In recent years scientific research and popular opinion have favored the idea that sexual orientations are determined at birth. In this book, Edward Stein, a philosopher and legal theorist, investigates scientific research on sexual orientation and shows that it is deeply flawed. He argues that this research assumes a picture of sexual desire that reflects unquestioned cultural stereotypes rather than cross-cultural scientific facts, and that it suffers from serious methodological problems. He then asks whether sexual orientation is amenable to empirical study and if it is useful for our understanding of human nature to categorize people based on their sexual desires. Perhaps most importantly, Stein examines some of the ethical issues surrounding such research, including gay and lesbian civil rights and the implications of parents trying to select or change the sexual orientation of their children.
The Mismeasure of Wealth: Essays on Marx and Social Form gathers Patrick Murray’s essays reinterpreting Marx and Marxian theory published since his Marx’s Theory of Scientific Knowledge (1988), along with a previously unpublished essay and an introduction.
Shakespeare's poems and plays are rich in reference to "measure, number, and weight," which were the key terms of an early modern empirical and quantitative imagination. Shakespeare's investigation of Renaissance measures of reality centers on the consequences of applying principles of measurement to the appraisal of human value. This is especially true of efforts to judge people as better or worse than, or equal to, one another. With special attention to the Sonnets, Measure for Measure, Merchant of Venice, Othello, King Lear, and Hamlet, Paula Blank argues that Shakespeare, in his experiments with measurement, demonstrates the incommensurability of the aims and operations of quantification with human experience. From scales and spans to squares and levels to ratings and rules, Shakespeare's rhetoric of measurement reveals the extent to which language in the Renaissance was itself understood as a set of alternative measures for figuring human worth. In chapters that explore attempts to measure human feeling, weigh human equalities (and inequalities), regulate race relations, and deduce social and economic merit, Blank shows why Shakespeare's measures are so often exposed as "mismeasures"—equivocal, provisional, and as unreliable as the men and women they are designed to assess.
The definitive refutation to the argument of The Bell Curve. When published in 1981, The Mismeasure of Man was immediately hailed as a masterwork, the ringing answer to those who would classify people, rank them according to their supposed genetic gifts and limits. And yet the idea of innate limits—of biology as destiny—dies hard, as witness the attention devoted to The Bell Curve, whose arguments are here so effectively anticipated and thoroughly undermined by Stephen Jay Gould. In this edition Dr. Gould has written a substantial new introduction telling how and why he wrote the book and tracing the subsequent history of the controversy on innateness right through The Bell Curve. Further, he has added five essays on questions of The Bell Curve in particular and on race, racism, and biological determinism in general. These additions strengthen the book's claim to be, as Leo J. Kamin of Princeton University has said, "a major contribution toward deflating pseudo-biological 'explanations' of our present social woes."
After a decade of steady decline, the appearance of conflicting reports regarding crime statistics has led many to call into question the accuracy of the current methods used to compile these statistics. Because the measurement of social phenomena involves human decisions, inevitably errors are made. This book aims to identify and examine the nature of these errors so that social scientists, legislators, and the general public will be able to conduct a healthy dialogue on the topic in order to remedy some of the problems. Before the book goes into much contemporary detail, historical measures of crime are given an overview. The authors then follow with chapters on the three most common methods used to report crime. Official data, self report, and victimization studies are analyzed in depth in order to discuss the specific errors that can occur in each type of measurement. The final chapter of the book describes ways that these measures can be applied to specific situations. The end result is the formation of a clearer picture of the impact these measures can have on the formation of crime prevention and control policies.
Discusses the social and legal history of homosexuality, as well as sex research, gender issues, homophobia, and discrimination.
A genetic basis for homosexuality has been all but proved, yet Darwinism, the most widely accepted evolutionary theory, emphasises successful reproduction. How do we explain a lifetime preference for non-reproductive sex? Whilst social constructionism offers explanations in terms of social learning and cultural preferences, the body of evidence for a genetic predisposition to homosexuality grows. Social learning argues that homosexual sex is merely misdirected and therefore futile, but far from dying out it continues through the ages and is found in different cultures. What if there was an evolutionary advantage to homosexuality? Straight Science? Homosexuality, Evolution and Adaptation dares to ask such questions.
Magnus Hirschfeld war nicht nur, gemeinsam mit drei anderen Berliner Ärzten- Ivan Bloch, Albert Moll und Max Marcuse - der Begründer einer deutschen, seinerzeit auch international unerreichten Sexualwissenschaft. Er war darüber hinaus Jude und homosexuell veranlagt. Dies alles hat ihn zu einem der ersten prominenten Opfer der Nationalsozialisten werden lassen. Bereits 1930 mußte er in seinem Berliner Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, das er 1919 gegründet hatte, um seine Existenz und sein Leben fürchten. Der drohenden Ermordung entging er nur zufällig, weil er sich bei der Zerstörung des Instituts durch den SA-Mob auf einer Vortragsreise befand. Damit ging ein ruhmreiches Kapitel der deutschen Kulturwissenschaften dramatisch zu Ende. Es sollte bis in die jüngste Zeit dauern, daß man sich der Bedeutung Hirschfelds in ihrer ganzen Tragweite bewußt wurde. Sein erstes großes Hauptwerk verfolgt das Thema Homosexualität in all seinen Facetten. Zugrunde lagen Hirschfelds Ausführungen zahllose Fallstudien und Untersuchungen, die er nach standardisierten Mustern vornahm. In dem umfangreichen Band versuchte er, das Thema in seiner ganze Breite zu erfassen. Auch wenn die biologischen Ausführungen Hirschfelds heutzutage als veraltet gelten, so sind doch seine Analysen immer noch ausgesprochen lesenswert und berühren in ihrer Detailversessenheit- etwa, wenn Hirschfeld den Tascheninhalt des homosexuellen Mannes beschreibt oder die Eigenarten des Schwulenlebens in den südlichen Ländern, die Wohnungseinrichtung und Berufswahl der typischen lesbischen Frau etc. Mit diesen Beschreibungen ging allerdings auch eine Gefahr einher: Hirschfeld lieferte ungewollt den Nationalsozialisten gewissermaßen die Checklisten, mit denen sie dann, verstärkt nach dem Röhm-Putsch von 1934, die Verfolgung der homosexuellen Männer intensivieren konnten.
The scientist behind the study that made a firm genetic link to behavior tells the inside story of how the discovery was made, and considers the moral implications
More than 150 alphabetically arranged entries on topics, thinkers, religions, movements, and concepts locate sexuality in its humanistic and social contexts.
Includes sections on homosexuality in the movies (Hollywood), in the theatre, in opera, and gay publishing.
Extremely gender variant children and adolescents (minors), increasingly referred to as 'trans' or 'transgender children,' are small in number. In recent years, their situation has become highly sensationalized, whilst the matter of how to best treat them remains an area of controversy. A growing body of research supports emerging treatment approaches, but more research is still needed to answer a host of questions: Do trans minors have a psychiatric disorder or a normal variation of gender presentation? Should treatment be aimed at helping them accept the bodies into which they were born or should parents, clinicians and schools accommodate their wishes of transition? At what age should transition begin? What are the implications – physical, psychological, social and ethical – of various treatment approaches? The first part of this volume explores different clinical approaches to transgender minors in the USA and abroad. The second part contains responses to these approaches by commentators from various fields including biology, child psychiatry, civil rights activism, ethics, law, gender studies, queer theory and psychoanalysis. The work will be an invaluable source for parents and families looking at how to proceed with a trans child, as well as clinicians seeking to make appropriate referrals. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality.
Renowned feminist philosopher Claudia Card courageously explores the complex ethical and political questions lesbians face regarding their identities and their relationship both within and outside the lesbian communities.
A fascinating exploration of the philosophy behind NBC’s hit TV series, 30 Rock With edgy writing and a great cast, 30 Rock is one of the funniest television shows on the air—and where hilarity ensues, philosophical questions abound: Are Liz Lemon and Jack Donaghy ethical heroes? Kenneth redefines "goody two shoes", but what does it really mean to be good? Dr. Leo Spaceman routinely demonstrates that medicine is not a science, so what is the role of the incompetent professional in America today? In 30 Rock and Philosophy, Tina Fey and her fellow cast members are thrust onto the philosophical stage with Plato, Aristotle, Kantand other great thinkers to examine these key questions and many others that involve the characters and plotlines of 30 Rock and its fictional TGS with Tracy Jordan comedy show. Takes an entertaining, up-close look at the philosophical issues behind 30 Rock's characters and storylines, from post-feminist ideals to workaholism and the meaning of life Equips you with a new understanding of Liz Lemon, Jack Donaghy, Tracy Jordan, Jenna Maroney, Dr. Spaceman, and other characters Gives you deep and meaningful new reasons (who knew?) for watching Tina Fey and your other favorites on 30 Rock Ideal for both casual and diehard fans, this book is the essential companion for every 30 Rock-watcher.
To study this transition from universalism to cultural particularism, Richard King focuses on the arguments of major thinkers, movements, and traditions of thought, attempting to construct a map of the ideological positions that were staked out and an intellectual history of this transition.
In exploring the relationship between bureaucratic schooling and the individual child, Waters describes the persistence of educational inequality, child development, and the nature of bureaucracy. The conclusions point out how education bureaucracies frame both schooling and childhood as they relentlessly seek to create ever more perfect children.