unnecessary repetitions, often encountered in books based on historical sequence of development in thermodynamics. For example, the Clapeyron equation, the van't Hoff equation, and the Nernst distribution law all refer to the Gibbs energy changes of relevant processes, and they need not be presented as radically different relationships.
The fourth World Scientific Congress of Golf, to be held in St Andrews in July 2002, will bring together all of the world's leading golf researchers. Science and Golf IV will present 90 or so of the best research papers delivered at the Congress, and represents the latest volume in a unique and essential series of scientific studies in golf. The book is organised into four thematic sections, looking at the golfer, golf equipment, the golf course, and the social and economic impact of golf respectively, and addresses key topics such as: * the psychology of golf * biometrics of the swing * new developments in clubs, balls and teaching aids * golf agronomy, irrigation and drainage * the impact of golf on the community * representing the most up-to-date collection of research available. Science and Golf IV is essential reading for all sport scientists and researchers with an interest in golf, all club professionals, and all those working in technical aspects of the golf industry.
Offers a source of detailed information on techniques for restoring, maintaining and monitoring lowland heathland habitats, a landscape that has been in decline for decades, with many vulnerable species. This guide covers a range of management issues affecting dry heath, wet heath, mire and associated grassland and open water habitats in Britain.
The essential habitat by habitat guide to conservation management for practitioners of ecology and land management.
Issue for Mar. 1981 contains index for Jan.-Mar. 1981 in microfiche form.
Following the destruction of 95% of meadows during the twentieth century, there is an urgent need to understand what little unspoiled habitat remains in order to plan the management and restoration of existing sites, as well as re-creating future grassland habitats. This book is a much-needed guide to grassland restoration and management.Providing a thorough overview of recent research on grassland restoration and its implications for practical grassland restoration and management, it introduces grassland communities and the wildlife they support, including examples of species of conservation concern, and considers the management of semi-natural grassland habitats with particular emphasis on drier grassland habitats.Chapters cover: - Grassland character and communities - Introduction to grassland wildlife - Managing semi-natural grassland - Grassland restoration – threats and challenges - Opportunities in grassland restoration - Plant material for grassland restoration - Defining success in grassland restoration.A variety of management techniques are examined, including soil amendment, cultivation, harvesting and maintenance in creating suitable conditions for the successful restoration of species-rich grasslands.It is essential reading for conservationists, site owners or managers, practitioners, conservation organizations and students of ecological restoration with an interest in the creation of new grassland habitats, the restoration of semi-natural grassland, as well as the continuing management of semi-natural (unimproved) grassland communities.