Larvae represent one of the classic problems of evolutionary biology and may explain how new body plans originate. It has often been suggested that many entirely unique body plans first originated as retained larvae of ancestral organisms. This book covers larval evolution and the developmental and evolutionary forces which shape and constrain them. Intended to contribute to a continuing dialectic, this book represents diverse opinions as well as manifold conclusions from an international team of leading zoologists and developmental biologists. Certain to challenge and intrigue, this book should be a part of the library of every evolutionary and developmental biologist interested in larvae and their significance. Key Features * Examines how vertebrate and invertebrate larvae develop and evolve * Presents four themes: development, evolution, metamorphosis, and genetic mechanisms * Chapters are organized into three sections: larval types and larval evolution, mechanisms of larval development and evolution, and larval functional morphology, physiology, and ecology
More than seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by ocean - the home to a staggering and sometimes overwhelming diversity of organisms, a majority of which reside in pelagic form. Marine invertebrate larvae are an integral part of this pelagic diversity and have stimulated the curiosity of researchers for centuries. This book will provide an important, modern update on the topic of larval ecology, representing the first major synthesis of this interdisciplinary field for more than 20 years. The content will be structured around four major areas: evolutionary origins and transitions in developmental mode; functional morphology and ecology of larval forms; larval transport, settlement, and metamorphosis; climate change and larval ecology at the extremes. This novel synthesis will integrate traditional larval ecology with life history theory, evolutionary developmental biology, and modern genomics research.
Many biological facts are irreconcilable with the assumption that larvae and adults evolved from the same genetic stock. The author of this book draws attention to these, and presents his alternative hypothesis that larvae have been transferred from one taxon to another. In his previous book (Larvae and Evolution, 1992), the author used larval transfer to explain developmental anomalies in eight animal phyla. In the present book, he claims that the basic forms of all larvae and all embryos have been transferred from foreign taxa. This leads to a new, comprehensive theory on the origin of embryos and larvae, replacing the discredited 'recapitulation' theory of Haeckel (1866). Metamorphosis, previously unexplained, represents a change in taxon during development.
Animal phylogeny is undergoing a major revolution due to the availability of an ever increasing amount of molecular data, the application of novel methods of phylogenetic reconstruction, and advances in palaeontology and molecular developmental biology.This book revises the major events in animal evolution in the light of these recent advances.
Many biological facts are irreconcilable with the assumption that larvae and adults evolved from the same genetic stock. The author of this book draws attention to these, and presents his alternative hypothesis that larvae have been transferred from one taxon to another. In his previous book (Larvae and Evolution, 1992), the author used larval transfer to explain developmental anomalies in eight animal phyla. In the present book, he claims that the basic forms of all larvae and all embryos have been transferred from foreign taxa. This leads to a new, comprehensive theory on the origin of embryos and larvae, replacing the discredited 'recapitulation' theory of Haeckel (1866). Metamorphosis, previously unexplained, represents a change in taxon during development.
Covering both the internal and external incubation of offspring, this book provides a biology-rich survey of the natural history, ecology, genetics, and evolution of pregnancy-like phenomena. From mammals and other live-bearing organisms to viviparous reptiles, male-pregnant fishes, larval-brooding worms, crabs, sea cucumbers, and corals, the world's various species display pregnancy and other forms of parental devotion in surprisingly multifaceted ways. An adult female (or male) can incubate its offspring in a womb, stomach, mouth, vocal sac, gill chamber, epithelial pouch, backpack, leg pocket, nest, or an encasing of embryos, and by studying these diverse examples from a comparative vantage point, the ecological and evolutionary-genetic outcomes of different reproductive models become fascinatingly clear. John C. Avise discusses each mode of pregnancy and the decipherable genetic signatures it has left on the reproductive structures, physiologies, and innate sexual behaviors of extant species. By considering the many biological aspects of gestation from different evolutionary angles, Avise offers captivating new insights into the significance of "heavy" parental investment in progeny.
Biology and Evolution of the Mexican Cavefish features contributions by leading researchers in a comprehensive, unique work that examines a number of distinct areas of biology—evolution, development, ecology, and behavior—using the Mexican cavefish as a powerful model system to further understanding of basic biological processes such as eye degeneration, hearing, craniofacial development, sleep, and metabolic function. These fish are currently being used to better understand a number of issues related to human health, including age-related blindness, sleep, obesity, mood-related disorders, and aging. The recent sequencing of the cavefish genome broadens the interest of this system to groups working with diverse biological systems, and has helped researchers identify genes that regulate sleep, eye degeneration, and metabolic function. Mexican cavefish are particularly powerful for the study of biological processes because these fish evolved independently in twenty-nine caves in the Sierra de el Abra Region of Northeast Mexico. These fish have dramatic adaptations to the cave environment, and this can be used to identify genes involved in disease-related traits. This scholarly text will be of interest to researchers and students throughout diverse areas of biology and ecology. It includes photographs of animals and behavior in laboratory and natural settings that will also increase interest and accessibility to non-experts. Includes a mixture of images and illustrations such as the geographical distribution of cave pools and the developmental biology of the nervous system Features a companion site with geographical maps Fills a notable gap in the literature on a topic of broad interest to the scientific community Presents the recent sequencing of the cavefish genome as a groundbreaking development for researchers working with diverse biological systems
This is the first book to provide a detailed treatment of the field of larval ecology. The 13 chapters use state-of-the-art reviews and critiques of nearly all of the major topics in this diverse and rapidly growing field. Topics include: patterns of larval diversity reproductive energetics spawning ecology life history theory larval feeding and nutrition larval mortality behavior and locomotion larval transport dispersal population genetics recruitment dynamics larval evolution Written by the leading new scientists in the field, chapters define the current state of larval ecology and outline the important questions for future research.
Mammals are the dominant large animals of today, occurring in virtually every environment. This book is an account of the remarkable 320 million year long fossil record that documents their origin, their long spell as no more than small, nocturnal creatures, and their explosive radiation since the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Tom Kemp also unveils the exciting molecular evidence, which, coupled with important new fossils, is presently challenging current thinking on the interrelationships and historical biogeography of mammals. The Origin and Evolution of Mammals will be of interest to advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in vertebrate palaeontology, biogeography, mammalian systematics and molecular taxonomy. It will also be welcomed by vertebrate fossil enthusiasts and evolutionary biologists of all levels with an interest in macroevolutionary problems.
Scientists elucidate the astounding collective sensory capacity of Earth and its evolution through time.
The Evolution of Pancreatic Islets covers the proceedings of the 1975 symposium on The Evolution of Pancreatic Islets, held at Leningrad under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences in Leningrad, U.S.S.R. This symposium brings together numerous studies on the structure, chemistry, and function of the pancreatic islets of animals ranging from the mollusc to man. This book is composed of three parts encompassing twenty seven chapters. The first part deals with the problems related to the production of insulin from its precursor pro-insulin and the ontogeny of the pancreatic islets from the embryonic endoderm. The second part discusses the phylogenetic aspects of the structure of pancreatic islets. This part also looks into the evolutionary morphology and classification of pancreatic acinar-islet cells. The third part describes the biological and chemical aspects of pancreatic hormones of vertebrates.
One of the leading textbooks in its field, Bringing Fossils to Life applies paleobiological principles to the fossil record while detailing the evolutionary history of major plant and animal phyla. It incorporates current research from biology, ecology, and population genetics, bridging the gap between purely theoretical paleobiological textbooks and those that describe only invertebrate paleobiology and that emphasize cataloguing live organisms instead of dead objects. For this third edition Donald R. Prothero has revised the art and research throughout, expanding the coverage of invertebrates and adding a discussion of new methodologies and a chapter on the origin and early evolution of life.
Describing and understanding the evolution of the diversity of bodyplans is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Taking a modern, integrated approach to this question, a group of leading researchers describe how modern techniques and disciplines have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution.
Zoology, Volume 16: The Evolution of the Metozoa presents the significant results of the Cnidaria research, their interpretations and implications in the field of zoology. This book is composed of four chapters, and begins with the establishment of the systematic position of the Spongiae, the position of Ctenophora in the animal classification, and Cnidaria as the only Coelenterata. The subsequent chapter deals with a critical survey of the interpretations of the origin and nature of Cnidaria, with emphasis on the morphologic proofs of its phylogeny. These topics are followed by an outline of the most probable reconstruction of the phylogeny of Cnidaria and the descriptions of the evolution of this metozoa. The final chapter considers the established classification of the animal world and the genealogical tree. This book will be of value to zoologists and researchers who are interested in evolution and classification of Cnidaria.
Our understanding of vertebrate origins and the backbone of human history evolves with each new fossil find and DNA map. Many species have now had their genomes sequenced, and molecular techniques allow genetic inspection of even non-model organisms. But as longtime Nature editor Henry Gee argues in Across the Bridge, despite these giant strides and our deepening understanding of how vertebrates fit into the tree of life, the morphological chasm between vertebrates and invertebrates remains vast and enigmatic. As Gee shows, even as scientific advances have falsified a variety of theories linking these groups, the extant relatives of vertebrates are too few for effective genetic analysis. Moreover, the more we learn about the species that do remain—from sea-squirts to starfish—the clearer it becomes that they are too far evolved along their own courses to be of much use in reconstructing what the latest invertebrate ancestors of vertebrates looked like. Fossils present yet further problems of interpretation. Tracing both the fast-changing science that has helped illuminate the intricacies of vertebrate evolution as well as the limits of that science, Across the Bridge helps us to see how far the field has come in crossing the invertebrate-to-vertebrate divide—and how far we still have to go.
The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.
Parasitoids are parasitic insects that kill their insect hosts in immature pre-reproductive stages. Parasitoids are employed in biological control programs worldwide to kill insect pests and are environmentally safe and benign alternatives to chemical pesticides. As resistance to chemical pesticides continues to escalate in many pest populations, attention is now refocusing on biologically-based strategies to control pest species in agriculture and forestry as well as insect vector populations that transmit human and animal diseases. Parasitoids are an economically critical element in this equation and ‘integrated pest management.’ Viruses have evolved intimate associations with parasitoids, and this book features sections on both symbiotic viruses that are integrated into the wasp’s chromosomal DNA (polydnaviruses) that play critical roles in suppressing host immunity during parasitism. A separate section with additional chapters on viral pathogens that infect parasitoids to cause disease and act as detrimental agents that limit effectiveness of wasp species employed in biological control of pests is also featured. A third component is a section on parasitoid venoms, which are of interest to the pharmaceutical and medical communities as well as insect-oriented biologists. Sections focus on both virus evolution and genomics as well as proteomics and functional roles of polydnavirus-encoded gene products International researchers and emerging leaders in their fields provide readers with syntheses of the latest research Includes content on both symbiotic viruses and pathogenic viruses, plus new research on parasitoid venoms Cutting-edge section on future directions in the field covers the impacts of polydnavirus research on medicine, human health, bioengineering and the economy, increasing the value for researchers and practitioners who need to stay on top of the research in this swiftly moving field
Flies (Dipteria) have had an important role in deepening scientists'understanding of modern biology and evolution. The study of flies has figured prominently in major advances in the fields of molecular evolution, physiology, genetics, phylogenetics, and ecology over the last century. This volume, with contributions from top scientists and scholars in the field, brings together diverse aspects of research and will be essential reading for entomologists and fly researchers.
The development of the cardiovascular system is a rapidly advancing area in biomedical research, now coupled with the burgeoning field of cardiac regenerative medicine. A lucid understanding of these fields is paramount to reducing human cardiovascular diseases of both fetal and adult origin. Significant progress can now be made through a comprehensive investigation of embryonic development and its genetic control circuitry. Heart Development and Regeneration, written by experts in the field, provides essential information on topics ranging from the evolution and lineage origins of the developing cardiovascular system to cardiac regenerative medicine. A reference for clinicians, medical researchers, students, and teachers, this publication offers broad coverage of the most recent advances. Volume One discusses heart evolution, contributing cell lineages; model systems; cardiac growth; morphology and asymmetry; heart patterning; epicardial, vascular, and lymphatic development; and congenital heart diseases. Volume Two includes chapters on transcription factors and transcriptional control circuits in cardiac development and disease; epigenetic modifiers including microRNAs, genome-wide mutagenesis, imaging, and proteomics approaches; and the theory and practice of stem cells and cardiac regeneration. Authored by world experts in heart development and disease New research on epigenetic modifiers in cardiac development Comprehensive coverage of stem cells and prospects for cardiac regeneration Up-to-date research on transcriptional and proteomic circuits in cardiac disease Full-color, detailed illustrations

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