This text is a rigorous, detailed introduction to real analysis that presents the fundamentals with clear exposition and carefully written definitions, theorems, and proofs. It is organized in a distinctive, flexible way that would make it equally appropriate to undergraduate mathematics majors who want to continue in mathematics, and to future mathematics teachers who want to understand the theory behind calculus. The Real Numbers and Real Analysis will serve as an excellent one-semester text for undergraduates majoring in mathematics, and for students in mathematics education who want a thorough understanding of the theory behind the real number system and calculus.
While most texts on real analysis are content to assume the real numbers, or to treat them only briefly, this text makes a serious study of the real number system and the issues it brings to light. Analysis needs the real numbers to model the line, and to support the concepts of continuity and measure. But these seemingly simple requirements lead to deep issues of set theory—uncountability, the axiom of choice, and large cardinals. In fact, virtually all the concepts of infinite set theory are needed for a proper understanding of the real numbers, and hence of analysis itself. By focusing on the set-theoretic aspects of analysis, this text makes the best of two worlds: it combines a down-to-earth introduction to set theory with an exposition of the essence of analysis—the study of infinite processes on the real numbers. It is intended for senior undergraduates, but it will also be attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians who, until now, have been content to "assume" the real numbers. Its prerequisites are calculus and basic mathematics. Mathematical history is woven into the text, explaining how the concepts of real number and infinity developed to meet the needs of analysis from ancient times to the late twentieth century. This rich presentation of history, along with a background of proofs, examples, exercises, and explanatory remarks, will help motivate the reader. The material covered includes classic topics from both set theory and real analysis courses, such as countable and uncountable sets, countable ordinals, the continuum problem, the Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem, continuous functions, uniform convergence, Zorn's lemma, Borel sets, Baire functions, Lebesgue measure, and Riemann integrable functions.
Die Mathematik im mittelalterlichen Islam hatte großen Einfluss auf die allgemeine Entwicklung des Faches. Der Autor beschreibt diese Periode der Geschichte der Mathematik und bezieht sich dabei auf die arabischsprachigen Quellen. Zu den behandelten Themen gehören Dezimalrechnen, Geometrie, ebene und sphärische Trigonometrie, Algebra sowie die Approximation von Wurzeln von Gleichungen. Das Buch wendet sich an Mathematikhistoriker und -studenten, aber auch an alle Interessierten mit Mathematikkenntnissen der weiterführenden Schule.
Mathematics is the music of science, and real analysis is the Bach of mathematics. There are many other foolish things I could say about the subject of this book, but the foregoing will give the reader an idea of where my heart lies. The present book was written to support a first course in real analysis, normally taken after a year of elementary calculus. Real analysis is, roughly speaking, the modern setting for Calculus, "real" alluding to the field of real numbers that underlies it all. At center stage are functions, defined and taking values in sets of real numbers or in sets (the plane, 3-space, etc.) readily derived from the real numbers; a first course in real analysis traditionally places the emphasis on real-valued functions defined on sets of real numbers. The agenda for the course: (1) start with the axioms for the field ofreal numbers, (2) build, in one semester and with appropriate rigor, the foun dations of calculus (including the "Fundamental Theorem"), and, along the way, (3) develop those skills and attitudes that enable us to continue learning mathematics on our own. Three decades of experience with the exercise have not diminished my astonishment that it can be done.
Aus den Besprechungen: "Unter den zahlreichen Einführungen in die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung bildet dieses Buch eine erfreuliche Ausnahme. Der Stil einer lebendigen Vorlesung ist über Niederschrift und Übersetzung hinweg erhalten geblieben. In jedes Kapitel wird sehr anschaulich eingeführt. Sinn und Nützlichkeit der mathematischen Formulierungen werden den Lesern nahegebracht. Die wichtigsten Zusammenhänge sind als mathematische Sätze klar formuliert." #FREQUENZ#1
An Introduction to Real Analysis presents the concepts of real analysis and highlights the problems which necessitate the introduction of these concepts. Topics range from sets, relations, and functions to numbers, sequences, series, derivatives, and the Riemann integral. This volume begins with an introduction to some of the problems which are met in the use of numbers for measuring, and which provide motivation for the creation of real analysis. Attention then turns to real numbers that are built up from natural numbers, with emphasis on integers, rationals, and irrationals. The chapters that follow explore the conditions under which sequences have limits and derive the limits of many important sequences, along with functions of a real variable, Rolle's theorem and the nature of the derivative, and the theory of infinite series and how the concepts may be applied to decimal representation. The book also discusses some important functions and expansions before concluding with a chapter on the Riemann integral and the problem of area and its measurement. Throughout the text the stress has been upon concepts and interesting results rather than upon techniques. Each chapter contains exercises meant to facilitate understanding of the subject matter. This book is intended for students in colleges of education and others with similar needs.
Der vorliegende Band stellt den zweiten Teil eines Analysis-Kurses für Studenten der Mathematik und Physik dar. Das erste Kapitel befaßt sich mit der Differentialrechnung von Funktionen mehrerer reeller Veränderlichen. Nach einer Einführung in die topalogischen Grundbegriffe werden Kurven im IRn, partielle Ableitungen, totale Differenzierbarkeit, Taylorsche Formel, Maxima und Minima, implizite Funktionen und parameterabhängige Integrale behandelt. Das zweite Kapitel gibt eine kurze Einführung in die Theorie der gewöhnlichen Differentialgleichungen. Nach dem Beweis des allgemeinen Existenz- und Eindeutigkeitssatzes und der Besprechung der Methode der Trennung der Variablen wird besonders auf die Theorie der linearen Differentialgleichungen eingegangen. Wie im ersten Band wurde versucht, allzu große Abstraktionen zu vermeiden und die allgemeine Theorie durch viele konkrete Beispiele zu erläutern, insbesondere solche, die für die Physik relevant sind. Bei der Bemessung des Stoffumfangs wurde berücksichtigt, daß die Analysis 2 meist in einem Sommersemester gelesen wird, in dem weniger Zeit zur Verfugung steht als in einem Wintersemester. Wegen der Kürze des Sommersemesters ist nach meiner Meinung eine befriedigende Behandlung der mehrdimensionalen Integration im 2. Semester nicht möglich, die besser dem 3. Semester vorbehalten bleibt. Dies Buch ist entstanden aus der Ausarbeitung einer Vorlesung, die ich im Sommer semester 1971 an der Universität Regensburg gehalten habe. Die damalige Vor lesungs-Ausarbeitung wurde von Herrn R. Schimpl angefertigt, dem ich hierfür meinen Dank sage.
Classic text explores intermediate steps between basics of calculus and ultimate stage of mathematics — abstraction and generalization. Covers fundamental concepts, real number system, point sets, functions of a real variable, Fourier series, more. Over 500 exercises.
This text forms a bridge between courses in calculus and real analysis. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it focuses on the construction of mathematical proofs. 1996 edition.
"This book is recommended to students and instructors looking for a very well-organized introduction to the foundations of analysis".Acta Sci. Math., 1999
The three volumes of A Course in Mathematical Analysis provide a full and detailed account of all those elements of real and complex analysis that an undergraduate mathematics student can expect to encounter in their first two or three years of study. Containing hundreds of exercises, examples and applications, these books will become an invaluable resource for both students and instructors. This first volume focuses on the analysis of real-valued functions of a real variable. Besides developing the basic theory it describes many applications, including a chapter on Fourier series. It also includes a Prologue in which the author introduces the axioms of set theory and uses them to construct the real number system. Volume 2 goes on to consider metric and topological spaces and functions of several variables. Volume 3 covers complex analysis and the theory of measure and integration.
A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense—not just to math majors but also to students from all branches of the sciences. The text begins with a construction of the real numbers beginning with the rationals, using interval arithmetic. This introduces readers to the reasoning and proof-writing skills necessary for doing and communicating mathematics, and it sets the foundation for the rest of the text, which includes: Early use of the Completeness Theorem to prove a helpful Inverse Function Theorem Sequences, limits and series, and the careful derivation of formulas and estimates for important functions Emphasis on uniform continuity and its consequences, such as boundedness and the extension of uniformly continuous functions from dense subsets Construction of the Riemann integral for functions uniformly continuous on an interval, and its extension to improper integrals Differentiation, emphasizing the derivative as a function rather than a pointwise limit Properties of sequences and series of continuous and differentiable functions Fourier series and an introduction to more advanced ideas in functional analysis Examples throughout the text demonstrate the application of new concepts. Readers can test their own skills with problems and projects ranging in difficulty from basic to challenging. This book is designed mainly for an undergraduate course, and the author understands that many readers will not go on to more advanced pure mathematics. He therefore emphasizes an approach to mathematical analysis that can be applied across a range of subjects in engineering and the sciences.
A provocative look at the tools and history of realanalysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approachcontinues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis.Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment,this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete toabstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famousproblems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of alltime. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned inturn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, andtrigonometric series in both pure and applied mathematics. Next,Dr. Stahl develops the basic tools of advanced calculus, whichintroduce the various aspects of the completeness of the realnumber system as well as sequential continuity anddifferentiability and lead to the Intermediate and Mean ValueTheorems. The Second Edition features: A chapter on the Riemann integral, including the subject ofuniform continuity Explicit coverage of the epsilon-delta convergence A discussion of the modern preference for the viewpoint ofsequences over that of series Throughout the book, numerous applications and examplesreinforce concepts and demonstrate the validity of historicalmethods and results, while appended excerpts from originalhistorical works shed light on the concerns of influentialmathematicians in addition to the difficulties encountered in theirwork. Each chapter concludes with exercises ranging in level ofcomplexity, and partial solutions are provided at the end of thebook. Real Analysis: A Historical Approach, Second Edition isan ideal book for courses on real analysis and mathematicalanalysis at the undergraduate level. The book is also a valuableresource for secondary mathematics teachers and mathematicians.
Seit kurzem versuchen Hirnforscher, Verhaltenspsychologen und Soziologen gemeinsam neue Antworten auf eine uralte Frage zu finden: Warum tun wir eigentlich, was wir tun? Was genau prägt unsere Gewohnheiten? Anhand zahlreicher Beispiele aus der Forschung wie dem Alltag erzählt Charles Duhigg von der Macht der Routine und kommt dem Mechanismus, aber auch den dunklen Seiten der Gewohnheit auf die Spur. Er erklärt, warum einige Menschen es schaffen, über Nacht mit dem Rauchen aufzuhören (und andere nicht), weshalb das Geheimnis sportlicher Höchstleistung in antrainierten Automatismen liegt und wie sich die Anonymen Alkoholiker die Macht der Gewohnheit zunutze machen. Nicht zuletzt schildert er, wie Konzerne Millionen ausgeben, um unsere Angewohnheiten für ihre Zwecke zu manipulieren. Am Ende wird eines klar: Die Macht von Gewohnheiten prägt unser Leben weit mehr, als wir es ahnen.
Elementary Real Analysis is a core course in nearly all mathematics departments throughout the world. It enables students to develop a deep understanding of the key concepts of calculus from a mature perspective. Elements of Real Analysis is a student-friendly guide to learning all the important ideas of elementary real analysis, based on the author's many years of experience teaching the subject to typical undergraduate mathematics majors. It avoids the compact style of professional mathematics writing, in favor of a style that feels more comfortable to students encountering the subject for the first time. It presents topics in ways that are most easily understood, yet does not sacrifice rigor or coverage. In using this book, students discover that real analysis is completely deducible from the axioms of the real number system. They learn the powerful techniques of limits of sequences as the primary entry to the concepts of analysis, and see the ubiquitous role sequences play in virtually all later topics. They become comfortable with topological ideas, and see how these concepts help unify the subject. Students encounter many interesting examples, including "pathological" ones, that motivate the subject and help fix the concepts. They develop a unified understanding of limits, continuity, differentiability, Riemann integrability, and infinite series of numbers and functions.